Service Research based on value co-‐crea3on Yuriko Sawatani, JST
Service Research Frasca3 Manual version6 （OECD 2002） • Research and experimental development (R&D) – Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise crea3ve work undertaken on a systema3c basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applica3ons.” (OECD 2002 p.20)
social sciences and humani3es • For the social sciences and humani3es, an appreciable element of novelty or a resolu3on of scien3ﬁc/ technological uncertainty is again a useful criterion for deﬁning the boundary between R&D and related (rou3ne) scien3ﬁc ac3vi3es. This element may be related to the conceptual, methodological or empirical part of the project concerned. Related ac3vi3es of a rou3ne nature can only be included in R&D if they are undertaken as an integral part of a speciﬁc research project or undertaken for the beneﬁt of a speciﬁc research project. Therefore, projects of a rou3ne nature, in which social scien3sts bring established methodologies, principles and models of the social sciences to bear on a par3cular problem, cannot be classiﬁed as research. (OECD 2002 p.48)
Why diﬃcult to iden3fy service R&D • Deﬁning the boundaries of R&D in service ac3vi3es is diﬃcult, for two main reasons: – ﬁrst, it is diﬃcult to iden3fy projects involving R&D; and, – second, the line between R&D and other innova3ve ac3vi3es which are not R&D is a tenuous one. …. • Iden3fying R&D is more diﬃcult in service ac3vi3es than in manufacturing because it is not necessarily “specialised”. It covers several areas: technology-‐related R&D, R&D in the social sciences and humani3es, including R&D rela3ng to the knowledge of behaviour and organisa3ons. …. • Also, in service companies, R&D is not always organised as formally as in manufacturing companies (i.e. with a dedicated R&D department, researchers or research engineers iden3ﬁed as such in the establishment’s personnel list, etc.).
How to iden3fy service R&D • “ The following are among the criteria that can help to iden3fy the presence of R&D in service ac3vi3es: – Links with public research laboratories. – The involvement of staﬀ with PhDs, or PhD students. – The publica3on of research ﬁndings in scien3ﬁc journals, organisa3on of scien3ﬁc conferences or involvement in scien3ﬁc reviews. – The construc3on of prototypes or pilot plants (subject to the reserva3ons noted in Sec3on 2.3.4).” (OECD 2002 p.48-‐49)
Background: Service innova3on research Shid to Service Economy transforming social structure aﬀects to research and development (R&D) organiza3on Macro level surveys on service innova3on do not capture R&D reality Service marke1ng & R&D management management (1980-‐) Focused Product based industry Service industry industry New Product New Service Development Research Development (NPD) (NSD) Innova3on Service professional Technology trajectory source trajectory Product and process Process and knowledge/ Outcomes innova3on organiza3onal innova3on 6
Service Innova3on Process Research Service innova3on process by companies and customers collabora3on Facili3es, Transforma3on, Usage (Moeller 2008) 7
Customer Focused Product Innova3on Research • R&D and marke3ng collabora3on – Eﬀect to func3on expansion of product, reduc3on of product development period Company R&D Marke3ng Customer Product Innova3on • User innova3on research (von Hippel 1994) – Informa3on s3ckiness based Company Products・toolkits R&D Customer User Innova3on 8
Service Research Model for Value co-‐crea3on R&D Value co-‐ crea3on Site Sphere Sphere Sphere New research New service theme system crea3on crea3on Value co-‐ crea3on R&D ac3vi3es Mutual Site knowledge understanding of R&D and site 9
Service Research Model for Value co-‐crea3on R&D Value co-‐ crea3on Site Sphere Sphere Sphere New research New service theme system crea3on crea3on Value co-‐ crea3on R&D ac3vi3es Mutual Site knowledge understanding of R&D and site Management System 10
Service Research Model for Value co-‐crea3on R&D Value co-‐ crea3on Site Sphere Sphere Sphere New research New service theme system crea3on crea3on Value co-‐ crea3on R&D ac3vi3es Mutual Site knowledge understanding of R&D and site 11
Service Research Model for Value co-‐crea3on R&D Value co-‐ crea3on Site Sphere Sphere Sphere New research New service theme system crea3on crea3on Value co-‐ crea3on R&D ac3vi3es Mutual Site knowledge understanding of R&D and site 12
Case study • On Demand Innova3on Service (IBM) • RISTEX (JST)
Examples of Service Science Research Themes Site knowledge Business strategy SCM Business modeling Research management Business evalua3on methods CRM Service value evalua3on methods Quality analysis Service system modeling Environment/traﬃc simula3on Service provider support Risk analysis Service quality Social modeling Problem determina3on Op3miza3on Brand analysis Behavior analysis CSAT analysis Psychology Voice Network analysis Text mining Sodware enquiring Simula3on Natural language processing System sodware R&D outputs Data science Informa3on technology Mathema3cal science New research theme
Ⅰ. Idenfying Ⅱ. Determining R&D focus social problems ture areas W speciﬁc ideas for Litera orks s , earch s, focus areas forum hops, iew s interv ops Collabora(on of social and natural sciences, h works Par(cipa(on of government, industry, academia and ci(zens Ageing popula1on Environment Safety and security risk management Industrial NPO Business compe11veness Ⅲ. Promong R&D Researcher Urban vs. rural areas Human capital R&D Focus Areas S&T governance, Labor S&T “seeds” ins1tu1onal constraints (from basic research) Solicita(on and selec(on of project proposals, regular mee(ngs, on-‐site visits, expanding networks… research interviews conference R&D projects workshops searches SOCIET Constantly Building research system with various fora/ symposia Y COLLABORATING S&T stakeholders, surveying & analyzing the condi(ons on the ground, hypothesis forma(on PDCA Proposing solu3ons Requests & Contribu1on to the cycle Experimenta3on general public/society in society inform a3o u3lizin n service/ R&D Focus Areas g netw orks eeds n NPO Adop1on Global warming & Requests environmental Business Government & degrada1on needs Diﬀusion Public safety and security Implementa1on of research output to society S&T in the humani1es Solu1ons and Founda1on research S&T’s impact on IT Ⅴ. Assisng the applicaon of program for Service “proto-‐types” to wider areas Science, Redesigning Communi1es for Aged Society Management and Implementa1on Support Program Engineering program
2010 RISTEX Organiza3on Director-General Evaluation Committee Advisory Council Special Advisor to the Director Redesigning Community-‐based Protec1ng Science Informa1on and Implementa1on Service Science, Solu1ons Ac1ons against Technology and technology Program Communi1es for Global Warming Children from and Founda1on Aged Society and Environmental Crime Humanity R&D Focus Area Integrated Research R&D Focus area Degrada1on R&D Focus Area R&D Focus program R&D Focus area Area Area Director Area Director Area Director Area Director Area Director ＰＯ ＰＯ R&D R&D Program R&D Program Program R&D Program R&D Program Community-‐based Science Governance Redesigning Ac1ons against Technology in Communi1es Global Warming Protec1ng and Humanity Ubiquitous Launched 2010 for Aged Society and Environmental aar Children from Launched 2007 Society Launched 2010 Launched 2010 Degrada1on Crime R&D Program Challenge in Launched 2010 Science and Identifying the Launched 2010 Launched 2007 Technology Vulnerabilities in Our Hidden Literacy in the Sophisticated 21st Information プログラム Science and 21世紀の Exploring Solutions Director, Department of Planning and Management Department of Management Fellows Planning and Promotion Group Administration and Support Group Investigation and coordination group
Specific and Latent Needs of Society Government & Public Policy Sustainability Research & Development Management Medical, Healthcare & Social welfare Services Transportation Learning & Education ManagementService Science, Solutions and Foundation Integrated Research Program Research Type A. Research on Soution-Development Research Type B. Research on Scientific Element of Service Science Fundamental Disciplines and Methodologies Natural Sciences Social SciencesComplexity simulation,Emergency Medicine, ManagementOperations Research, Pharmaceutical Engineering, Human Cognitive Science,Social Psychology,Sciences, Multiple Classification Analysis, Engineering, Quality Educational Psychology,Ethnography,etc. Engineering,etc. Environmental Economics, etc.
Research program inputs, ac3vi3es, outputs and outcomes Input Ac3vi3es Outputs Outcomes Resources • Community • Management crea3on • Establishment system (project • Research and growth of • Research area selec3on, system community and • Research crea3on monitoring, crea3on for research system area • Research impacts management, the research • Research • Social impacts promo3on) area fund • Community • Manageme crea3on among nt staﬀs R&D, site people • Projects: • Con3nuous and the other • Projects Research prac3cal use at stakeholders execu3on (plan, impacts a site do, see/report) • Projects: • Feedback to Social impacts research area Social impacts Evalua3on • Research area (maturity, social • Process (management system, • Impacts (research and social impacts, linkage, management staﬀs) projects) research system, community)
Project Management Ac3vi3es R&D Value co-‐ crea3on Site Sphere Sphere Sphere Research impact New research New service • Research plan theme system (total, yearly) crea3on • Research report crea3on (total, yearly) • Review mee3ng Value co-‐ crea3on R&D Mutual Site knowledge ac3vi3es understanding of R&D and site Project progress monitoring Value co-‐crea3on management • Dashboard • Research plan (total, yearly) • IP, Informa3on, Fund opera3on • Site visits (a few 3mes / year)
Findings from RISTEX programs • The research maturity, such as exis3ng academic socie3es, aﬀects research project selec3on as well as poroolio management. • When the research maturity is low, then a research program tends to focus on social issues. As the result, the research project poroolio is managed from problem-‐solving viewpoints. • Even though the research maturity is low, ac3vi3es to link research projects led by the management system has a good poten3al to inﬂuence posi3vely to create strategic research theme from the boqom-‐up research projects.
Academic Landscape of SSME (Service Science, Management and Engineering ) #8, IT & Web, 459papers, 2003.4#2, medical care, 1,681papers, 2002.7 #4, ecosystem, 914papers, 2004.1 #6, public service,#3, mental health care, 866papers, 2002.2 1,314papers, 2000.8 #7, public medical care, 632papers, 2001.8 #5, QOS, 906papers, 2002.7 #1, management, 1,818papers, 2003.0 Only clusters whose #papers ≧ 400 were named.12.3.28 Ref: Ichiro Sakata, Naoki Shibata, “A Network Analysis of Japanese Innovation Clusters” Copyright 2002-2009 Naoki Shibata All Rights Reserved. 24
SSME paper sub-‐cluster label analysis (early study) Industry & ecosystem: Healthcare services Financial services Ecosystem service Public services, SCM Environment Ecosystem Walter, mountain valua3on Web service Emergence of Ecosystem Process management Service Science resilience Ecosystem Human resource management management Opera3on management Service innova3on Knowledge management Service quality, TQM BPR Early study result – Confidential -
Technology Integrated / design methods Existing Value co- Project research creation completion themes Technology Site knowledge New service system extension New research theme New research issues Integrated / design methods Technology Existing Value co- Project research creation completion themes Technology Site knowledge New service system extension
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