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Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
Toward research on designing a service system
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Toward research on designing a service system

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ICServ 2013 Day2 Service innovation and design II session

ICServ 2013 Day2 Service innovation and design II session

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  • 1.   Toward  research  on  designing   a  service  system       Yuriko  Sawatani  @  Waseda  University,  Japan   ICServ  2013  
  • 2. Agenda •  •  •  •  IntroducDon  –  What  is  service  research?   Design  focus  and    innovaDon   Research  designing  a  service  system   Discussions   2013/10/19 Waseda  University 2
  • 3. Service  Research     FrascaD  Manual  version6 (OECD  2002) •  Research  and  experimental  development   (R&D)   –  Research  and  experimental  development  (R&D)   comprise  creaDve  work  undertaken  on  a   systemaDc  basis  in  order  to  increase  the  stock  of   knowledge,  including  knowledge  of  man,  culture   and  society,  and  the  use  of  this  stock  of   knowledge  to  devise  new  applicaDons.”  (OECD   2002  p.20)   2013/10/19 Waseda  University 3
  • 4.  social  sciences  and  humaniDes   •  For  the  social  sciences  and  humaniDes,  an  appreciable   element  of  novelty  or  a  resoluDon  of  scienDfic/ technological  uncertainty  is  again  a  useful  criterion  for   defining  the  boundary  between  R&D  and  related  (rouDne)   scienDfic  acDviDes.  This  element  may  be  related  to  the   conceptual,  methodological  or  empirical  part  of  the  project   concerned.  Related  acDviDes  of  a  rouDne  nature  can  only   be  included  in  R&D  if  they  are  undertaken  as  an  integral   part  of  a  specific  research  project  or  undertaken  for  the   benefit  of  a  specific  research  project.  Therefore,  projects  of   a  rouDne  nature,  in  which  social  scienDsts  bring  established   methodologies,  principles  and  models  of  the  social  sciences   to  bear  on  a  parDcular  problem,  cannot  be  classified  as   research.  (OECD  2002  p.48) 2013/10/19 Waseda  University 4
  • 5. Why  difficult  to  idenDfy  service  R&D •  Defining  the  boundaries  of  R&D  in  service  acDviDes  is  difficult,  for   two  main  reasons:     –  first,  it  is  difficult  to  idenDfy  projects  involving  R&D;  and,     –  second,  the  line  between  R&D  and  other  innovaDve  acDviDes  which   are  not  R&D  is  a  tenuous  one.    ….     •  IdenDfying  R&D  is  more  difficult  in  service  acDviDes  than  in   manufacturing  because  it  is  not  necessarily  “specialised”.  It  covers   several  areas:  technology-­‐related  R&D,  R&D  in  the  social  sciences   and  humaniDes,  including  R&D  relaDng  to  the  knowledge  of   behaviour  and  organisaDons.  ….   •  Also,  in  service  companies,  R&D  is  not  always  organised  as  formally   as  in  manufacturing  companies  (i.e.  with  a  dedicated  R&D   department,  researchers  or  research  engineers  idenDfied  as  such  in   the  establishment’s  personnel  list,  etc.).     2013/10/19 Waseda  University 5
  • 6. How  to  idenDfy  service  R&D •   “The  following  are  among  the  criteria  that  can   help  to  idenDfy  the  presence  of  R&D  in  service   acDviDes: –  Links  with  public  research  laboratories. –  The  involvement  of  staff  with  PhDs,  or  PhD  students. –  The  publicaDon  of  research  findings  in  scienDfic   journals,  organisaDon  of  scienDfic  conferences  or   involvement  in  scienDfic  reviews. –  The  construcDon  of  prototypes  or  pilot  plants  (subject   to  the  reservaDons  noted  in  SecDon  2.3.4).”  (OECD   2002  p.48-­‐49) 2013/10/19 Waseda  University 6
  • 7. Service  Science  in  Japan              2004/12     •  The  Third  Science  and  Technology  Basic  Plan              2006/3   •  Outline  of  the  Economic  Growth  Strategy  (METI)            2006/7      2007/6   •  “Innovate  America”  (Palmisano  Report)   –  “Services  science  can  begin  to  address  major  quesDons  at  the  heart  of  21st  century  innovaDon”   –  Need  to  address  emerging  &  interdisciplinary  field  of  research   –  InnovaDon  in  service  industry   •  Establishment  of  Service  ProducDvity  &  InnovaDon  for  Growth  (SPRING,  2007/5)   •  Establishment  of  Service  Engineering  Research  Center  (AIST,  2008/4)   •  InnovaDon  25   –  Service  InnovaDon                       •  Service  InnovaDon  Human  Resource  Development  PromoDon  Program  (MEXT)   •  Act  on  Enhancement  of  Research  and  Development  Capacity  (ArDcle  47)  2008   –  6  universiDes  (2007),  7  universiDes  (2008)   –  Research  focusing  on  applying  naDonal  sciences  to  social  science  and  management  engineering   •  •  •  •  Commission  on  PromoDon  of  Service  Science  and  Engineering  (MEXT)   Feasibility  Study  for  the  program  planning  (JST)           Service  Science,  SoluDons  and  FoundaDon  Integrated  Research  program The  New  Growth  Strategy  (Basic  Policies)  Toward  a  Radiant  Japan    2010/6    2008    2009    2010/4    
  • 8. Service  science 2011 2011 2010 2007 2004 2013/10/19 Waseda University 8
  • 9. Service system •  Service is the application of competences (knowledge and skills) by one entity for the benefit of another •  Service systems is value-creation configurations (an arrangement of resources connected to other systems by value propositions) •  Service science is the study of service systems and of the co-creation of value within complex constellations of integrated resources Ref: “On Value and Value co-creation: A service systems and service logic perspective” by S. Vargo, P. Maglio, M. Akaka 9 2013/10/19 Waseda  University
  • 10. Agenda •  •  •  •  IntroducDon   InnovaDon  and  Design  focus   Research  designing  a  service  system   Discussions   2013/10/19 Waseda  University 10
  • 11. Customer  Focused  Product  InnovaDon  Research •  R&D  and  markeDng  collaboraDon   –  Effect  to  funcDon  expansion  of  product,  reducDon  of   product  development  period   Company MarkeDng R&D Customer   Product  InnovaDon   •  User  innovaDon  research  (von  Hippel  1994)   –  InformaDon  sDckiness  based   Company R&D 2013/10/19 Products・toolkits Waseda  University Customer User  InnovaDon 11  
  • 12. Service  innovaDon  research —  Shio  to  Service  Economy   —  transforming  social  structure  affects  to  research  and  development   (R&D)  organizaDon   —  Macro  level  surveys  on  service  innovaDon  do  not  capture  R&D  reality   R&D  management   Service  marke1ng  &   management  (1980-­‐)   Focused   industry Product  based  industry   Service  industry   Research New  Product   Development  (NPD)   New  Service  Development   (NSD)   InnovaDon   source Technology  trajectory     Service  professional   trajectory Outcomes 2013/10/19 Product  and  process     Process  and  knowledge/ innovaDon University organizaDonal  innovaDon Waseda   12  
  • 13. Strategic  R&D  toward  innovaDon R&D based on Strategic R&D basic research for innovation funds   R&D in companies Business (IT development, construction) Scientific, Scientific, Value creation Technology, Mainly scientific Technology, Social, Economic Social, Economic Social, Economic Targeted system Open system Mainly closed system Open system Customer based closed system Period Long-term Long-term Short-term Based on contract R&D area Multi-disciplinary Mixed Mixed Mixed Objectives Integrate with Integrate with outer/given Setting internally outer/given objectives objectives Given by customers Public/private Public Public Private Private Uncertainty High High High Low
  • 14. Design 2013 2011 Design  acDviDes  since  1900     Emergence  of  InformaDon  technology   1876    Telephone   1914    IBM   1976    Apple     IntegraDon  of  Design  and  IT   1991    IDEO   1999     Human  interface  society   2005    Stanford  Univ.  d.school   2008     Keio  Univ.  SDM     Expanding  to  service,  service  system   2004    Service  Design  Network   2011     Service  system   2013/10/19 2005 2001 Waseda University 14
  • 15. Key  concepts  of  service  science   (Ref:  Spohrer  and  Maglio  2009) Ecology InteracDon   (Network) Elements Value  proposiDon   based  interacDons Stakeholders Metrics Governance   mechanism  based   interacDons Resources Access  rights Outcomes Win-­‐Win Win-­‐Lose Lose-­‐Win Lose-­‐Lose 2013/10/19 Waseda University 15
  • 16. InnovaDon  and  Design  focus 1950 1970 1980 1990 2000 Technology push model (Bush Chain-linked Mode 1 & Mode 2 Open Innovation model (1970(Gibbons, et al. (Chesbrough Technology 1945), Dosi   1982), Rothwell Kline and 1994), 2003), 1992,1994) Rosenberg Service innovation Service Science, Source of innovation 1986), (Sundbo 1994, Management, Market pull User Gate keeper Edvardssin and Engineering and model ( innovation Non-technology (Allen 1977) Olsson 1996, Design (2004-) Schmookler (market) von Hippel Gallouj 1998) 1966, Scherer (1988) 1982) Industrial products (William Morris, Bauhaus, Post modern, IDEO, d.school) Service products (Shostack 1984, Bitner 1992, Erlhoff, Merger, Manzini 1997), Interaction (Holmlid 2007)   Design focus PSS (Morelli 2002), Service system (The Science of Service Systems 2011)     2013/10/19 Waseda  University 16
  • 17. Agenda •  •  •  •  IntroducDon   InnovaDon  and  Design  focus   Research  designing  a  service  system   Discussions   2013/10/19 Waseda  University 17
  • 18. Service  system  viewpoints Complexities Systems Simple/closed Difficulties in synthesis Class 1 Complex/open Class 2 Jackson (System of Systems Methodologies (SOSM)) Class 3 Ueda, et al. Governance based Spohrer, et al. Coercive Jackson (System of Systems Methodologies (SOSM)) Interactions Interactions Value sharing condition Value proposition based Unitary Pluralist Scopes System layer Micro: People Meso: Organization acro: Social systems M S3FIRE Layer of design Components, Products (Traditional designing) Systems Community (Political and social aspects) Jones Ref:  Spohrer,  J.  C.,  Demirkan,  H.,  and  Krishna,  V.,  2011,  Service  and  Science,  In  H.  Demirkan,  J.C.  Spohrer  and  V.  Krishna,  Eds.  The  Science  of  Service  Systems,  Springer,  pp. 325-­‐358. Sawatani,  Y.,  Arai,  T.,  and  Murakami,  T.,  CreaDng  Knowledge  Structure  for  Service  Science,  2013,  PICMET Jackson,  Michael  C.,  2003,  Systems  Thinking:  CreaDve  Holism  for  Managers,  John  Wiley  &  Sons  Ltd.,  UK   2013/10/19 18 Ueda,  K.,  Takenaka,  T.,  Vancza,  J.,  and  Monostori,  L.,  2009,  Value  creaDon  aWaseda  University nd  decision-­‐making  in  sustainable  society,  CIRP  Annuals,  Manufacturing  Technology  58,  pp.681-­‐700       Jones,  C.,1992,  DESIGN  METHODS,  John  Wiley  &  Sons.  
  • 19. Service  system  viewpoints Complexities Systems Simple/closed Difficulties in synthesis Class 1 Complex/open Class 2 Jackson (System of Systems Methodologies (SOSM)) Class 3 Ueda, et al. Governance based Spohrer, et al. Coercive Jackson (System of Systems Methodologies (SOSM)) Interactions Interactions Value sharing condition Value proposition based Unitary Pluralist Scopes System layer Micro: People Meso: Organization acro: Social systems M S3FIRE Layer of design Components, Products (Traditional designing) Systems Community (Political and social aspects) Jones Ref:  Spohrer,  J.  C.,  Demirkan,  H.,  and  Krishna,  V.,  2011,  Service  and  Science,  In  H.  Demirkan,  J.C.  Spohrer  and  V.  Krishna,  Eds.  The  Science  of  Service  Systems,  Springer,  pp. 325-­‐358. Sawatani,  Y.,  Arai,  T.,  and  Murakami,  T.,  CreaDng  Knowledge  Structure  for  Service  Science,  2013,  PICMET Jackson,  Michael  C.,  2003,  Systems  Thinking:  CreaDve  Holism  for  Managers,  John  Wiley  &  Sons  Ltd.,  UK   2013/10/19 19 Ueda,  K.,  Takenaka,  T.,  Vancza,  J.,  and  Monostori,  L.,  2009,  Value  creaDon  aWaseda  University nd  decision-­‐making  in  sustainable  society,  CIRP  Annuals,  Manufacturing  Technology  58,  pp.681-­‐700       Jones,  C.,1992,  DESIGN  METHODS,  John  Wiley  &  Sons.  
  • 20. Expanded  research  areas     by  service  system  design   Systems with value sharing condition   Class 1 Micro: People   Meso: Scope Organization Class 2 Class 3 Service  products   CBM   SQALE Industrial   products     Macro: Social systems   2013/10/19 Waseda  University     20
  • 21. Component  Business  Modeling:  CBM   2013/10/19 Ref:  htp://capitalideas.wordpress.com/ibm-­‐cbm/ Waseda  University 21
  • 22. Services  Quality  Analysis  &  Learning  Engine 2013/10/19 Waseda  University Ref:  htp://www.research.ibm.com/trl/projects/sse/sqale/index_e.htm 22
  • 23. Expanded  research  areas     by  service  system  design   Systems with value sharing condition   Class 1 Micro: People   Meso: Scope Organization Class 2 Class 3 Service  products   CBM   ProducDvity   SQALE Industrial   tools products     Macro: Social systems   2013/10/19 Waseda  University     23
  • 24. ProducDvity  tools  and  Metrics Tools  cost  benefits   Analysis  model     based  on  use  cases   TranslaDon  assist  tool   benefits   Computed     metrics   PrimiDve   metrics   Hours   Improvement   Mix  rate   Of  staffing   2013/10/19 Time   Rate  of   FuncDon  usage   Volume   Measurement   method   Mix  rate   Of  staffing   Measurement   method   Frequency  of   funcDon-­‐usage   Q&A  support  benefits   QuesDonnaire   Transform.   Com.  Volume   Reviewing  Dme   CriDqued  sentences  #  etc.   Counts  of  funcDon-­‐usage   Staffing  level   QuesDonnaire  on  quality   TranslaDon  Dme   Translated  words  #  etc.   Counts  of  funcDon-­‐usage   Staffing  level   Measurement   method   Atributes   QuesDonnaire   Transform.   Product.   Improvement   Rate  of   FuncDon  usage   Document  reviewing  tool   benefits   Mix  rate   Of  staffing   Used  Dme   Translated  comm.  volume   Staffing  level   QuesDonnaire  on  usability   Measurement   method   Skill  level   Measurement   method   SubjecDve  quality   Waseda  University Ref:  htp://www.research.ibm.com/trl/projects/sse/sqale/index_e.htm 24
  • 25. Expanded  research  areas     by  service  system  design   Systems with value sharing condition   Class 1 Micro: People   Meso: Scope Organization Class 2 Class 3 Service  products   CBM   ProducDvity   InnovaDon   SQALE Industrial   tools Jam products     Macro: Social systems   2013/10/19 Waseda  University     25
  • 26. InnovaDon  Jam •  Real-­‐Dme  discussion   analysis   •  FacilitaDon  support 2013/10/19 Ref:  htp://www-­‐03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/innovaDonjam/   Waseda  University 26 “Looking  for  Great  Ideas:  Analyzing  the  InnovaDon  Jam”,  Mary  Helander,  Rick  Lawrence,  Yan  Liu,Claudia  Perlich,  Chandan  Reddy,   Saharon  Rosset,  IBM  T.J.  Watson  Research  Center  
  • 27. Expanded  research  areas     by  service  system  design   Systems with value sharing condition   Class 1 Micro: People   Meso: Scope Organization Class 2 Service  products   CBM   ProducDvity   InnovaDon   SQALE Industrial   tools Jam products     Macro: Social systems   2013/10/19 Class 3 Waseda  University   Value   Pricing   27
  • 28. Value  Pricing   Calculation Module Input Information Economic  condiDons   §  Value Modeling KPI  for  improvement  by  BPO   Predictable  factor   As-­‐Is   To-­‐Be   §  Monte Carlo-based method §  Stochastic prediction Output Information Metrics  DistribuDon   KPI   KPI   §  Risk Evaluation Level  of  Client’s  business  process   •  System theory approach for value-evaluation 2013/10/19 Price  Model   §  Share-rate Pricing §   comparing  the  value   of  project  with  that  of   the  client-­‐self  case   Waseda  University Client’s  &  Provider’s   Benefit   SimulaDon  using  What-­‐ if  analysis    to  esDmate   the  expected  net  profit   28
  • 29. Expanded  research  areas     by  service  system  design   Systems with value sharing condition   Class 1 Micro: People   Meso: Scope Organization Class 2 Service  products   CBM   ProducDvity   InnovaDon   SQALE Industrial   tools Jam products     Macro: Social systems   2013/10/19 Class 3 Waseda  University   Value   Pricing   29
  • 30. Agenda •  •  •  •  IntroducDon   InnovaDon  and  Design  focus   Research  designing  a  service  system   Discussions  –  through  case  study   2013/10/19 Waseda  University 30
  • 31. Service  system  layer   Macro layer Meso layer •  Organization strategy •  Collaborative behavior Micro layer 2013/10/19 •  Social system •  Policy making •  Person to person •  Operation Waseda University 31 Ref: http://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 32. Basic  service  system  model Context A.Service   Provider Service  interacDons B.Service   Receiver SP C.Service   Set Content  (People,  Technology,  Shared  informaDon)   Channel  (a  method  or  system  for  communicaDon  or  distribuDon) Ref:  Gadrey,  J.,  2002,  The  misuse  of  producDvity  concepts  in  services:  Lessons  from  a  comparison  between  France  and  the  United  States,  In  J.  Gadrey  and   F.  Gallouj,  Eds.  ProducDvity,  InnovaDon  and  Knowledge  in  Services:  New  Economic  and  Socio-­‐Economic  Approaches,  Edward  Elgar  Publisher,  pp.26-­‐53. Maglio,  Paul  P.,  Srinivasan,  S.,  Kreulen,  Jeffrey  T.,  and  Spohrer,  J.,  2006,  Service  systems,  service  scienDsts,  SSME,  and  innovaDon,  CommunicaDons  of  the   ACM,  Vol  49  Issue  7,  pp.  81-­‐85.     Arai,  T2013/10/19 Y.,  2004,  Proposal  of  Service  CAD  System  -­‐  A  Tool  for  Service  Engineering,  CIRP  Annals,  Vol.  53/1,  PP.397-­‐400. .,  Shimomura,   Waseda  University 32
  • 33.           Class  1     Function realization • robotics • Requirement eng • SW eng, Informatics • Robotics   Research  Areas        Class  2       Provider/Receiver interaction • consensus building • Interaction design Provider activities • Design • System eng • OR/IE • Quality management • Cost management Service  interacDons B.Service   Receiver SP C.Service   Set Content  (People,  Technology,  Shared  informaDon)   Channel  (a  method  or  system  for  communicaDon  or  distribuDon) Service provider environment • Human resource • Education • Building 2013/10/19   • IT infrastructure Organization science • Management science • System eng • Social science Waseda University    Class3   • Anthropology Service value Behavior •  • Value eng science • Knowledge eng Game theory •  • Macro/Micro economics Context A.Service   Provider   Receiver activities • Marketing • Behavior science • Kansei eng • Human modeling • Human management Environmental Service system factor management • Politics, Society, • Policy, Social Economy system • Culture, 33   • Platform Civilization Ref:  htp://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 34.   project 2011-B2 Service value, Value cocreation 2010-A2 2010-B2 2011-B1 Provider and Receiver interaction 2011-B3 2011-A1 2011-A2 Function realization toward value co-creation 2010-A1 2010-B1 2013/10/19 Service system layer Micro Meso Meso Meso Micro-Meso Micro-Meso Meso Micro Meso Micro Meso Meso Micro Meso Meso Meso Meso Meso Meso Meso-Macro Micro Meso Micro Meso Micro-Meso Micro Meso Micro Micro Micro Meso Meso Meso Micro Research area Service value Service value Service value Service system management Providers and Receivers interaction Service system management Providers and Receivers interaction Service value Service system management Service value Providers and Receivers interaction Service value Provider activities Providers and Receivers interaction Provider activities Service value Provider activities Service value Service value Service system management Function realization Service system management Function realization Service value Receiver activities Function realization Service system management Function realization Providers and Receivers interaction Service system management Service value Provider activities Receiver activities Receiver activities Waseda  University Industry Restaurant, Entertainment Public service Education, Retails Healthcare Public service Agriculture Public service Healthcare Travel 34 Ref:  htp://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 35. Service  system  layer   Macro layer •  Social system •  Policy making Meso layer •  Organization strategy •  Collaborative behavior Micro layer •  Person to person •  Operation Most of projects 2013/10/19 Waseda University 35 Ref: http://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 36.           Function realization • robotics • Requirement eng • SW eng, Informatics • Robotics Research  Areas   Provider/Receiver interaction • consensus building • Interaction design Project focus (multiple selection) • Anthropology Service value Behavior •  • Value eng science • Knowledge eng Game theory •  • Macro/Micro economics Context Provider activities • Design • System eng • OR/IE • Quality management • Cost management A.Service   Provider Service  interacDons B.Service   Receiver SP C.Service   Set Content  (People,  Technology,  Shared  informaDon)   Channel  (a  method  or  system  for  communicaDon  or  distribuDon) Service provider environment • Human resource • Education • Building 2013/10/19   • IT infrastructure Organization science • Management science • System eng • Social science Waseda University Receiver activities • Marketing • Behavior science • Kansei eng • Human modeling • Human management Environmental Service system factor management • Politics, Society, • Policy, Social Economy system • Culture, 36   • Platform Civilization Ref:  htp://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 37. Research  process   ■ Deductive approach Hypothesis, Theorem Concept model Mathematical model Survey design Experimentation, Design Technology development Verification, Analysis Concept model development Concept development Classification, Systemization Verification, Analysis, Adaptation Investigation Formalization Analysis, Classification Research review, Case study review Data collection ■ Inductive approach 2013/10/19 Waseda University 37 Ref: http://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 38. Research  process   ■ Deductive approach Hypothesis, Theorem Gamification, soft system method, business model canvas Concept model Mathematical model Survey Experimentation, design Design Technology development Verification,Verification, Analysis, Adaptation Analysis Concept development Concept model development Formalization Classification, Systemization Analysis, Classification Research review, Case study review Investigation Data collection ■ Inductive approach HCI(Human Computer Interface), CSCW (Computer-Supported Cooperative Work) Text mining, network analysis, field test, simulation 2013/10/19 Waseda University 38 Ref: http://ja.serviceology.org/events/index.html
  • 39. Discussions •  Possibility to facilitate service science knowledge infrastructure applying these common frameworks •  Answering a how question, research methods and approaches, is also required •  There are risks to reduce the research scopes by introducing these common frameworks •  Understand research methods and approaches discussion for Service science research as the next step 2013/10/19 Waseda University 39
  • 40. Thank  you!    

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