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  • What are the data points we want to highlight Build up – demographics, political, productivity, future resilience D – start with political (in the news – terrorism, instability) – what’s undelying this – productivity
  • What are the data points we want to highlight Build up – demographics, political, productivity, future resilience D – start with political (in the news – terrorism, instability) – what’s undelying this – productivity
  • Gliricidia is a a leguminous coppice tree interplanted with maize in this photo. The leaves are cut and turned over into the topmost soil layer, providing nitrogen and other nutrients to this season’s crop. The coppiced trees then grow back below the maturing maize.
  • With Faidherbia tree and no fertiliser, yields exceed the average yield observed in East Asia
  • High input carbon practices: Improved crop varieties, crop rotation, use cover crop, conservation agriculture, better use of manure Integrated nutrient management: reduction of leaching, improved N use, improved use of fertilizers Increase availability of water: water management, water harvesting Improved tillage: less soil disturbance, incorporating crop residues and soil organic matter Agroforestry: increase above ground biomass and fuel wood, reduce soil erosion, set-aside,
  • Food insecurity: For farmers, finding food for survival takes precedence over innovation & investment. Projects must focus on improving livelihoods & income so that there is incentive for smallholder farmers to invest in AF.   High opportunity costs: Investing in many AF practices requires up-front costs, but benefits are only realized in the long term. Pairing practices that deliver short-term benefits with AF can help farmers overcome opportunity costs and encourage investment in better management practices. Limited market access: Market access is a constraint that limits farmers’ ability to raise their income through income diversification opportunities provided by AF.   Access to farm implements and capital: Payments for carbon sequestration is one potential way to overcome investment gaps and facilitate innovation. Provision of farm implements can also provide short-term benefits. Access to knowledge and training: Dissemination among farmers has the potential to spread agricultural technologies, while educational farm visits can demonstrate the local benefits of agroforestry and increase uptake rates. Insecure land tenure: Farmers are generally less willing to invest in their land and improve productivity where land tenure is less secure; therefore improved tenure arrangements are needed. Farmer involvement: Farmer involvement in project planning is crucial to making development projects relevant to local communities and within the local context. Communication: Better communication is needed to convey important messages about carbon finance to community stakeholders and to engage farmers in carbon finance schemes. Communication strategies within carbon finance should incorporate the principle of Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC). Inclusion within REDD+: The potential exists for AF to find a place within REDD+ and other strategies – due to its capacity to prevent deforestation and reduce emissions from forest degradation. In order for AF to contribute to REDD+ goals, policies guaranteeing tree rights and ownership and an appropriate market infrastructure for AF would be necessary.  
  • Transcript

    • 1. Agroforestry:an essential resilience toolPatrick Worms, ICRAF
    • 2. 2• One of the 15 CGIAR research centres• employing about 500 scientists and other staff.• We generate knowledge about the diverse rolesthat trees play in agricultural landscapes• We use this research to advance policies andpractices that benefit the poor and theenvironment.Who are we?
    • 3. By 2050, we need to…•Produce 60% more food on ~ the same amount ofland•Make farms, fields and landscapes more resistantto extreme weather•Massively reduce GHG emissions from land use.3
    • 4. The context: population growth8
    • 5. World Bank World Development Indicators050010001500200025001960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005100gramsperHectareSub-Saharan AfricaSouth AsiaLatin AmericaEastAsiaThe context: fertiliser use by region
    • 6. World Bank World Development IndicatorsSouth Asia05001000150020002500300035004000450050001960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005KgperHectareSub-Saharan AfricaLatin AmericaEast AsiaCereal yields by region
    • 7. The result?A hellish spiral.
    • 8. Undernourishment...
    • 9. … brings instability...
    • 10. …low literacy...
    • 11. …especially among women...
    • 12. …thus huge population growth rates...
    • 13. … deep poverty ...
    • 14. … hence huge yield gaps…
    • 15. … and thus hunger.
    • 16. 7African factsPopulation growth rates, land degradation, hunger and literacyare dragging people into a hellish spiral• Population growth has rendered fallowing impossible in manycommunities• Land overuse is depleting soil organic matter, soil carbon and soilmicrobiology• Soil fertility is dropping by 10-15% a year (Bunch, 2011)• Poverty and logistics makes fertiliser unaffordable for most smallholders• Funding for fertiliser subsidies is scarce and fickleWhere will soil fertility, soil organic matter andextreme weather resilience come from ?
    • 17. Faidherbia Albida in teff crop system in EthiopiaFrom trees.
    • 18. Maize yields with and without fertiliser trees
    • 19. Agroforestry brings massive yieldincreases in trials…Maize yield, no fertiliser – tonnes per hectare2008 2009 2010Number of trials 15 40 40With fertiliser trees 4.1 5.1 5.6Without trees 1.3 2.6 2.6________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • 20. … and on farmer’s fields.maize yield (t/ha)Maize only 1.30Maize + fertilizer trees 3.05__________________________________________________________2011 Survey of farms in six Malawi districts (Mzimba, Lilongwe,Mulanje, Salima, Thyolo and Machinga)
    • 21. And in the Sahel?
    • 22. Then...Zinder, Niger, 1980s
    • 23. ... and now.Zinder, Niger, today.These 5 million hectares of new agroforestparklands are yielding500,000 tonnesmore than before.(Reij, 2012)
    • 24. 23Kantché district, Zinder, Niger350,000 people, rainfall ca. 350 mm / year, typical of Saheldrylands.Annual district-wide grain surplus:2007 21,230 tons drought year !2008 36,838 tons2009 28,122 tons2010 64,208 tons2011 13,818 tons drought year !.Yamba & Sambo, 2012
    • 25. 13Fertilizer trees can perform better thanNPK.Plot management SamplingFrequencyMean(Kg/Ha)StandarderrorMaize without fertiliser 36 1322 220.33Maize with fertiliser 213 1736 118.95Maize with fertiliser trees 72 3053 359.8Maize with fertiliser trees & fertiliser 135 3071 264.312009/2010 season; data from 6 Malawian districtsMwalwanda, A.B., O. Ajayi, F.K. Akinnifesi, T. Beedy, Sileshi G, and G. Chiundu2010
    • 26. And thus address the yield gaps
    • 27. Fertiliser trees are just one of many kinds ofagroforestry.
    • 28. By 2050, we need to…•Produce 60% more food on ~ the same amount ofland•Make farms, fields and landscapes more resistantto extreme weather•Massively reduce GHG emissions from land use.3√
    • 29. • Agroforests: combinations of perennial species on arableland• Home gardens with perennials• Woodlots or farm forests• Trees on field and farm boundaries• Sylvopastoral systems: Trees in pastures• EverGreen Agriculture: Trees intercropped with fieldcrops• Productive landscape systems
    • 30. 800 $ / Ha / yearHigh social costsHigh environmentalcosts3,000 $ / Ha / yearNo social costsLow environmentalcostsLeakey,2012
    • 31. NaturalForest4.1 billion haCropLand1.5 billion haPasture &Rangelands3.4 billion haWetlands1.3 billion haDeserts1.9 billion haGlobal Land Area
    • 32. • Food security: organic matter, nutrients, microclimate• Nutrition: fruits, fodder, multi-crop system support• Weather resilience: roots pump water, trees offer shade and windbreaks• Insurance: in hard times, farmers can sell timber• Income diversification: crops, fuel, fodder, timber, fruits• Health: medicinal barks and leaves, nutrition• Energy resources: fuelwood, charcoal• Higher biodiversity• Reduced deforestation• Soil restoration• Carbon sequestrationAdaptation through trees
    • 33. By 2050, we need to…•Produce 60% more food on ~ the same amount ofland•Make farms, fields and landscapes more resistantto extreme weather•Massively reduce GHG emissions from land use.3√√
    • 34. Mitigation through treesCarbon potential in various AF systemsMbow personal communication (2012)
    • 35. By 2050, we need to…•Produce 60% more food on ~ the same amount ofland•Make farms, fields and landscapes more resistantto extreme weather•Massively reduce GHG emissions from land use.3√√√
    • 36. 3Agroforestry is key toagroecological intensificationand thus toClimate Smart Agriculture.
    • 37. MicrodosingAdaptation of fertilizer recommendation to localconditions with strategic application of nurientsApplication of fertilizers in the seed holes atplanting timeSimple tools that boostagroforestry•Local fertilizer packaging andblending•Target input Vouchers•Legume-cereal rotation orintercrop•Participatory approaches
    • 38. MicrodoseControl
    • 39. Contour stone bundsContour stone bunds slow runoff, increasing infiltration andwater available to crops.
    • 40. Scaling up Evergreen AgricultureIntegrating Fertilizer and Fodder Trees into croplandsto restore and build more productive and drought resilientfarming and livestock systemsRainwater Harvesting with an accent on simple techniquesfor enhanced crop production, water recharge and waterretention integrated with agroforestry.Integrated Soil Fertility Management with fertilizermicrodosing with enhanced organic nutrient sources combinedwith agroforestry.
    • 41. Agroforests in the Sahel
    • 42. The overreaching goal:• Use agroforestry for mitigation andadaptation.– Improve productivity and soil properties to feed anincreasing population using climate smart agriculture– Buffer deforestation and improve GHGsequestration: AF is key to REDD+ and AFOLU– Combine AF options and land management to addressland-use sustainability
    • 43. Time(years)Research(building of knowledge)Old Impact Pathway ParadigmDevelopment(application of knowledge)
    • 44. Research(building of knowledge)Development(proof of application &application of knowledge)New Impact Pathway ParadigmTime(years)
    • 45. One final thought.
    • 46. Cropyield(tonnesperhectare)Filling the yield gapSimpleagroecologyAdvancedAgroecology &intrantsGMOs
    • 47. 15 years ago, this was barren land(yield: 0 kg/ha)Thank you !
    • 48. 53For more informationPatrick Worms, World Agroforestry CentreEmail:p.worms@cgiar.orgTel: +32 495 24 46 11www.worldagroforestrycentre.org