Case Study - China's One Child Policy
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Case Study - China's One Child Policy Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Case Study 3 – China’s One Child Policy
  • 2. Chinese Demographics  More people live in China than the combined population of:      Any population change in China has global impact:     1980s: About 14-17 million people were added each year 1990s: Average of 13 million people were added each year 2000s: 10 million people per year Towns and Cities    Europe North America South America Japan 400 million live in cites 30-35% of the population (58% in the US live in cities) rural (countryside) areas   950 million live in the countryside 64% of the population (42% in the US live outside of large cities)
  • 3. The Population of China 0-2050 AD 1600 1.6 Billion 2050 1.4 Billion 1400 2000 1995 1.2 Billion 1200 1 Billion 1000 1981 800 1970 800 million 600 million 600 1953 1949 400 million 1851 1911 18121887 400 200 million 200 0 2 105 0 755 500 1210 1083 1000 1381 1562 1650 1500 1753 2000
  • 4. Chinese Population, 1949-2000 (projections to 2050) 1500 1.5 billion 1300 1.3 billion 1.1 billion 1100 900 million 900 700 700 million 500 500 million 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 2025 2035 2045
  • 5. Population of Selected Chinese Provinces, 1998 France KEY United Kingdom Grey Bars- Foreign countries Red Bars- Chinese states Italy Egypt Hunan Hebei Iran Philippines Jiangsu Germany Shandong Henan Mexico Nigeria . Sichuan 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
  • 6. Chinese Demographics  1. 2. 3. 4. Problems with controlling population growth: The population grew very quickly after 1949. Population control was not seen as important as setting up a communist government. Mao Zedong saw population growth as a good way to fight the Soviet Union and the United States. The Communists called on women to “breed for the motherland”. One Child Policy propaganda poster
  • 7. Chinese Demographics  Population distribution  Excessive concentration in the eastern part of China     50% of the population lives on 8.2% of the land. Bulk of the population lives along the coast. East China accounts for 90% of the population. 56%, about 728 million, are living in mountainous areas. The majority of Chinese live in the area that is circled in the East.
  • 8. Chinese Demographics 1990 and 2000 Census 1990  Counted 1.134 billion Chinese in China.  Population was moving to the cities    The percentage of urban (city) population had increased from 20.6% in 1982 to 26.2% by 1990. An increase of 5.6% in just eight years. Why did so many people move to the cities?    Jobs Greater opportunity Government’s departure from socialist methods of production in the secondary sector.  Results of the 2000 census  Go to: http://www.google.com/p ublicdata?ds=wbwdi&met=sp_pop_totl&idi m=country:CHN&q=china +population+statistics
  • 9. Chinese Demographics  Current issues  Population growth hurts Chinese development in:     Acceleration of urbanization at the expense of farmland   Education Health Transportation loss of 10% of China’s farmland since 1978 About 10 million people reach the employment market each year.
  • 10. Acres of Farmland per Person 1.66 US 0.67 Nigeria 2.05 0.96 0.22 0.3 Indonesia India 0.42 0.59 0.35 0.37 Germany 0.82 0.79 Brazil 1994-1996 1979-1981 0.2 0.25 China 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
  • 11. Family Planning Prior to the One Child Policy  Early 1970s: “later-longer-fewer program”.  Age of marriage    Reasoning?       25 for men 23 for women Wait later to begin their families allow for longer spacing in between children have fewer children overall. Began to reduce fertility levels. Problem? Not fast enough to really slow down population growth due to the momentum that had already developed. End of 1970s: “One is best, at most two, never a third”   Government began to promote the two-child family throughout the country. Problem? Slogan Contributed to fertility decline but, again, not rapidly enough.
  • 12. One Child Policy  Launched in 1981 when the population reached 1 billion.       Initial goal: Stabilize China’s population at 1.2 billion. Revised goal: Keep China’s population under 1.4 billion until 2010. Population expected to stabilize around 1.6 billion by 2050. Under the responsibility of the State Family Planning Commission (SFPC). Great variations in performance between the country’s urban and rural areas. Easier to enforce in China because it was a totalitarian state  Would have been impossible in most other places. One Child Policy propaganda poster
  • 13. Family Planning  Regulations of the policy  Employers and neighborhood committees had to enforce guidelines.  1) Young people needed permission to get married:     2) The government monitored women’s menstrual cycles. 3) The use of birth control was required by the government:     25 years for male and 23 years for female. Students and apprentices are not allowed to marry until they finish their studies. UID used for women with already one child. Incentives for sterilization after the birth of the first child. Couples with two or more children had to have one partner sterilized (women 80% of the time). 4) All pregnancies must be authorized:   Unauthorized pregnancies had to be aborted. 7th, 8th or 9th month abortions are legal.
  • 14. Family Planning  Incentives offered to couples with only one child:    Monthly allowances paid to couples with only one child. Child entitled to free educational and medical services. Disincentives (penalties) used to discourage larger families:     Fine up to 15% of annual income. Couples forced to give up all privileges if a second child was born and had to repay any cash awards it had received. A third child denied free education, subsidized food, and housing privileges. A third child’s parents would be penalized with a 10% reduction in wages.
  • 15. Family Planning  Urban areas or cities     Small sized apartments. Improving one’s status and level of consumption. Easier control from the government. Rural areas or the countryside     Families want more children to work the family plots and support their parents when they get old. Want sons who will continue the family line and provide ritual sacrifices to their ancestors after they die. Daughters are leaving their family once they marry. Girls account for only 20 to 30% of a new demographic class in some areas.
  • 16. Percentage of Women Having More Than One Child, 1998  Xinjiang 21.55 The One Child Policy has:  26.58 Tibet Sichuan  4.19 12.32 Guangdong Fujian 3.68 Jiangsu  2.16 Shanghai 0 Beijing  0.19 National 5.1 0  10 20 30 Prevented about 300 million births since 1980. When the program began (1970), Crude Birth Rate was 34 and TFR was around 6. Been brought down to 10 (CBR) and 1.7 (TFR). About 40% of Chinese women have been sterilized. Only about 5% of women have more than one child.
  • 17. Chinese Fertility Rate, 1949-1998 (TFR means the # of Children Born per Woman) 7 40 TFR Natural Increase 6 4 3 2 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 -5 0 -10 19 49 19 52 19 55 19 58 19 61 19 64 19 67 19 70 19 73 19 76 19 79 19 82 19 85 19 88 19 91 19 94 19 97 TFR 5 35 Natural Increase 8
  • 18. Family Planning   Imbalanced sex ratio  Male children are more valued.  120 boys for 100 girls (national average).  Abandon or abortion of females.  “Missing female population” as girls are not declared.  2000: About 900,000 girls were missing (0 to 4 years group).  Only 1% of females are unmarried by the age of 30. Psychological consequences:  Currently around 70 million single child.  4-2-1 syndrome (4 grand parents – 2 parents – 1 child):    “Little emperors” or “little empresses”. Self-centrism. Pressure to succeed.
  • 19. Family Planning   A new family planning law started in 2002. Same goal than the One-child policy, but offer more flexibility:      One child, but permission may be granted for a second under specific circumstances. Late marriage and childbearing. More flexibility for provinces, autonomous regions and minorities. People in reproductive age have to use contraception (birth control). Provisions for sex-determination and sex-specific abortions.
  • 20. Population Planning in China  What would have happened if the One Child Policy was not applied?     Population by 2000 would have reached 1.6 billion (instead of 1.3). Annual increase would be 40 million (instead of 17-19). Require much higher level of economic development. The total population will continue to increase   Even if the natural growth rate can be lowered to 1% by 2005. Annual increase of population will still be more than 10 million.   This trend would continue to increase in the next 50 years. Even with effective family planning, China’s population will not stabilize until it reaches 1.5-1.6 billion by 2050.
  • 21. Population Planning in China  Improve the quality of the population    Education and health.  2.5 million students entered Universities in 2001. Tremendous incurred costs. Potential surplus labor in rural areas (countryside)    2 Causes?  development of the rural economy  higher rate of birth. Large numbers of surplus (extra) rural labor who will need to transfer from the agricultural to a non-agricultural field. Speed urbanization of the population and create bigger pressure on cities and towns.
  • 22. Population Planning in China  Aging of the population     Persons 65 years and older represent about 7 percent of the population. In the 21st century, China’s population will continue this aging trend. 65 years old or older numbering 250 million by the year 2040. Providing social security and services to a huge elderly population.