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Creating knowledge
 

Creating knowledge

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    Creating knowledge Creating knowledge Presentation Transcript

    • Creating Knowledge Structure for Service Science Yuriko Sawatani @ Waseda University, Japan PICMET 2013
    • Agenda • Introduction • Service R&D • Communication tools for Service Science • Applying communication tools to R&D projects • Survey and results • Discussions 2013/7/30 2
    • Service Science in Japan • “Innovate America” (Palmisano Report) 2004/12 – “Services science can begin to address major questions at the heart of 21st century innovation” • The Third Science and Technology Basic Plan 2006/3 – Need to address emerging & interdisciplinary field of research • Outline of the Economic Growth Strategy (METI) 2006/7 – Innovation in service industry • Establishment of Service Productivity & Innovation for Growth (SPRING, 2007/5) • Establishment of Service Engineering Research Center (AIST, 2008/4) • Innovation 25 2007/6 – Service Innovation • Service Innovation Human Resource Development Promotion Program (MEXT) – 6 universities (2007), 7 universities (2008) • Act on Enhancement of Research and Development Capacity (Article 47) 2008 – Research focusing on applying national sciences to social science and management engineering • Commission on Promotion of Service Science and Engineering (MEXT) 2008 • Feasibility Study for the program planning (JST) 2009 • Service Science, Solutions and Foundation Integrated Research program 2010/4 • The New Growth Strategy (Basic Policies) Toward a Radiant Japan 2010/6
    • Objectives of S3FIRE (Service Science, Solutions and Foundation Integrated Research program) 1. Create new SSME knowledge for performance/quality improvement and a new service model targeting on various service systems – Establish scientific foundation for SSME – Contribute to the society by utilizing and deploying research outcomes 1. Build community of researchers and practitioners in the field of SSME This is the first service science research program aiming the fusion of arts and sciences supported by the management team of the program. The program is facilitated by social technology funding agency. 2013/7/30 Japan Science and Technology/RISTEX 4
    • Research Type A. Research on Soution-Development Research Type B. Research on Scientific Element of Service Science S3FIRE Program Specific and Latent Needs of SocietyGovernment & Public Policy Medical, Healthcare & Social welfare Services Learning & Education Sustainability Transportation Management Research & Development Management Fundamental Disciplines and Methodologies Natural Sciences Social Sciences Complexity simulation,Emergency Medicine, Operations Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Multiple Classification Analysis, etc. Cognitive Science,Social Psychology, Educational Psychology,Ethnography, Environmental Economics, etc. Management Engineering, Human Engineering, Quality Engineering,etc.
    • Value co-creation management Research impact •Research plan (total, yearly) •Site visits (a few times / year) •Research plan (total, yearly) •Research report (total, yearly) •Review meeting Project progress monitoring •Dashboard •IP, Information, Fund operation New service system creation Value co- creation New research theme creation Site Sphere R&D activities Mutual understanding of R&D and site Site knowledge R&D Sphere Value co- creation Sphere Service systemsResearch elements Service Science Knowledge Industrial forumin & out reach Community Program Scientific Social Impacts Knowledge Economic Social Impacts Industrialization Project
    • Agenda • Introduction • Service R&D • Communication tools for Service Science • Applying communication tools to R&D projects • Survey and results • Discussions 2013/7/30 7
    • Service Research Frascati Manual version6 (OECD 2002) • Research and experimental development (R&D) – Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” (OECD 2002 p.20)
    • social sciences and humanities • For the social sciences and humanities, an appreciable element of novelty or a resolution of scientific/technological uncertainty is again a useful criterion for defining the boundary between R&D and related (routine) scientific activities. This element may be related to the conceptual, methodological or empirical part of the project concerned. Related activities of a routine nature can only be included in R&D if they are undertaken as an integral part of a specific research project or undertaken for the benefit of a specific research project. Therefore, projects of a routine nature, in which social scientists bring established methodologies, principles and models of the social sciences to bear on a particular problem, cannot be classified as research. (OECD 2002 p.48)
    • Why difficult to identify service R&D • Defining the boundaries of R&D in service activities is difficult, for two main reasons: – first, it is difficult to identify projects involving R&D; and, – second, the line between R&D and other innovative activities which are not R&D is a tenuous one. …. • Identifying R&D is more difficult in service activities than in manufacturing because it is not necessarily “specialised”. It covers several areas: technology-related R&D, R&D in the social sciences and humanities, including R&D relating to the knowledge of behaviour and organisations. …. • Also, in service companies, R&D is not always organised as formally as in manufacturing companies (i.e. with a dedicated R&D department, researchers or research engineers identified as such in the establishment’s personnel list, etc.).
    • How to identify service R&D • “The following are among the criteria that can help to identify the presence of R&D in service activities: – Links with public research laboratories. – The involvement of staff with PhDs, or PhD students. – The publication of research findings in scientific journals, organisation of scientific conferences or involvement in scientific reviews. – The construction of prototypes or pilot plants (subject to the reservations noted in Section 2.3.4).” (OECD 2002 p.48-49)
    • Service innovation research  Shift to Service Economy  transforming social structure affects to research and development (R&D) organization  Macro level surveys on service innovation do not capture R&D reality 12 R&D management Service marketing & management (1980-) Focused industry Product based industry Service industry Research New Product Development (NPD) New Service Development (NSD) Innovation source Technology trajectory Service professional trajectory Outcomes Product and process innovation Process and knowledge/organizational innovation
    • Customer Focused Product Innovation Research • R&D and marketing collaboration – Effect to function expansion of product, reduction of product development period • User innovation research (von Hippel 1994) – Information stickiness based 13 R&D Marketing Customer Product Innovation Company R&D Customer Company User Innovation Products・toolkits
    • Service Innovation Process Research 14  Service innovation process by companies and customers collaboration  Facilities, Transformation, Usage (Moeller 2008)
    • Service Research Model for Value co-creation 15 New service system creation Value co- creation New research theme creation Site Sphere R&D activities Mutual understanding of R&D and site Site knowledge R&D Sphere Value co- creation Sphere
    • Agenda • Introduction • Service R&D • Communication tools for Service Science • Applying communication tools to R&D projects • Survey and results • Discussions 2013/7/30 16
    • Service Science related disciplines Business & Organization People Information TechnologyBehavioral sciences and education, Game theory and mechanism design Cognitive science and psychology Complex adaptive systems theory Computer supported cooperative work Financial and value engineering Industrial engineering (IE) and systems Industrial and process automation Knowledge management Management of information systems Management of technology & innovation Marketing and customer knowledge Computer science and AI/web services Statistical control theory System design and software architecture Economics and law Engineering economics and management, Supply chain management Experience design, theatre and arts Human resourc e manage ment Political Science International Trade Mathematics and non-linear dynamics Operations management (OM) Operational research (OR) Organization theory and learning Project management Queuing theory Simulation, modeling visualization Sociology and anthropology Strategy and finance Systems dynamics theory and design Total quality management, lean, six sigma Software metrics and develop ment Ref: “Succeeding through service innovation” http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ssme/
    • SP A.Service Provider B.Service Receiver C.Service Set Service interactions Content (People, Technology, Shared information) Channel (a method or system for communication or distribution) Context Research Areas Receiver activities •Marketing •Behavior science •Kansei eng •Human modeling •Human management Service provider environment •Human resource •Education •Building •IT infrastructure Service value •Value eng •Knowledge eng •Macro/Micro economics Provider activities •Design •System eng •OR/IE •Quality management •Cost management Function realization •robotics •Requirement eng •SW eng, Informatics •Robotics Organization science •Management science •System eng •Social science Provider/Receiver interaction •consensus building •Interaction design •Anthropology •Behavior science •Game theory Service system management •Policy, Social system •Platform Environmental factor •Politics, Society, Economy •Culture, Civilizat ion
    • System layer X Context dependency Micro view Macro view System layer low (structural) Context dependency high (ecological) Behavior science Social study Law Economics Sustainability Complex system Service system management Product Design Robotics Function realization Service eng PSS OR/IE Provider activities Quality management Provider environment Kansei eng Human eng Psychology Receiver activities Human modeling Service marketing R-P Interaction Business process management Human network Service value Service management Consensus building Human management Value co-creation Business management Organization science Management science
    • Research Areas X SSME related discipline 20 Business & Organization People Information Technology Ref: “Succeeding through service innovation” http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ssme/ Value co-creation Service value Provider activities Organization science Service provider environment Receiver activities Function realization Service system management Provider/Receiver Interaction
    • Research Areas X SSME related discipline 21 Business & Organization People Information Technology Ref: “Succeeding through service innovation” http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ssme/ Value co-creation Service value Provider activities Organization science Service provider environment Receiver activities Function realization Service system management Provider/Receiver Interaction 2010-A2 2010-A1 2010-B1 2011-A2 2011-A1 2011-B1 2011-B3 2011-B2 2010-B2 2012-B1 2012-A2 2012-A3 2012-A4 2012-A1
    • Service system layer Macro layer Meso layer Micro layer • Social system • Policy making • Organization strategy • Collaborative behavior • Person to person • Operation 7/8/2013 Waseda University 22
    • Research process Concept model development Classification, Systemization Investigation Hypothesis, Theor em Experimentation, De sign Verification, Analy sis Mathematical model Analysis, Classification Research review, Case study review Concept development ■ Deductive approach ■ Inductive approach Data collection Concept model Technology development Survey design Verification, Analysis, Adaptation Formalization 7/8/2013 Waseda University 23
    • Agenda • Introduction • Service R&D • Communication tools for Service Science • Applying communication tools to R&D projects: Survey and results • Discussions 2013/7/30 24
    • project Service system layer Research area Industry Service value, Value co-creation 2011-B2 Micro Service value Restaurant, Entertainment Meso Service value Meso Service value Meso Service system management 2010-A2 Micro-Meso Providers and Receivers interaction Public service Micro-Meso Service system management 2010-B2 Meso Providers and Receivers interaction Education, RetailsMicro Service value Meso Service system management Provider and Receiver interaction 2011-B1 Micro Service value Healthcare Meso Providers and Receivers interaction 2011-B3 Meso Service value Public service Micro Provider activities Meso Providers and Receivers interaction Meso Provider activities Meso Service value Meso Provider activities Meso Service value Meso Service value Function realization toward value co-creation 2011-A1 Meso-Macro Service system management Agriculture Micro Function realization 2011-A2 Meso Service system management Public service Micro Function realization Meso Service value Micro-Meso Receiver activities 2010-A1 Micro Function realization Healthcare Meso Service system management 2010-B1 Micro Function realization Travel Micro Providers and Receivers interaction Micro Service system management Meso Service value Meso Provider activities Meso Receiver activities Micro Receiver activities
    • SP A.Service Provider B.Service Receiver C.Service Set Service interactions Content (People, Technology, Shared information) Channel (a method or system for communication or distribution) Context Research Areas Receiver activities •Marketing •Behavior science •Kansei eng •Human modeling •Human management Service provider environment •Human resource •Education •Building •IT infrastructure Service value •Value eng •Knowledge eng •Macro/Micro economics Provider activities •Design •System eng •OR/IE •Quality management •Cost management Function realization •robotics •Requirement eng •SW eng, Informatics •Robotics Organization science •Management science •System eng •Social science Provider/Receiver interaction •consensus building •Interaction design •Anthropology •Behavior science •Game theory Service system management •Policy, Social system •Platform Environmental factor •Politics, Society, Economy •Culture, Civilization Project focus (multiple selection)
    • Service system layer Macro layer Meso layer Micro layer • Social system • Policy making • Organization strategy • Collaborative behavior • Person to person • Operation 7/8/2013 Waseda University 27 Most of projects
    • Research process Mathematical model Analysis, Classification Research review, Case study review Concept development ■ Deductive approach ■ Inductive approach Data collection Concept model Technology development Survey design Verification, Analy sis, Adaptation Formalization 7/8/2013 Waseda University 28 HCI(Human Computer Interface), CSCW (Computer-Supported Cooperative Work) Text mining, network analysis, field test, simulation Gamification, soft system method, business model canvas
    • Survey Research session and Research areas Understanding research areas Understanding value co-creation session Service system model is useful for research discussion Understanding provider and receiver interaction session Understanding function realization session Communication tools Service system model is useful for research discussion Research area is useful for research discussion Research area is useful for understanding research issues Service system layer is useful for research discussion Service system layer is useful for understanding research issues Service system layer is useful for understanding social deployment issues For the future session setting For deeper research discussion, which clusters are useful? a. Industry b. Research approach c. Research methods d. Research area e. Research process For considering the research project deployment, which clusters are useful? a. Industry b. Research approach c. Research methods d. Research area e. Research process 7/8/2013 Waseda University 29
    • Results Research session and Research areas Mean SD Understanding research area clustering 3.55 0.93 Understanding value co-creation session 4.02 1.09 Service system model is useful for research discussion 3.88 1.27 Understanding provider and receiver interaction session 4.02 1.07 Understanding function realization session 4.30 0.78 Communication tools Mean SD Service system model is useful for research discussion 3.88 1.27 Research area is useful for research discussion 3.78 1.01 Research area is useful for understanding research issues 3.57 1.09 Service system layer is useful for research discussion 3.83 1.08 Service system layer is useful for understanding research issues 3.59 1.01 Service system layer is useful for understanding social issues 3.53 1.067/8/2013 Waseda University 30
    • Research session and Research areas • New introduced research areas are not easy • Function realization, focusing on engineering research approach is easier to recognize 7/8/2013 Waseda University 31 0 1 2 3 4 5 Understanding function realization… Understanding provider and receiver… Understanding value co-creation session Understanding research area clustering Mean
    • Communication tools • Service system layer: research discussions • Research area: research discussions 7/8/2013 Waseda University 32 3.35 3.4 3.45 3.5 3.55 3.6 3.65 3.7 3.75 3.8 3.85 Research area is useful for research discussion Research area is useful for understanding research issues Service system layer is useful for research discussion Service system layer is useful for understanding research issues Service system layer is useful for understanding social issues Mean
    • For the future session setting • Research methods: research depth • Research approach: research depth and deployment 7/8/2013 Waseda University 33 0 5 10 15 20 Industry Research approach Research methods Research area Research process Research depth Deployment into society
    • Discussions • Possibility to facilitate service science knowledge infrastructure applying these tools • Answering a how question, research methods and approaches, is also required • There are risks to reduce the research scopes by introducing these common frameworks • Understand research methods and approaches discussion for Service science research as the next step 7/8/2013 Waseda University 34
    • Thank you!