To get round to the heart of fortress

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Cybercrime is becoming a growing threat to society. The thefts of information, crashing a website or manipulating online payment traffic are also increasing. Many organizations offer various services in the battle against digital crime, such as network or data monitors and extractions tools. It is interesting mainly to authorities and financial institutions, but they are accessible to every organization.
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To get round to the heart of fortress

  1. 1. FORENSICS To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortress Cybercrime is becoming a growing threat to society. The thefts of information, crashing a website or manipulating online payment traffic are also increasing. Many organizations offer various services in the battle against digital crime, such as network or data monitors and extractions tools. It is interesting mainly to authorities and financial institutions, but they are accessible to every organization.. What you will learn… What you should know… • General forensic classi�cation • Basic knowledge about forensic • Classic and non-classic mobile forensic T he current century describes like the individuals may just be careless about usage and application of digital technology that enhances distribution of sensitive data. The result is that traditional methodologies. The incorporation of organizations need to defend against the malicious computer systems private, commercial, educational, insider as well as the careless user. The common governmental, and other way life improved the efficiency security vulnerabilities increase risk of insider threats of these entities. One other hand the computers as is inadequate auditing and analytics: a criminal tool has enhanced their own activity. In particular, the surge of technical adeptness by the • Sheer volume of audit and log data impedes general population, coupled with anonymity, seems to forensics investigation and detection. Logging all encourage crimes using computer systems since there IT activity is an important first step in combating is a small chance of being prosecuted, let alone being insider attacks and today’s highly distributed caught. These crimes is rather classic crimes To catch and complex IT environments generate massive criminals involved with digital crime, investigators must volumes of logging data, but the sheer volume of employ consistent and well-defined forensic procedures data is very difficult to manage. if possible. • Most current approaches to addressing insider Writing off insider threat as a low cast risk ought threats are reactive, not predictive. This helps to realize sternness of the problem. Threat as this immensely in forensic investigations, but the kind ranges from the malicious employee (of he has problem is that the attack or theft has already and have to has the technical expertise to implant occurred. Therefore, organizations should be a malware (logic bomb,…) in the critical system. looking for solutions that can provide more analytic Malicious insider is a employee (current or former), and predictive capabilities that if not able to prevent contractor, or business partner who had / has / going to insider attacks, may still identify at-risk insiders and have authorized access to an organization’s network, then implement more detailed logging on those system, or data in a manner that negatively affected individuals in response. the confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Employees • Delicate balance of risk versus productivity. IT also represent another significant insider threat managers need to balance the risk of employees’ vector. These inadvertent actions can occur because need for additional access versus the lost individuals have accumulated more privileges than productivity that would result if access was not they need for their current job functions or because granted to certain users. Many organizations also20 www.hakin9.org/en
  2. 2. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortress lack the necessary reporting tools to examine Computer Forensics an individual’s expanding entitlements over time Computer forensics is relating to legal evidence found which further compounds the problem. The result in computers and digital storage media, .e.g. examine is that IT often struggles to answer the critical digital media with identifying, preserving, recovering, question, Who has access to what? confidently and analyzing, and reporting. Although, it is most often accurately. associated with the investigation of a wide variety of computer crime, computer forensics may also beWhat is digital forensic? used in civil proceedings. The discipline involvesDigital forensics suggests a high-tech process reserved similar techniques and principles to data recovery.only for cases centered on proprietary technology. Now Computer forensic investigations usually follow thedigital data is omnipresent, therefore digital forensics standard digital forensic process. Investigations arehas quickly become a legal necessity. Searching performed on static data/images rather than livethrough digital evidence could recover a hidden systems.document or deleted e-mail message, which may There are several techniques is pertaining toaccelerate exposure or win it. computer forensic: In the typical case, a hard copy document is analyzed,and the lawyer can only engage in direct or cross- • Cross-drive analysis correlates information foundexamination based on information printed on the page. on multiple hard drives. This process can be usedIt is difficult to determine the document’s authenticity, for identifying social networks and for performingoriginal author, etc. However, documents created anomaly detection.in Microsoft Word or other leading word processing • Live analysis examines the operating systemsystems are likely to contain a surplus of information using custom forensics or existing sysadmin toolsis not displayed or printed. A forensic examiner is shall to extract evidence. The practice is useful whento discover an additional information called metadata. dealing with the logical hard drive volume may beMetadata is a description or definition of electronic data, imaged (known as a live acquisition) before theor data about data. Metadata can include descriptive computer is shutdown.tags and information about create data or changes have • Recovering deleted files is a common techniquebeen made. used in computer forensics in view of data allowing Internet logs also may provide valuable evidence. to be reconstructed from the physical disk sectors.The main rule is if information was displayed at some It involves searching for signatures of file headerstime on a computer screen, it can be recovered from to reconstruct.it. For example, checking account balance online. It is • Volatile data dumping as recovering any informationapplicable to data of all types. The failure of analyzing stored in RAM because after powering down it maydigital data is at best inexcusable, and at worst, be lost.ineffective assistance of malpractice. With the vastmajority of documents that created, and with so many Mobile Device Forensicscommunications, now there is the luxury with easy Mobile device forensics is relating to recovery of digitalvalidating a controversy and the responsibility of doing. evidence or data from a mobile device. The memoryData forensics was all but unknown just a few years type, custom interface and proprietary nature of mobileago. Nowadays it considered a standard and routine devices require a different forensic process comparedpractice in legal matters, of course. to computer forensics. Each device often has to have custom extraction techniques used on it. TheSeveral branches in digital forensic forensics process for mobile devices broadly matchesIt is a branch of forensic bringing about the recovery and other branches of digital forensics; however, someinvestigation of material found in digital devices, often particular concerns apply. One of the main ongoingin relation to computer crime. This term was originally considerations for analysts is preventing the deviceused as a synonym for computer forensics however from making a network/cellular connection, becauseit has expanded in view of covering investigation of it may bring in new data, overwriting evidence. Toall devices capable of storing digital data. As a result, prevent a connection mobile devices will often benow prefer either to use more specialised terms such transported and examined from within a Faradayas mobile device forensics or mobile phone forensics cage. Mobiles will often be recovered switched onor to use a term such as digital forensics to include all to avoid a shutdown changing files. However, withdigital devices. Digital forensics includes several sub- more advanced smartphones using advanced memorybranches relating to the investigation of various types of management, connecting it to a recharger and puttingdevices, media or artefacts. it into a faraday cage may not be good practice.www.hakin9.org/en 21
  3. 3. FORENSICS The mobile device would recognize the network This branch has two uses. disconnection and therefore it would change its status information that can trigger the memory manager to • Security: analysis involves monitoring a network write data. By the way, there’s a two flash memory for anomalous traffic and identifying intrusions. For types: NOR as internal and NAND as external (like example, attacker might be able to erase all log sd-cards). NAND-memory can be examined with PC files on a compromised host. forensic tool for FAT file system. • Law Enforcement: analysis of captured network There are several techniques is pertaining to mobile traffic can include tasks such as reassembling forensic: transferred files, searching for keywords and parsing human communication such as emails or • Physical acquisition technique is a bit-by-bit copy chat sessions. of an entire physical store. It has the advantage of allowing deleted files and data remnants to be Network forensics is a comparatively new field of examined. Physical extraction acquires information forensic science. The growing popularity of the Internet from the device by direct access to the flash in homes means that computing has become social- memories. Generally this is harder to achieve centric. There’s a several type of traffic-catchers. because the device vendors needs to secure against arbitrary reading of memory so that a device may be • Ethernet – by eavesdropping bit streams with tools locked to a certain operator. called sniffers. It collects all data on this layer and • Logical acquisition technique is a bit-by-bit copy of allows the data that has been transmitted over the logical storage objects (e.g., directories and files) network can be reconstructed. that reside on a logical store (e.g., a file system • TCP/IP – the network layer the Internet Protocol (IP) partition). Logical acquisition has the advantage is responsible for directing the packets generated that system data structures are easier for a tool by TCP through the network (e.g., the Internet) to extract and organize. This usually does not by adding source and destination information that produce any deleted information, due to it normally interpreted by routers all over the network. Cellular being removed from the file system of the phone. digital packet networks, like GPRS, use similar However, in some cases the phone may keep protocols like IP, so the IP forensic methods as well. a database file of information which does not • Internet can be a rich source of digital evidence overwrite the information but simply marks it as including web browsing, email, newsgroup, deleted and available for later overwriting. synchronous chat and peer-to-peer traffic. For • Manual acquisition technique as kind of utilizing example web server logs can be used to show of the user interface to investigate the content when (or if) a suspect accessed information of the memory. Therefore the device is used as related to criminal activity. Email accounts can normal and pictures are taken from the screen. often contain useful evidence; but email headers The disadvantage is that only data visible to the are easily faked and, so, network forensics may operating system can be recovered and that all be used to prove the exact origin of incriminating data are only available in form of pictures. material. Network forensics can also be used in • External memory acquisition technique is acquisition order to find out who is using a particular computer from devices are SIM cards, SD cards, MMC cards, by extracting user account information from the CF cards, and the Memory Stick. For external network traffic. memory and the USB flash drive is possible to make • Wireless – the main goal of wireless forensics is the bit-level copy. Furthermore USB drives and to provide the methodology and tools required to memory cards have a write-lock switch that can be collect and analyze (wireless) network traffic that used to prevent data changes, while making a copy can be presented as valid digital evidence in a court (SD cards have it, but microSD don’t). of law. The evidence collected can correspond to plain data or, with the broad usage of Voice-over-IP Network Forensics (VoIP) technologies, especially over wireless, can Network forensics is relating to the monitoring and include voice conversations. analysis of computer network traffic for the purposes of information gathering, legal evidence, or intrusion Database Forensics detection. Unlike other areas of digital forensics, Database Forensics is relating to the forensic study of network investigations deal with volatile and dynamic databases, their related metadata, to the timestamps that information. Network forensics is often smoewhat pro- apply to the mobile device time of a row in a relational table active in case of traffic is transmitted and then lost. being inspected and tested for validity in order to verify22 www.hakin9.org/en
  4. 4. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortressthe actions of a database user. Alternatively, a forensic Step 3. Collectionexamination may focus on identifying transactions within During this step, you collect data and potential evidencea database system or application that indicate evidence from the device parts are suspected. There is aof wrong doing, such as fraud. multitude of these types of devices, so we will limit our discussion to just a few such nor-flash or nand-flash.Mobile Forensic You have to collect all the types of information consistToday a mobile device is powerful device that can of both volatile and dynamic information. The reason isfunction as a cellular phone, web browser and a that anything that is classified, as volatile informationpersonal organizer. These devices have reached such will not survive if the device is powered off or reset.a level of power, and functionality they are in essence a Therefore, the mobile device should be placed into anmini-computer. A mobile device forensics is very similar evidence bag and maintained at stable power supportto the procedures and methodologies that are used with throughout.any form of forensics. From time to time it may easythan PC. Step 4. Documentation Records as extracted data must be document with the case number, the date and time it was collected. Did you know? When you seize the mobile device we have to ensure Another part of the documentation process is to we take the mobile device, docking cradle and external generate a report that consists of the detailed memory cards. This is probably one of the most difficult information that describes the entire forensic process things to control and requires that you conduct a thorough that you are performing. Within this report you need to search for any and all memory cards. With the size of annotate the state and status of the device in question memory cards today there is all extensive amount of evidence that you would be missing if you miss just one memory card. Did you know? Device Switched OnInvestigative Methods If the device is in the on state, you act immediately to get power to the mobile device. Now it will not lose the volatileThere are four main steps when it comes to performing information. Then you need to take the device to a securea forensic investigation of a mobile device. These four location like a Faraday Cage or turn off the radio beforesteps are identified as follows: beginning the examination• Examination Device Switched Off• Identification If the device is in the off state, you need to take the device• Collection to the shielded location before attempting to switch on or place the device in room that can block the signal well• Documentation. enough to prevent the data push.Step 0. Permission Device in its CradleAs with any forensic examination, the main step is to If device is in cradle, you have to remove any connection from the PC despite possibility that a sophisticated suspecthave permission to seize the evidence that is required might have a tripwire device and once it disconnected itfor your investigation. could activate script to erase potential evidence.Step 1. Examination Password Protected The thing has to be known when it comes to passwordFirst, you need to understand the potential sources of protection is the fact that the password itself is not storedthe evidence. With a mobile device, these sources can on the device. The only thing stored on the device is abe the device, the device cradle, power supply and any hash of the plain-text password. This storage is similar toother peripherals or media that the device examined the storage used by the majority of operating systems outhas met. In addition to these sources, you should also there.investigate any device that has synchronized with the Wireless Connectionmobile device you are examining. You must avoid any further communication activities, if possible. Eliminate any wireless activity by placing theStep 2. Identi�cation device into an cage that can isolate the device.Second, start the identifying the type of investigating External Memory Carddevice. Once you have identified the device you have You must not initiate any contact before taking componentsto identify the operating system that the device is using. off. This includes any devices that supported external mediaNote, device, is possible, to be running two operating types of cards.systems.www.hakin9.org/en 23
  5. 5. FORENSICS during your collection process. The final step of the set it as low as 3), you will be prompted one last time collection process consists of accumulating all of to type the word BlackBerry. The device will then wipe. the information and storing it in a secure and safe It will be reset to the factory out-of-the-box condition, location. and the password reset. You will lose everything in the device memory, with no possibility of recovery. It Forensic Investigation of the BlackBerry will not reformat the microSD card, because that’s not A BlackBerry is a handheld mobile device engineered part of the factory configuration. The phone will still be for email. All models now come with a built-in mobile usable, and the operating system will be unchanged. So phone, making the BlackBerry an obvious choice this technique cannot be used to roll back from an OS for users with the need to access their email from upgrade problem. somewhere besides the comfort of a desk chair. The device is equipped with the RIM software Password Extraction from BlackBerry implementation of proprietary wireless-oriented At first you can attack BlackBerry via bruteforce protocols. The BlackBerry device is always on and BlackBerry backup file. You can access encrypted participating in some form of wireless push technology. information stored in password-protection backups if the Because of this, the BlackBerry does not require original password is known or recovered with Elcomsoft some form of desktop synchronization like the other Phone Password Breaker (http://www.elcomsoft.com/ mobile device does. BlackBerry OS has numerous eppb.html). Elcomsoft Phone Password Breaker capabilities and features like over the air activation, grants forensic access to protected information stored ability to synchronize contracts and appointments in BlackBerry devices by recovering the original plain- with Microsoft Outlook, a password keeper program to text password. The toolkit allows eligible customers store sensitive information and the ability to customize acquiring bit-to-bit images of devices’ file systems, your BlackBerry display data. extracting phone secrets (passcodes, passwords, and The BlackBerry device has an integrated wireless encryption keys) and decrypting the file system dump. modem allows communicating over the air with RIM Access to most information is provided in real-time. In Network. The BlackBerry uses the BlackBerry Serial addition to Elcomsoft Phone Password Breaker, the Protocol to backup, restore and synchronize the data toolkit includes the ability to decrypt images of devices’ between the handheld and desktop. In addition, device file systems, as well as a free tool that can extract the uses a strong encryption that safeguards confidentiality, encrypted file system out of the device in raw form. To and authenticity of data to keep data encrypted while unlock Apple backups even faster, the tool engages it transit between the enterprise server and the device the company’s patent-pending GPU acceleration itself. technology. Warning for BlackBerry Push-Technology Since the BlackBerry is all always on, push messaging, device information can be pushed to it at any time. Note that pushed information has the ability to overwrite any data that possibly was previously deleted. The first step in preserving the information is to eliminate the ability of the device to receive this data push. If possible, turn the radio off, or a better solution is to take the device to an in area where the signal cannot be received. The BlackBerry device is not really off unless power is removed for an extended period. If the blackberry is powered back off then any items that were in the queue waiting to be pushed to the device could possibly be pushed before you could stop them. Warning for BlackBerry Password Protection BlackBerry devices come with password protection. The owner has the capability to protect all data on the phone with a password. He may also specify the amount of attempts for entering the password before wiping all data from the device. If you exceed your password attempts limit (defaults to 10, but you can Figure 1. Elcomsoft Phone Password Breaker24 www.hakin9.org/en
  6. 6. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortress• Three key features are:• Decrypt encrypted BlackBerry backups• Recover original plain-text passwords• GPU accelerationHowever, you will not have a BlackBerry Backup File.The attack or theft has already occurred, therefore, youhave to be more analytic, more predictive. Accordingto previous warnings for the BlackBerry. In this case,you have to install spyware to extract password fromdevice. All smartphones give their owners a free choice tolock handheld by password or grant unsecured access.The major concept in using the most complex passwordis main idea. You’re have to lock your devices! You arehave to use more complex combination! It’s have to berandomness! Nevertheless, think for moment. Can youquickly say how many symbols are entered up? No iscorrect answer. Figure 3. Virtual Keyboard “bug” So, just imagine malware product loaded intodevice memory and waits when you are going to keyboard is a sure type or multitap keyboard. The boldunlock handheld by typing your topsecret password. keyboard is a full keyboard so it will not duplicate thatAfter inputting is half-closed, malware types just the behavior.one random letter to make senseless your unlocking There are two possible way of stealing password –action. In addition, BlackBerry says Wrong password! during device unlocking or when you synchronize yourTry once again. Next attempt. Once you have reached device with PC. During it you are asked about sync waya half-attemps and have typed word blackberry your whether sync media or use usb drive or only chargepassword is open and is able to steal with screen- device. Sure, we cannot guess what you choose, butshot. we do not. Do you draw attention on discrepancy or Let us examine a virtual keyboard. When you touch take it as a kind of program error (bug)? In any case,screen to type a character a big-scaled review appears. you are caught on fake-logining. After password typingWhen you do the same while typing password into you will be notified about wrong password (two times tomasked text-box you can see that every character is get your right pass and one more to inform about e.g.going to be masked by asterisk or black circle in ~1-2 null-pointer error, hung process. Then you have seensecond after. Password preview is only used when the originally logon screen.Figure 2. Sync-extracted password Figure 4. PC-sync extracted password – part Iwww.hakin9.org/en 25
  7. 7. FORENSICS Every device is going to synchronize with PC First, let’s examine hotkeys. sometimes. The major target is password field of textbox’s software. Unfortunately, we cannot get a QWERTY / SureType keyboard screen-capture, but we still able to use a WINAPI functional to unmask password-box, steal password’s • From the Home screen hold the Alt key and then character, and then mask password-box again. Repeat type lglg. it several times and you will get a password. More detail • Display the debug information by completing the you can find in my previous articles. following steps: • Press the Menu key and click Options. Classic BlackBerry forensic • Click the Min log level drop-down list and select A typical forensic investigator performs the investigation Debug Info. by hand-reading mail and data files, checking for • Press the Menu key and then click Save. system activities through different log files, and verifying the consistency of the data through the time stamps BlackBerry Storm 9500 in portrait view associated with files on the file system. Protections such as firewalls often force the investigator to perform • From the Home screen go to Options, then to these tasks on-site. Screen/Keyboard. The difficulties of performing a local analysis can • In the Screen/Keyboard options menu, set the limit the investigation. First, forensic software must Portrait View Keyboard option to SureType and be running on the local machine, and may have to be then Save the settings. installed. Second, running such software locally risks • From the Home screen of the BlackBerry damaging or contaminating data. Third, if the machine smartphone, press the convenience key to display has been compromised, the investigation may produce the keyboard in portrait view. suspect results – or worse, may alert the attacker. • Hold the number key to lock the number keyboard. The 123 icon appears at the top right of the screen, Gathering Logs and dumps and a small lock appears on the number key. The main classic forensic procedure of evidence • Press the ,5,5 keys. collection violates the forensic method by requiring the • Display the debug information by completing the investigator to record logs kept and dump. Investigator following steps: can view some log on the device pressing hotkeys or • Press the Menu key and click Options. throughout several applications from BlackBerry SDK • Click the Min log level drop-down list and select Tools. Don’t forget that the counter is always running, Debug Info. even when the radio is turned off, so to be sure to • Press the Menu key and then click Save. record these values as soon as possible to avoid log overwrites. BlackBerry Storm 9550 in portrait view • From the Home screen of the BlackBerry smartphone, press the convenience key to display the keyboard in portrait view. • Press the ,5,5 keys. • Display the debug information by completing the following steps: • Press the Menu key and click Options. • Click the Min log level drop-down list and select Debug Info. • Press the Menu key and then click Save. BlackBerry Storm 9500 in landscape view • From the Home screen press the Menu key and click Show Keyboard. • Hold the number key to lock the number keyboard. The 123 icon appears at the top right of the screen, and a small lock appears on the number key. Figure 5. PC-sync extracted password – part II • Press the „/”/ keys.26 www.hakin9.org/en
  8. 8. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortress• Display the debug information by completing the Table 2. Loader usage following steps: command is one of: • Press the Menu key and click Options. eventlog output �lename • Click the Min log level drop-down list and select screenshot output �lename Debug Info. • Press the Menu key and then click Save. deviceinfo output �lename dir output �lenameAnother way to collect the log information is using radio on|offloader.exe from BB SDK tools. It extracts a full copy of dump output �lenameBlackBerry event log to text file stored on your drive.Let’s see some useful command of javaloader. Loader Usage Usage: loader.exe /<command> (Table 2).Java Loader Usage Dump extracting is the same the log previous.Usage: JavaLoader [-p<pin>] [-d0|-d1] [-w<password>] Command syntax example is below.[-q] <command> (Table 1). To extract event log from device Loader.exe /eventlog „D:BBSAKeventlog-loader.txt” Loader.exe /screenshot active „D:BBSAKactive-loader.bmp”• Plug it to PC via USB cable Loader.exe /screenshot primary „D:BBSAKprimary-loader.bmp”• Open command shell and type javaloader.exe - Loader.exe /screenshot auxiliary „D:BBSAKauxiliary-loader.bmp” wPASSW eventlog log.txt Loader.exe /dir „D:BBSAKdir-loader.txt” Loader.exe /deviceinfo „D:BBSAKdeviceinfo-loader.txt”Command dump gives us all .cod modules stored on Loader.exe /dump „D:BBSAKdump-loader.txt”device in root subfolder dump. To get dump of BlackBerry device let’s use a Loader However, before you will be asking to enter a device’sfrom BlackBerry Device Mangaer. It locates on c: password. Note, dump beginning is required aProgram FilesCommon FilesResearch In Motion device reboot. It can erase log to overwriting someAppLoader if your OS is 32bit or on c:Program Files information. Do not forget about encryption feature of(x86)Common FilesResearch In MotionAppLoader if BlackBerry Storage Protection based on Passwordyour OS is 64bit. Some useful command is below. & ECC. If it is on the dump result is empty obvious.Table 1. Java loader usage -p<pin> Speci�es the handheld PIN (hex pin pre�x 0x) -w<password> Connects using the speci�ed password <command> is one of dir [-d] [-s] [-1] Lists modules on the handheld -d Display dependency information -s Display siblings -1 Single column output deviceinfo Provides information on the handheld save {<module> ... | -g Retrieves modules from the handheld <group>} -g Retrieves all modules in a speci�ed group info [-d] [-s] [-v] <.cod file> Provides information on the speci�ed modules -d Display dependency information -s Display sibling information -v Display verbose module information eventlog Retrives the handheld event log radio on|off Turns the handhelds radio on or off siblinginfo <.cod file> Provides sibling information on the speci�ed modules screenshot <.bmp file> Retreives the contents of the speci�ed screen and saves as a BMP �le. logstacktraces Dumps the stack traces for all threads to the event logwww.hakin9.org/en 27
  9. 9. FORENSICS Table 6. DB data block format Device Information Database ID 2 bytes. Zero-based position in Hardware Id: 0x5001807 the list of database name blocks PIN: 0x23436780 OS Version: 0x0 Record length 4 bytes VM Version: 0x600023a Database version 1 byte Radio ID: 0x0 DatabaseRecordHandle 2 bytes Vendor ID: 609 Record unique ID 4 bytes FaceBook Additional Info Friendly name: Facebook Field length #1 2 bytes Description: Facebook?® for BlackBerry?® smartphones Field type #1 1 byte makes it even easier to connect and share while you’re on Field data #1 As long as the �eld length the go... Version: 2.0.0.37 Field length #n 2 bytes Vendor: Research In Motion Limited Field type #n 1 byte Copyright: (null) Field data #n As long as the �eld length Event Log Guid: 0x6659A3FDB89204F9 time: Sat Jul 30 21:57:05 2011 severity:0 type:2 app: Despite Name, Version, Size, Created and Depends GoogleTalk data: Auto on fields there is a following possible description fields. Guid: 0x80C11EC7B1720C9F time: Sat Jul 30 Let us example on Facebook application. Event Log for 21:57:05 2011 severity:0 type:2 app: Google Talk Messenger and Windows Live Messager WLM data: Auto store an option Save password & Sign. Table 3. Directory information Name Version Size Created BlackBerry Backup Format The structure of the IPD file shown above is as follows: 8 net_rim_m2g 6.0.0.570 293384 0 Sun May 01 Table 4. Each database name block is of the form (Table 5). 03:16:11 2011 Each database data block is of the form (Table 6). Depends on: For a more advanced and in depth look at the file net_rim_cldc format you may visit blackberry site. net_rim_xml_org 11 net_rim_xml_org 6.0.0.570 44460 0 Sun May 01 Data Extracting through the BlackBerry Backup 03:15:59 2011 First, you need to download and install BlackBerry Depends on: Desktop Manager. Use the following link (https:// net_rim_cldc www.BlackBerry.com/Downloads/entry.do?code=A8 BAA56554F96369AB93E4F3BB068C22) to select and download the install file that fits your system Table 4. General BB Backup format or version. Once BB Desktop Manager installed, Inter@ctive Pager connect the device to PC. Then Click Back up button Backup/Restore File for a full backup of the device or use the advanced Line feed 1 byte value 0A section for specific data. In the options, you can find Version 1 byte value 02 a destination folder where your .ipd file will save. Number of databases in �le 2 bytes Note, that ipd-file can be encrypted with password Database name separator 1 byte value 00 not less than 4 characters. BlackBerry backups contain essential information stored in the device. Database name block#1 User data such as email, SMS and MMS messages, Database name block#2 Database name block#n Did you know? Database data block#1 Backup �le does not save your email attachments. More, Database data block#2 email forensic on BlackBerry is empty in case that email- Database data block#n message is TOO large. You �nd out only message about truncation. „TOO LARGE” is equal to 8Mb data or ~ 5Mb of data that encoded into Base64 per one data�le. If Table 5. DB name block format attachments �les are more than one size takes ~3Mb per Database name length 2 bytes. The length includes the ter- �le. The new announced version of BES and BIS can support minating null EXTRA large size of �les that counts ~8Mb instead of ~5Mb per �le. Everything else is the same. Database name As long as the name length28 www.hakin9.org/en
  10. 10. To Get Round To The Heart Of FortressWeb browsing history and cache, call logs, picturesand photos, contacts, calendars, appointments, andother organizer information are stored in BlackBerrybackups. Access to information stored in BlackBerrybackups can be essential for investigations, and is inhigh demand by forensic customers. The IPD file can be read using several commercialutilities, including• MagicBerry IPD Reader (http://menastep.com)• Amber BlackBerry Converter (http://www.proces stext.com/abcBlackBerry.html)• Elcomsoft BlackBerry Backup Explorer (http:// www.elcomsoft.com/ebbe.html)• Paraben Device Seizure (http://www.paraben.com/ device-seizure.html) Figure 7. Amber BlackBerry Converter• UFED (http://www.cellebrite.com/forensic-products/ BlackBerry devices by extracting, analyzing, printing forensic-products/ufed-physical-pro.html) or exporting the content of a BlackBerry backup produced with BlackBerry Desktop Software.UFED is one of the physical analyzer software toolthat Elcomsoft Blackberry Backup Explorer supportscan be used for intelligence gathering, investigative BlackBerry backups made with PC and Mac versionsresearch. It extracts phone content, hex dump, files, of BlackBerry Desktop Software. You can exportand extensive information from GPS devices that can information from BlackBerry backups into a varietybe mapped on Google Maps. In addition, it extracts of readable formats (PDF, HTML, DOC, RTF,..). Alsoexisting, hidden, and deleted phone data, including call Blackberry Backup Explorer can access encryptedhistory, text messages, contacts, images, phonebook information stored in password-protection backupsentries and videos. if the original password is known or recovered with So, what you’ll be able to do with Magic Berry IPD Elcomsoft Phone Password Breaker. ElcomsoftParser: Phone Password Breaker grants forensic access to protected information stored in BlackBerry devices by• Read ipd files recovering the original plain-text password. Elcomsoft• Split ipd files Blackberry Backup Explorer is totally the same with• Export MS Messages, Phone Calls Log, Memos, Amber BlackBerry Converter. Tasks, Calendar, and Address Book to CSV As an alternative to acquiring the BlackBerry through• Edit Service Books BlackBerry IPD Reader, Paraben’s Device Seizure• Merge two ipd files is a simple and effective method to acquire the data. Device Seizure was designed from the ground up as aElcomsoft Blackberry Backup Explorer allows forensic grade tool that has been upheld in countlessforensic specialists investigating the content of court cases.Figure 6. BlackBerry Backup Manager Figure 8. Elcomsoft Blackberry Backup Explorerwww.hakin9.org/en 29
  11. 11. FORENSICS • SMS History (Text Messages) • Deleted SMS (Text Messages) • Phonebook (both stored in the memory of the phone and on the SIM card) • Call History • Received Calls • Dialed Numbers • Missed calls • Call Dates & Durations • Scheduler • Calendar • To-Do List • Filesystem (physical memory dumps) • System Files • Multimedia Files (Images, Videos, etc.) Figure 10. BB Manager is linked with BB Simulator • Java Files • Deleted Data • You are now ready to acquire the phone. Go to • GPS Waypoints, Tracks, Routes, etc. Tools | Data Acquisition. • RAM/ROM • You are prompted for the supported manufacturer. • PDA Databases Select RIM Blackbery. • E-mail • Leave supported models at the default selection of autodetect. There’s a briefly general draft to examine data with • Connection type should be set to USB. Paraben Device Seizure. • For data type selection select Logical Image (Databases). • Create a new case in Device Seizure with File | • Confirm your selections on the summary page and New. click Next to start the acquisition. • Give the case a name and fill in any desired information about the case on the next two BlackBerry Simulation screens. The third screen is a summary of the BlackBerry Simulator built for simulating a backup copy data entered. If all data is correct click Next and of the physical device. This is helpful if the device is low then Finish. on battery, needs to be turned off, or you do not want Figure 9. USB Connection Figure 11. BB Simulator after sync30 www.hakin9.org/en
  12. 12. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortressto alter the data on the physical device. Following steps forensics focuses on learning as much about a deadare suitable for each BlackBerry device model. file system as possible. While a full analysis can be time consuming, doing one can reveal allot about an• Select a simulator from the drop-down list on the incident. Often times one of the most revealing thing BlackBerry website (http://us.blackberry.com/ that can be done is a MAC time analysis to reconstruct developers/resources/simulators.jsp) and download the events of an attack by the files accessed. While a it. Then install it skilled attacker can certainly manipulate this, few go to• Select and download BlackBerry Device Manager. this depth. In general, this type of analysis is limited Then install it. to criminal cases or for cases where the attacker’s• Run BlackBerry Device Manager and BlackBerry means of compromise was unknown and the goal is to Simulator determine how they got in.• Select Simulate | USB Cable Connected. In some situations, it is not desirable to shut down,• Select File | Restore to simulate with physical data seize the digital device, and perform the forensic evidence on BlackBerry Simulator. analysis at the lab. For example, if there is an indication that an encryption mechanism is used on the digitalAlso, you mount a SD-card copy to the BlackBerry device that was discovered, then the investigatorSimulator. Now you may turn off blackberry wireless should not shutdown this digital device. Otherwise,communication holding power on and then examine after shutdown all the information (potential evidence)evidence with up state device-simulator. that was encrypted will be unintelligible. By performing Live Analysis, the investigators attempt to extract theLive (Spy) BlackBerry forensic encryption key from the running system. That’s knownWhen a digital device is discovered on the crime as Live Analysis or Non-Classic Forensic. The goalscene, the investigator first looks whether the device of any live forensics task should be to extract andis switched on or not. In the dead analysis method, if preserve the volatile data on a system while, to thethe discovered digital device is switched on it will be extent possible, otherwise preserving the state of theswitched off. Then the digital device will be packaged system. Additionally, this is often the first step of anand labelled in a correct way and transported to the incident response scenario where a handler is simplyforensic lab for further analysis. At the lab, the forensic trying to determine if an event has occurred. The benefitexaminer acquires the potential evidence on the device of using this approach is you have a forensically soundby making a forensic copy of the data stored on the data collection from which to proceed with a full forensicdigital device under investigation. The tools used to analysis if the initial analysis indicates one is required.make the forensic copy guarantee that no modificationsare made to data stored on the digital device under Live ToolKitinvestigation during the process of forensic acquisition. First toolkit is made by Gamma Group and calledAfter this analysis to find incriminating or discriminating Remote Monitoring & Infection Solutions (FinFisherevidence is performed on the forensic copy.That’s – FinFly & FinSpy). The Remote Monitoring andknown as Dead Analysis or Classic Forensic. Traditional Infection Solutions are used to access target systems. They give full access to stored information, the ability to take control of the target systems’ functions, and even capturing encrypted data and communications. In combination with advanced remote infection methods, you have the capability to remotely infect and monitor all activity on target systems. It can extract SMS & MMS messages, email messages, BlackBerry Messages (PIN-to-PIN), call history, gps location and cell location, address book, calendar events and url history. By the way, it has several attacking features such as attack via usb or bluetooth, attack via sms trojan activating or through a browser downloading. Second toolkit is not less interesting rather than previous is made by Italian professionals and called Remote Control System (RCS, http://hackingteam.it/ index.php/remote-control-system). Briefly, it evadesFigure 12. SD mounting encryption by means of an agent directly installedwww.hakin9.org/en 31
  13. 13. FORENSICS on the device to monitor. Evidence collection on Friday, April, 29th monitored devices is stealth and transmission of Friends birthday (as default it’s marked by 00:00 hour) collected data from the device to the RCS server is is set 00:00, encrypted and untraceable. Those toolkit collect all Daily alarm is set 06:01, possible information such as phone history, organizer WLB Europe 2011, Arena Moscow – 21:00 til 22:30 (9 & address book, sms/mms/email, location tracking, til 10.30 p.m.). It was a Tarja’s Turunen Concert screenshot & camera snapshots, SIM info, remory audio spy. Both of them divide into two part: client and Monday, May, 16th GUI-monitoring. My free time is set 00:00-06:01. Indeed it’s time when my device is sleeping (auto on/off features) and me Potential Data as Evidence too... from time to time. Potential attack vector can be various, however, the And daily alarm is set 06:01 most popular of them are • Address Book • Calendar Events • Call History • Browser history and bookmarks • Memos and Tasks • Screen-shots • Camera-shots • Videocamera-shots • Clipboard • Location tracking (cell, wifi, gps, bluetooth) • SMS/MMS/Emails • Pictures, Videos, Voice notes, and other file • IMs • Passwords Let us examine some of them to find out the common sense. What is in an up-to-date BlackBerry Address Book? A lot of contact’s data, such as several mobile or home phone number, faxes, emails, BB PINs, work and home addresses, web-pages or dates. Also we can add a IM data (Gtalk, Y!, Windows Live, AIM, and not trustable up-to-date ICQ). That was all until social networking arrived. One more question: Does your BlackBerry device have an auto on-off feature? OK, let us summarize it. In our Address Book, we have much valuable information about friends; social network gives an up-to-date avatar, calendar (in spite of our calendar that filled our sleeping time at least), GPS location points, and SW names that provide several pieces of information. Due to victim’s calendar info and GPS info (from photo exif or FaceBook likes), private data such as tracking info, habits, time marked a free, time when you’re possible sleeping, time when you’re at home/ company can come to light. For example, in Figure 2, my contact information appears. Though my personal data is obfuscated, a few of my email addresses, phone numbers, home address (this info – City and County – was gotten from Facebook, by the way), my birthday, BlackBerry PIN, web sites come up. Now let us check my calendar events. Figure 13. Up-to-date contact card32 www.hakin9.org/en
  14. 14. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortress more useful usage way of BlackBerry Wallet. You need to see it to type or need to copy into clipboard. Moreover, no one software producer can protect it, because need to put data into public text-box. In other words, end-point object is vulnerable. By the way, there’s a getClipboard() method to retrieve the system’s clipboard object in the BlackBerry API. Your data and password are open for it. Other methods of password steal have already discussed in the beginning of article. Next victim is message (sms, mms, email, further email). Email is one of the most common ways people communicate. From internal meeting requests, distribution of documents and general conversation one would be pressed to find an organization of any size that does not rely on email. Studies have shown that more email is generated every day than phone conversations and paper documents combined. Many users store their personal colanders, contacts and even synchronize their email clients with their mobile devices. Less interesting part of evidence concludes browser history, browser bookmarks, memos, tasks, etc. Such kind of forensic has sense in case of violating company policy by visiting certain sites or time aspect (when the computer was connected to a site at the time whenFigure 14. Up-to-date calendar events something happened) and reconstruct a detailed historyIn additional, if you involve call history with gps records of a computer’s use by examining a handful of files thatas two part of evidence you provide yourself with manyopportunities to draw a social graph of accomplices.Extracting all possible fields from the object calledPIM is goal for gathering more information about theattacked individual from their profile overall. Mentioned on the net password tips are revokedby the tendency inmatter to complexify. Moreover,guess why. Do you have enough time to type arandom string (20-40 character in length)? How manyweb sites do you log in? There are more than I cancount. Facebook, Myspace, Linkedin, Twitter and anynumber of other social networking sites? Probably adozen. Shopping sites? Yes, a several. Emails, IMs,etc. Every site requires you to create a password,strong password. Is it possible to memorize? Somekind people solve it with digit wallet. Great! All youneed keep in mind only one super complex password.Other stored passwords are encrypted by default. Forexample, BlackBerry Wallet or Kaspersky PasswordManager. Both are describe, as is indispensable toolfor the active internet and shopping user. In addition,it fully automates the process of entering passwordsand other data into websites and saves the user goingto the trouble of creating and remembering multiplepasswords. It is still unsecured. Do not neglect aspyware that able to capture screens of your device.Ok, forget about that kind of malware. Let us about Figure 15. Screen-shot of BlackBerry Walletwww.hakin9.org/en 33
  15. 15. FORENSICS contain a web browser’s past operation. One more part of it is Favorites folder that contains the URLs of web sites saved by the user, probably because they are of interest to the user and are frequently visited explicit storing of these links indicates intent. Pictures, Videos, Voice notes, and other files. Let’s start from its last object other files. What a digital document can tell you about the person who wrote it is often more important than what it says, if you read it. It may contain evidence equivalent to a smoking gun for your case, but do you know who created the document and when it was written? Obtaining a digital document and hoping to enter it into the record at court is not enough. You must link the evidence to the document creator and that’s where document forensics is critical in trial preparation. Although the electronic document cannot speak, what it can tell about who, what, when, where, why, and how is often much more credible than any testimony by a witness. Voice notes, videos and pictures show us in general what interesting in particular our victim. It may be secret/internal presentation that he videocaptured or audiocaptured. This case is useful for us, because we don’t need to intercept API events; all we need is listen file events of creating and deleting files. Pictures are more inquisitive as camera-snaphots Figure 16. Potential Messages since it has exif-header. Metadata is, quite simply, data Figure 17. Potential WebBrowser Bookmarks Figure 18. Potential BBM chat34 www.hakin9.org/en
  16. 16. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortress The EXIF format was created by the Japan Electronic BlackBerry EXIF-Picture information Industry Development Association and is referenced FileName Moskva-20110801-00007.jpg as the preferred image format for digital cameras in Camera ISO 12234-1. Many digital camera manufacturers, Camera Make Research In Motion Camera Model BlackBerry 9800 such as Canon, Sony and Kodak implement the use of X-Resolution 72/1 EXIF headers. This header is stored in an application Y-Resolution 72/1 segment of a JPEG file, or as privately defined tags in Resolution inches a TIFF file. This means that the resulting JPEG or TIFF Software Rim Exif Version1.00a is still in a standard format readable by applications DateTime 01.08.2011 0:38:43 YCbCr Near that are ignorant of EXIF information [3]. Below is a Picture typical EXIF header (in human readable format): File Exposure time 0s name/size/date, Camera make/model, Date/Time, DateTime 01.08.2011 0:38:43 Resolution, etc. Focus Dist N/A Although it is possible to retrieve EXIF headers by Light source N/A looking at each picture in a disk editor, a considerable Flash used No Brightness-color space sRGB amount of time is required to translate the hex codes Width 2592 into human readable format. You use Adobe Photoshop, Height 1944 ACDSee or 88K in size jhead. Let us see by ACDSee GPS Software. GPS base-latitude northern latitude Last of them is IM chat. Instant messaging is a well- GPS latitude 55, 52’ 6.18” GPS base-longitude east longitude established means of fast and effective communication. GPS longitude 37, 36’ 55.8” Once used primarily by home users for personal GPS orthometric height 0m communications, IM solutions are now being deployed Misc by organizations to provide convenient internal EXIF version 2.2 communication. This often includes the exchange and GPS version (32,32,30,30) discussion of proprietary and sensitive information, thus introducing privacy concerns. Although IM is used in many legitimate activities for conversations andabout data. For example, a Microsoft Word document’s message exchange, it can also be misused by variousmetadata may contain the author’s name and the means. For example, an attacker may masquerade asdates the document was created/modified. Metadata another user by hijacking the connection, performingmay contain useful information for an investigator. a man-in-the-middle attack, or by obtaining physicalSpecifically, digital camera pictures may contain an access to a user’s computer. Analysis of IM in termsExtended File Information (EXIF) header, which saves of computer forensics and intrusion detection hasinformation about the camera that took the picture. gone largely unexplored until now. All humans have IM chat csv �le format Date/Time PIN Sender PIN Receiver Data YYYYMMDDHHMMSSMS HEX VALUE HEX VALUE STRING Date/Time ID Sender ID Receiver Data YYYYMMDDHHMMSSMS STRING STRING STRING File Paths should be monitored. /Device/Home/User/ if information stored on internal memory /MediaCard/BlackBerry/ if information stored on external memory ../IM/AIM/USERNAME/history/ AIMs history in csv format ../IM/BlackBerryMessenger/PIN/history/ BBMs history in csv format ../IM/GoogleTalk/USERNAME/history/ GTalks history in csv format ../IM/Yahoo/USERNAME/history/ YMessengers history in csv format ../IM/WindowsLive/USERNAME/history/ WLives history in csv format ../pictures Manully added pic or screenshoted data ../camera Photo captured data ../videos Video captured data ../voice notes Voice captured datawww.hakin9.org/en 35
  17. 17. FORENSICS unique patterns of behavior, much like the uniqueness some kind of its below. Some of them are near with of biometric data. Therefore, certain characteristics other mobile devices. pertaining to language, composition, and writing, such as particular syntactic and structural layout traits, BlackBerry Device Forensics patterns of vocabulary usage, unusual language usage, and stylistic traits, should remain relatively • BlackBerry Device forensics is very similar to constant. The identification and learning of these forensics of any system characteristics with a sufficiently high accuracy is the • Mobile investigating process is the same a PC principal challenge in author identification. • The BlackBerry device is a push technology device IM forensic were to answer the following questions: that does not require synchronization with a PC • identify an author of an IM conversation based Investigative Methods of BlackBerry Device strictly on author behavior Forensics • classify behavior characteristics • Prior investigating the BlackBerry Device we have Author behavior categorization uses a set of to secure and acquire the evidence. characteristics that remain relatively constant for a • There are four steps to investigating a BlackBerry large number of IM messages written by an author. Device: These characteristics, known as stylometric features, • Examination include syntactic and structural layout traits, patterns • Identification of vocabulary usage, unusual language usage, and • Collection stylistic features. Each author has various stylometric • Documentation features that are sufficient to uniquely identify him or her. Stylometric features are often word-based, BlackBerry Device Investigative Tips including word and character frequency distributions, word length, and sentence length. Literary analysts • If the device is in the on state you have to preserve and computational linguists often use frequency the state by supplying adequate power. lists. Various syntactic features are also included, • If the device is in the off state, leave it in that state, such as the use of function words (short all-purpose switch on the device, not battery and photograph words such as the and to), punctuation, greetings and the device. farewells, and emoticons. Users also use abbreviations • If device is in the cradle avoid any communication for common phrases such as LOL (laughing out loud) activities. and ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing), as well as • If wireless is on eliminate any activity by placing the shortened spellings of words such as ru (are you) and device in an envelope, anti-static and isolation bag. 4 (for). So, in this case IM analyzing give opportunity to find out person that can anonymously identified for Conclusion forensic. The RIM device shares the same evidentiary value as any other Personal Digital Assistant (mobile device). BlackBerry Forensic Tips As the investigator may suspect of most file systems, Summarize all information above you should have a delete is by no means a total removal of data on several plan of action about BlackBerry forensic. I give the device. However, the RIM’s always-on, wireless On the ‘Net • http://na.BlackBerry.com/eng/devjournals/resources/journals/jan_2006/ipd_�le_format.jsp – BlackBerry IPD File Format (.ipd) • http://www.ca.com/us/home/lpg/forms/na/sre/12625_15012.aspx – Defending Against Insider Threats To Reduce Your IT Risk • http://www.elcomsoft.com/eppb.html – Elcomsoft Phone Password Breaker • http://menastep.com – MagicBerry IPD Reader • http://www.processtext.com/abcBlackBerry.html – Amber BlackBerry Converter • http://www.elcomsoft.com/ebbe.html – Elcomsoft BlackBerry Backup Explorer • http://www.paraben.com/device-seizure.html – Paraben Mobile Device Seizure • https://www.BlackBerry.com/Downloads/entry.do?code=A8BAA56554F96369AB93E4F3BB068C22 – BlackBerry Desktop Manager • http://us.blackberry.com/developers/resources/simulators.jsp – BlackBerry Simulator • http://www.cellebrite.com/forensic-products/forensic-products/ufed-physical-pro.html – Cellebrite for Mobile Forensics Universal Forensic Extraction Device36 www.hakin9.org/en
  18. 18. To Get Round To The Heart Of Fortresspush technology adds a unique dimension to forensicexamination. In fact, a RIM device does not need acradle or desktop connection to be useful. The moretime a mobile device spends with its owner, the greaterthe chance is that it will more accurately reflect andtell a story about that person. The BlackBerry is analways-on, push messaging device. Information canbe pushed to the device through its radio antenna atany time, potentially overwriting previously „deleted”data. Without warning, applications such as the emailclient, instant messaging, wireless calendar, andany number of third party applications may receiveinformation that makes the forensic investigator’sattempts to obtain an unaltered file system much moredifficult. In order to preserve the unit, turn the radio off.Make note that completely powering off the RIM willwipe data from the SRAM. Logs stored there, whichmay be of interest, will not survive a full power-down.If the RIM is password protected, get the password.The password itself is not stored on the unit; rather anSHA-1 hash of the password is stored and comparedto a hash of what entered. The examiner only has theopportunity to guess 10 times before a file systemwipe occurs to protect the data. This wipe will destroyall non-OS files. No software exists to circumvent thepassword protection. A direct-to-hardware solutionwill be required if the password is not available. Thus,the RIM’s currently unsurpassed portability is theexaminer’s greatest ally.YURY CHEMERKINGraduated at Russian State University for the Humanities(http://rggu.com/) in 2010. At present postgraduate at RSUH.Information Security Analyst since 2009 and currently worksas mobile info security researcher in Moscow.I have scienti�c and applied interests in the sphere offorensics, cyber security, AR, perceptive reality, semanticnetworks, mobile security and cloud computing. I’mresearching BlackBerry Infrastructure and the effects of thetrust bot-net & forensic techniques on the human privacy.E-mail: yury.chemerkin@gmail.com (yury.chemerkin@facebook.com)Facebook: www.facebook.com/yury.chemerkinLinkedIn: http://ru.linkedin.com/pub/yury-chemerkin/2a/434/549www.hakin9.org/en

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