Lukashina for lse web based mov
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  • Since I do not have much time, I will concentrate on meme theory instead of emphasizing Internet as a factor or as a media or communication channel or whatever
  • I provide this squeeze to show you how much SMOs are contradicting and therefore fascinating.
  • The problem is that frames, created by different groups, can seriously contradict. Roughly speaking, ppl do not understand each other. Considering this, distributing “ working info ” activists must simultaneously try to create some commonly shared frame. They must explain ppl why ideas in their propagandistic texts is organized in one way and not in any other.
  • B   
  • On 1 st April ppl wanted to gather on Red Square, but access there was locked and ppl was said that it ’ s coz of some repair. Let me remind you that surface there is made of really old stones. I put the text only as an evidence, you do not need to read it, if you trust me. I extracted something looking like frame – a set of ideas with replicated logic.
  • Administrators of FB group are trying to say that the most important evil is that, first, the authorities lie to the nation and, second, that the mayority of population is indifferent to this situation. From administrators ’ point of view, these two facts must make intellectual elite (main core of protesters) feel angry. And anger is a kind of legitimate reason to go to streets.
  • Why I choose frame as a unit of analysis. Often this logic is deeply masked and hidden, administrators tell the same things in very different ways, often indirectly, using methophors, historical examples etc.
  • T o be applied to a number of cases
  • I will focus on coalition formation, since I see this as a current problem of Russian protest movement.

Lukashina for lse web based mov Lukashina for lse web based mov Presentation Transcript

  • web-based political movements: memetic transmission Yulia Lukashina, M.A. Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Science • Department of Communication Studies © Lukashina Media@LSE 5th PhD Symposium «Cosmopolitanism, New Media and Protests”. June, 15th 2012, London School of Economics.
  • Memetics: • Information = • Memes can be transmitted, adopted, replicated, stored • Interpretation of new information = replication of memes (Conte 2001) • Niche construction (Laland&Odling-Smee 2001): changing environment to make it providing more opportunities for memes to spread further meme 1 + meme 2 + meme 3 © Lukashina
  • New SMOs • Able to overcome long distances to catch you •  plurality of cultures in one group? • Interactivity of communicational channel: •  content (self-legitimation) created by both leaders and ordinary users? • BUT: active and biased information search   homogeneity of on-line communities © Lukashina
  • What makes the movement go on What partisans need to know (Gerhards 1995): + issue as a social problem + causes and causal agents + goal and chances of success + addresses of the claim + movement as a legitimate actor ______________________________ = frame © Lukashina
  • Memetics •Frame as a deep meme •Contribution to the efficiency of the host •Phenotype •Environment and niche construction (political opportunity structures) © Lukashina
  • How mobilization looks like •Distribution of information (Step A) •Adoption = prospective participants are starting to identify themselves with the group (B) •Protest activity in different forms (C)  A … A  B C A  B C  A A BC A Informational cascade © Lukashina
  • “That’s how “repair” on Red Square now looks like. Tell me, doesn’t it enrage you that they lie and all just do not care? You do not care? Come to the zero point”. (Bold is mine – Y.L.) If you don’t want to go to the meeting – don’t do it. If you don’t want a ribbon – don’t wear it. If don’t want to walk down the boulevards – don’t’ do it, nobody forces you to. But don’t pick to pieces those, who comes, wears, walks. ‘cause it turns out to sound unconvincing. From under the escapist and disdainful reasoning appears the mug of Philistine: “Ah are they not like all others? Don’t they have nothing to be done?” © Lukashina
  • The concept of lie Anger Actio n © Lukashina
  • The concept of lie in action “What Putin keeps secret, and about what cries the square”. “Vesti Ru reports that nobody came to support Pussy Riot. It’s lie. …” © Lukashina
  • Other memes poisoned with lie Abstract from Kunanbayev whose monument became a symbol and place of “camping strike”. Abstract tells about innocent people arrested for false information who have to beg other dishonorable persons to help with discharge”. “Let send it link to all friends. Let them new how this idiot look like”. Article by United Russia about obstacles and inconvenience that meetings create to other citizens of Moscow. Supposed to be intentionally falsified. © Lukashina
  • Failed niche construction? Russian Winter ’11- 12 + Dissentients ‘05-08 Railway wars ‘98 + Antimonetization ‘04-05 + Again car import tariff increase ‘08-10 Stuttgart-21 • The government lies to us • And? • We loose money • Government must solve this problem • We loose money • Government is inefficient © Lukashina
  • Operationalization and methods Variables (estimated for each time interval): - frame - X; - density of hyperlink structure - Y; - action potential (from event analysis) –Z. © Lukashina
  • Yt=AXt+EZt+BYt-1 Xt=CYt+FZt+DXt-1 Zt=GXt+HYt+IZt-1 © Lukashina
  • Aberle’s classification Amount of ppl involved Scope of change Stuttgart 21 Russian Protests © Lukashina
  • Web presence of movements Social networks communities communities Thematic web-sites © Lukashina
  • Diffusion in WWW (Chakrabarti et al. 1999) Hubs Authorities social networks “normal” sites © Lukashina
  • arise initial event coalesce burocratize decline/stabilize time Political movement cycle Issue transformation © Lukashina
  • References • Aberle, D. F. 1966. The Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Chicago: Aldine. • Castells, M. (1996). The Information Age: Economy, Soceity and Culture Volume I: The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. • Chakrabarti, S., Dom, B.E., Gibson, D., Kleinberg, J., Kumar, R., Raghavan, P., Rajagopalan, S.& Tomkins, A. 1999. “Mining the Link Structure of the World Wide Web”. Journal Computer 32(8): 60-67. • Conte, R. (2001). Memes through (social) minds. In: Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science. Ed. by R. Aunger. Oxford University Press. Pp. 83-120. • Gerhards, J. (1995). Framing dimensions and framing strategies: contrasting ideal- and real- time frame. Social Science Information, 34: 225-243. • Friedland, J, Rogerson, K. (2009). How Political and Social Movements Form on the Internet and How They Change Over Time. Literature Reviews prepared for the Internet Radicalization Workshop. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Institute for Homeland Security Solutions. Stable URL: • Laland, K., Odling-Smee, J. (2001). The Evolution of the Meme. In: Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science. Ed. by R. Aunger. Oxford University Press. Pp. 121-142. • MacDonald, K. (2002). ‘From Solidarity to Fluidarity: Social Movements beyond “Collective Identity” – The Case of Globalization Conflicts’. Social Movement Studies, 1(2): 109–28. • Tarrow, S. G. 2011. Power in Movement. Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Third Edition, Revised and Updated. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Thank you for your attention!