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PMBOK 5th Edition - Chapter 6 PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Summary

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  • Looks like the updates have been made to slide 13. This seems to stump alot of people, I wrote a quick article with a pretty detailed explanation. https://scopetraining.com.au/project-management/finish-start-relathionships/ hope it helps
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  • Slide 13 is WRONG - FS and SF are described identicaly:
    Finish to Start (FS) – successor activity cannot start until predecessor activity has finished. i.e. award ceremony (successor) cannot start until the race (predecessor) has finished
    Start to Finish (SF) – shift B worker (successor) cannot start until shift A worker (predecessor) finish
    In both cases it syas SUCCESSOR can not START... until PREDECESSOR - FINISH. That is FS, or NORMAL relationship. SF is diferent: START of A (predecessor) trigers the FINISH of B (successor), i.e. Start a new server - then only the OLD server can be swithched off... Another example: STOP (finish) preparations for the wedding once the guests (start) are comming...

    Moderator - PLEASE make this correction, it is a VERY important one...
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  • guys...

    thanks for the wonderful resources have shares with u
    i believe it will make a difference for me

    Francis(Msc.Civil engineering - Makerere university)
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  • 1. 1 PLAN SCHEDULE MGMT PMP – PMBOK 5TH EDITION COMPLETE TUTORIAL SERIES CHAPTER 6 THIRD KNOWLEDGE AREA: PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT 2 DEFINE ACTIVITIES 4 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES 3 SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES 5 ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS 6 CONTROL SCHEDULE
  • 2. CHAPTER 6 – PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT INCLUDES THE PROCESSES TO MANAGE THE TIMELY COMPLETION OF THE PROJECT, THEY ARE CONSIST OF: 1. PLAN SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT: 2. DEFINE ACTIVITIES 3. SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES 4. ESTIMATE ACTIVITIES RESOURCES 5. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS 6. DEVELOP SCHEDULE MNEMONIC: FOR THE FIRST 6: PLANT DE SEED – THESE ARE ALL PART OF PLANNING PROCESS GROUP 7. CONTROL SCHEDULE THIS IS THE ONLY ONE THAT IS PART OF THE MONITORING & CONTROLLING GROUP
  • 3. CHAPTER 6 – PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW DISTINGUISHING THE PROJECT SCHEDULE PRESENTATION (SCHEDULE) FROM THE SCHEDULE DATA & CALCULATION THAT PRODUCE THE PROJECT SCHEDULE • ON SMALLER PROJECTS, DEFINING ACTIVITIES, SEQUENCING ACTIVITIES, ESTIMATING ACTIVITIES RESOURCES, ESTIMATING ACTIVITY DURATIONS, AND DEVELOPING THE SCHEDULE ARE LINKED SO TIGHTLY THAT THEY ARE VIEWED AS A SINGLE PROCESS THAT IS PERFORMED BY A SINGE PERSON OVER A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME THEY ARE NONETHELESS, DISTINCT PROCESSES.
  • 4. (PLANNING PROCESS GROUP) 1. PLAN SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT Plan Schedule Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. Project Management Plan Project Charter Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) OUTPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. • • Expert Judgment Analytical Techniques Meeting 1. Schedule Management Plan Plan Schedule Management is the process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentations for planning, developing, managing, executing & controlling project schedule. It’s key benefit is it provides guidance & directions on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project
  • 5. 1. Org. Culture & Structure 2. Resource Availability & Skills 3. Scheduling Software 4. Commercially Available Info 5. Org. Work Authorization Systems 1 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONME NT FACTORS (EEF) 3 PROJECT MANAGEMEN T PLAN 2 ORGANIZATION AL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) Other Information 4 PROJECT CHARTER • • Monitoring & Reporting Tools • Historical Information • Schedule Control Tools Existing Formal/Informal Schedule Control Related to Policies, Procedures • Templates • Project Closure Guidelines • Change Control Procedures • Risk Control Procedures TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S 1. 2. 3. EXPERT JUDGMENT ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES MEETINGS OUTPUT OUTPU T SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PLAN SV = Schedule Variance SPI = Schedule Performance Index
  • 6. OUTPUT: SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PLAN PROJECT SCHEDULE MODEL DEVELOPMENT • Use scheduling methodology & tool to develop the project schedule model LEVEL OF ACCURACY • Use the acceptable range in determining realistic activity duration estimates & may include contingencies UNITS OF MEASURE • Time Measures such as Staff Hours, Days or Weeks; Quantity Measures like Meters, Liters or Cubic Yards ORGANIZATIONAL PROCEDURES LINKS • The WBS provides the framework for the schedule management plan for consistent schedule estimate & result PROJECT SCHEDULE MODEL MAINTENANCE • Update & record progress of the project in the schedule model during execution CONTROL THRESHOLD • Variance threshold for monitoring performance to agreed upon percentage of deviations RULES OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT • Earned Value Management (EVM) rules, Rules to establish % complete, use of Control Account, Use SV & SPI REPORTING FORMAT • Define the format & frequency for the various schedule reports PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS • Document description of each of the schedule management processes
  • 7. (PLANNING PROCESS GROUP) 2. DEFINE ACTIVITIES Define Activities Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. Schedule Management Plan Scope Baseline Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) OUTPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. • • Decomposition Rolling Wave Planning Expert Judgment 1. 2. 3. Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Define Activities is the process of identifying & documenting specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. It’s key benefit is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring & controlling the project work.
  • 8. 1 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONME NT FACTORS (EEF) 1. Org. Culture & Structure 2. Project Management Information System (PMIS) 3. Commercially Available Info 3 SCHEDULE MANAGEMEN T PLAN 2 ORGANIZATION AL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) • Lessons Learned • Standardized Process • Templates for Standard Activity List • Existing Formal/Informal Schedule Control Related to Policies, Procedures & Guidelines ACTIVITY LIST TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S 4 SCOPE BASELINE 1. 2. 3. DECOMPOSITION ROLLING WAVE PLANNING EXPERT JUDGMENT OUTPUT OUTPU T ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES MILESTONE LIST
  • 9. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. DECOMPOSITION A TECHNIQUE USE FOR DIVIDING & SUBDIVIDING PROJECT SCOPE & DELIVERABLES INTO SMALLER MORE MANAGEABLE PARTS. ACTIVITIES REPRESENTS THE EFFORT NEEDED TO COMPLETE A WORK PACKAGE. ACTIVITIES PROCESS DEFINES THE FINAL OUTPUT AS ACTIVITIES INSTEAD OF DELIVERABLES EACH WORK PACKAGE IN WBS IS DECOMPOSED INTO THE ACTIVITIES REQUIRED TO PRODUCE THE WORK PACKAGE DELIVERABLE 2. ROLLING WAVE PLANNING AN ITERATIVE PLANNING TECHNIQUE WHERE NEAR TERM WORK IS PLANNED IN DETAIL WHILE THE WORK IN THE FUTURE IS PLANNED AT HIGH LEVEL. IT’S A FORM OF PROGRESSIVE ELABORATION WHEREBY WORK CAN EXIST AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF DETAILS DEPENDING ON WHERE IT IS IN THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE 3. EXPERT JUDGMENT PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS OF OTHER EXPERTS WHO ARE EXPERIENCED & SKILLED IN DEVELOPING DETAILED PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENTS, WBS, AND PROJECT SCHEDULES CAN PROVIDE THE JUDGMENT
  • 10. OUTPUT: 2. DEFINE ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY LIST • COMPREHENSIVE LIST THAT INCLUDES ALL SCHEDULE ACTIVITIES REQUIRED. • IT ALSO INCLUDES THE ACTIVITY IDENTIFIER & SCOPE OF WORK DESCRIPTION FOR EACH ACTIVITY IN SUFFICIENT DETAIL • EACH ACTIVITY SHOULD HAVE UNIQUE TITLE THAT DESCRIBES ITS PLACE IN THE SCHEDULE EVEN IF IT’S DISPLAYED OUTSIDE THE CONTEXT OF PROJECT SCHEDULE ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES • ACTIVITY IS PERFORMED & MAY HAVE RESOURCES AND COST ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORK • ACTIVITIES ATTRIBUTES EXTEND THE ACTIVITY BY IDENTIFYING THE MULTIPLE COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH ACTIVITY – THEY INCLUDE ACTIVITY IDENTFIER (ID), WBS ID & ACTIVITY LABEL AND NAME. WHEN COMPLETED MAY INCLUDE ACTIVITY CODES, DESCRIPTION, PREDECESSOR/SUCCESSOR ACTIVITIES, LOGICAL RELATIONSHIP, DATE & CONSTRAINTS • USED FOR SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT & SORTING PLANNED SCHEDULE ACTIVITIES IN REPORTS MILESTONE LIST • A MILESTONE IS A SIGNIFICANT POINT OR EVENT IN A PROJECT • IT IDENTIFIES ALL PROJECT MILESTONES & INDICATES IF THE MILESTONE IS MANDATORY (REQUIRED BY CONTRACT), OR OPTIONAL (BASED UPON HISTORICAL INFORMATION) • IT IS SIMILAR TO REGULAR SCHEDULE ACTIVITIES (SAMA STRUCTURE & ATTRIBUTES) BUT HAVE ZERO DURATION BECAUSE IT REPRESENT A MOMENT IN TIME.
  • 11. (PLANNING PROCESS GROUP) 3. SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES Sequence Activities Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Schedule Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Project Scope Statement Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. OUTPUTS Precedence 1. Activity List Diagramming Method 2. Activity Attributes (PDM) 2. Dependency Determination 3. Leads & Lags • Sequence Activities is the process of identifying & documenting relationship among the project activities. • It’s key benefit is it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints
  • 12. 1. Government or Industry Standards 2. Project Management Information System (PMIS) 3. Scheduling Tool; and 4. Company Work Authorization Systems Any process that can influence the Sequence Activities Process such as Project Files from Corporate Knowledge Base used for scheduling methodology; existing formal / informal activity planning related policies, procedures & guidelines and template that can be used to expedite project activities. 6 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONME NT FACTORS (EEF) 2 ACTIVITY LIST 1 SCHEDULE MANAGEMEN T PLAN 7 ORGANIZATION AL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) 5 PROJECT SCOPE STATEMEN T 4 MILESTON E LIST TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S OUTPUT OUTPU T PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS 3 ACTIVITY ATTRIBUT ES 1. 2. 3. PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMING METHOD (PDM) DEPENDENCY DETERMINATION LEADS & LAGS
  • 13. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (1) 1. PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMING METHOD (PDM) A TECHNIQUE USED FOR CONSTRUCTING A SCHEDULE MODEL WHERE ACTIVITIES ARE REPRESENTED BY NODES & GRAPHICALLY LINKED BY ONE OR MORE LOGICAL RELATIOSHIP TO SHOW THE SEQUENCE. ACTIVITY ON NODE (AON) IS ONE METHOD OF REPRESENTING A PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF DEPENDENCIES OR LOGICAL RELATIONSHIP: • FINISH TO START (FS) – SUCCESSOR ACTIVITY CANNOT START UNTIL PREDECESSOR ACTIVITY HAS FINISHED. I.E. AWARD CEREMONY (SUCCESSOR) CANNOT START UNTIL THE RACE (PREDECESSOR) HAS FINISHED • FINISH TO FINISH (FF) – WRITING A DOCUMENT (PREDECESSOR) MUST FINISH BEFORE EDITING (SUCCESSOR) CAN • START TO START (SS) – LEVEL CONCRETE (SUCCESSOR) CANNOT BEGIN UNTIL POUR FOUNDATION BEGINS • START TO FINISH (SF) – SHIFT B WORKER (SUCCESSOR) CANNOT START UNTIL SHIFT A WORKER (PREDECESSOR) FINISH IN PDM FINISH TO START IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED TYPE PRECEDENCE RELATIONSHIP. START TO
  • 14. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES (2) 2. DEPENDENCY DETERMINATION DEPENDENCY HAS FOUR ATTRIBUTES, BUT TWO CAN BE APPLICABLE AT THE SAME TIME: MANDATORY EXTERNAL DEPENDENCIES, MANDATORY INTERNAL DEPENDENCIES, DISCRETIONARY EXTERNAL DEPENDENCIES, DISCRETIONARY INTERNAL DEPENDENCIES. • MANDATORY DEPENDENCIES – LEGALLY/CONTRACTUALLY REQUIRED OR INHERENT IN THE NATURE OF WORK I.E. CANNOT TEST THE PRODUCT UNTIL PROTOTYPE IS AVAILABLE • DISCRETIONARY DEPENDENCIES – A.K.A PREFERRED LOGIC OR SOFT LOGIC BASED ON ESTABLISHED BEST PRACTICES MUST BE FULLY DOCUMENTED BECAUSE IT CAN CREATE ARBITRARY TOTAL FLOAT VALUES & LIMIT LATER SCHEDULING • EXTERNAL DEPENDENCIES – RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROJECT ACTIVITIES & NON PROJECT ACTIVITIES – OUTSIDE OF PM’S CONTROL • INTERNAL DEPENDENCIES – PRECEDENCE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROJECT ACTIVITIES WITHIN CONTROL OF THE PM 3. LEADS & LAGS LEAD IS THE AMOUNT OF TIME WHEREBY A SUCCESSOR ACTIVITY CAN BE ADVANCED WITH RESPECT TO A PREDECESSOR ACTIVITY (LANDSCAPING CAN START BEFORE ROOF IS DONE) LAG IS WHEN A SUCCESSOR ACTIVITY WILL BE DELAYED WITH RESPECT TO A PREDECESSOR ACTIVITY (START TO START – TECHNICAL WRITING TEAM MAY
  • 15. OUTPUT: 3. SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES • A PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAM IS A GRAPHICAL RESPRESENTATION OF THE LOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS (DEPENDENCIES) AMONG PROJECT SCHEDULE ACTIVITIES • IT CAN MANUALLY PRODUCED OR USING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE. • IT CAN INCLUDE FULL PROJECT DETAIL O RHAVE ONE OR MORE SUMMARY ACTIVITIES • A SUMMARY NARRATIVE CAN ACCOMPANY THE DIAGRAM & DESCRIBE THE BASIC APPROACH USED TO SEQUENCE THE ACTIVITIES • ANY UNUSUAL ACTIVITY SEQUENCES WITHIN THE NETWORK MUST BE FULLY DESCRIBED WITHIN THE NARRATIVE • ACTIVITY LIST • ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES • MILESTONE LIST; AND • RISK REGISTER
  • 16. (PLANNING PROCESS GROUP) 4. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES Estimate Activity Resources Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Schedule Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Resource Calendars Risk Register Activity Cost Estimate Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) OUTPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • • Expert Judgment Alternative Analysis Published Estimating Data Bottom-Up Estimating Project Management Software 1. 2. 3. Activity Resource Requirements Resource Breakdown Structure Project Documents Updates Estimate Activity Resources is the process of estimating the type & quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies needed to perform each activity. It’s key benefit is it identifies the type, quantity, and characteristics of resources required to complete the activity which allows more accurate cost & duration estimates.
  • 17. A calendar that identifies the working days & shifts on which specific resource is available. The info is crucial to estimating resource utilization. They specify when & how long a resource will be available for the project 7 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONME NT FACTORS (EEF) 4 RESOURC E CALENDA RS Any process that can influence the Estimate Activities Resources such as : • Policies & procedures regarding staffing • Policies & procedures relating to rental & purchase of supplies & equipment, and • Historical info regarding types of resources used for similar projects ACTIVITY RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS 1 SCHEDULE MANAGEMEN T PLAN 8 ORGANIZATION AL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) 5 RISK REGISTER 2 ACTIVITY LIST TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S 1. 2. 3. OUTPUT 4. 5. OUTPU T RESOURCE BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE 3 ACTIVITY ATTRIBUT ES 6 ACTIVITY COST ESTIMATE S EXPERT JUDGMENT ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS PUBLISHED ESTIMATING DATA BOTTOM-UP ESTIMATING PROJECT MGMT SOFTWARE PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES
  • 18. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES 1. EXPERT JUDGMENT 2. ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS 3. PUBLISHED ESTIMATING DATA MANY ORGANIZATIONS ROUTINE PUBLISH UPDATED PRODUCTION RATES & UNIT COST OF RESOURCES FOR AN EXTENSIVE ARRAYS OF LABOR TRADES, MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT FOR DIFFERENT COUNTRY OR REGIONS 4. BOTTOM-UP ESTIMATING A METHOD OF ESTIMATING DURATION OR COST BY AGGREGATING THE ESTIMATE OF THE LOWER-LEVEL COMPONENTS OF THE WBS. WHEN AN ACTIVITY CANNOT BE ESTIMATED WITH CONFIDENCE, THE WORK WITHIN THE ACTIVITY IS DECOMPOSED INTO MORE DETAIL. ACTIVITIES MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE DEPENDENCIES BETWEEN THEM. IF THERE ARE DEPENDENCIES, THIS PATTERN OF RESOURCE USAGE IS REFLECTED & DOCUMENTED IN THE ESTIMATED REQUIREMENT OF THE ACTIVITY. 5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
  • 19. OUTPUT: 4. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES ACTIVITY RESOURCE REQUIREMEN TS • IDENTIFY THE TYPES & QUANTITIES OF RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR EACH ACTIVITY IN A WORK PACKAGE AND EACH WORK PERIOD • THESE REQUIREMENT CAN THEN BE AGGREGRATED TO DETERMINE THE ESTIMATED RESOURCES FOR EACH WORK PACKAGE & PERIOD. • THE RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTATION FOR EACH ACTIVITY CAN INCLUDE THE BASIS OF ESTIMATE FOR EACH RESOURCE AS WELL AS ASSUMPTIONS OF THE AVAILABILITY & QUANTITIES RESOURCE BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE • A HIERARCHICAL REPRESENTION OF RESOURCES BY CATEGORY & TYPE, SUCH AS: LABOR, MATERIAL, EQUIPMENT & SUPPLIES. • RESOURCE TYPE MAY INCLUDE THE SKILL LEVEL, GRADE LEVEL, OR OTHER INFO APPROPRIATE TO THE PROJECT. • USEFUL FOR ORGANIZING & REPORTING PROJECT SCHEDULE DATA WITH RESOURCE UTILIZATION INFORMATION PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES • ACTIVITY LIST • ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES • RESOURCE CALENDARS
  • 20. (PLANNING PROCESS GROUP) 5. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATION Estimate Activity Duration Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS Schedule Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Activity Resource Requirement 5. Resource Calendars 6. Project Scope Statement 7. Risk Register 8. Resource Breakdown Structure 9. Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) 10. Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) OUTPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. • • Expert Judgment Analogous Estimating Parametric Estimating Three-point Estimating Group Decision Making Techniques Reserve Analysis 1. 2. Activity Duration Estimate Project Documents Updates Estimate Activity Duration is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources It’s key benefit is it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete (which is a major input into the Develop Schedule process.
  • 21. Assumptions: • Existing Conditions • Availability of Information; and • Length of reporting periods Constraints: • Available skilled resources • Contract terms & requirements 9 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONME NT FACTORS (EEF) 6 PROJECT SCOPE STATEMEN T 1 SCHEDULE MANAGEMEN T PLAN 10 ORGANIZATION AL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) • Historical duration information • Project Calendars • Scheduling Methodology, and • Lessons learned 7 RISK REGISTER 2 ACTIVITY LIST TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. OUTPUT OUTPU T ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATES 6. PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES 3 ACTIVITY ATTRIBUT ES 4 ACTIVITY RESOURC E RQRMENT S 5 RESOURC E CALENDA RS 8 RESOURCE BREAKDWN STRUCTUR E EXPERT JUDGMENT ANALOGOUS ESTIMATING PARAMETRIC ESTIMATING THREE-POINT ESTIMATING GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES RESERVE ANALYSIS
  • 22. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS 1. EXPERT JUDGMENT 2. ANALOGOUS ESTIMATING A TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATING THE DURATION OF COST USING HISTORICAL DATA FROM A SIMILAR ACTIVITY/PROJECT. IT USES PARAMETER FROM PREVIOUS SIMILAR PROJECT SUCH AS DURATION, BUDGET, SIZE, WEIGHT, & COMPLEXITY. IT IS A GROSS VALUE ESTIMATING APPROACH (SOMETIMES ADJUSTED FOR KNOWN DIFFERENCES IN COMPLEXITY), IT IS FREQUENTLY USED TO ESTIMATING PROJECT DURATION WHERE THERE IS A LIMITED DETAILED INFO ON THE PROJECT. IT IS GENERALLY COST LESS & LESS TIME CONSUMING BUT ALSO LESS ACCURATE 3. PARAMETRIC ESTIMATING AN ALGORITHM IS USED TO CALCULATE COST OR DURATION BASED ON HISTORICAL DATA & PROJECT PARAMETERS. IT USES STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HISTORICAL DATA & OTHER VARIABLES. ACTIVITY DURATION CAN BE QUANTITATIVELY DETERMINED BY MULTIPLYING THE QUANTITY OF WORK TO BE PERFORMED BY LABOR HOURS PER UNIT OF WORK. IT HAS HIGHER LEVEL OF ACCURACY DEPENDING ON THE SOPHISTICATION & UNDERLYING DATA BUILT INTO THE MODEL. IT CAN BE APPLIED TO A TOTAL PROJECT OR TO A SEGMENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER ESTIMATING
  • 23. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS 3. THREE-POINT ESTIMATING THE ACCURACY OF SINGLE POINT ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATE CAN BE IMPROVED BY CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY & RISK. THIS CONCEPT ORIGINATES FROM PROGRAM EVALUATION & REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT). • MOST LIKELY(TM) – MOST REALISTIC GIVEN THE DURATION, AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES, DEPENDENCIES & INTERRUPTIONS • OPTIMISTIC (TO) – BASED ON BEST CASE SCENARIO • PESSIMISTIC (TP) – BASED ON WORST CASE SCENARIO • TRIANGULAR DISTRIBUTION FORMULA: TE = (TO + TM + TP) /3 • BETA DISTRIBUTION FORMULA: TE = (TO + 4TM + TP) /6 4. GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES 5. RESERVE ANALYSIS DURATION ESTIMATES MAY INCLUDE CONTINGENCY RESERVES CALLED TIME RESERVES OF BUFFERS. THEY ARE THE ESTIMATED DURATION WITHIN SCHEDULE BASELINE THAT ARE ALLOCATED FOR THE IDENTIFIED RISKS THAT ARE ACCEPTED. CONTINGENCY RESERVES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH “KNOWN-UNKNOWNS” WHICH MAY BE ESTIMATED TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS UNKNOWN AMOUNT OF REWORK. IT MAY BE A PERCENTAGE OF THE ESTIMATED ACTIVITY DURATION OR FIXED & MAY BE DEVELOPED USING MONTE-CARLO SIMULATION QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
  • 24. OUTPUT: 5. ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATION ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATES PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES • QUANTITATIVE ASSESTMENTS OF THE LIKELY NUMBER OF TIME PERIODS THAT ARE REQUIRED TO COMPLETE AN ACTIVITY. IT DOESN’T INCLUDE ANY LAGS. • MAY INCLUDE SOME INDICATION OF THE RANGE OF POSSIBLE RESULT SUCH AS: 2 WEEKS +/- 2 DAYS = WILL TAKE AT LEAST 8 WORK DAYS & NO MORE THAN 12; AND 15% PROBABILITY OF EXCEEDING THREE WEEKS, WHICH INDICATES A HIGH PROBABILITY - 85% - THAT THE ACTIVITY WILL TAKE THREE WEEKS OR LESS • ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTES • ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN DEVELOPING THE ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATE SUCH AS SKILL LEVELS & AVAILABILITY, AS WELL AS A BASIS OF ESTIMATES FOR DURATIONS
  • 25. (PLANNING PROCESS GROUP) 6. DEVELOP SCHEDULE Estimate Activity Duration Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Schedule Management Plan Activity List Activity Attributes Project Schedule Ntwk Diagram Activity Resource Requirement Resource Calendars Activity Duration Estimates Project Scope Statement Risk Register Project Staff Assignments Resource Breakdown Structure Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) Organizational Process OUTPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. • • Schedule Ntwk Analysis Critical Path Method Critical Chain Method Resource Optimization Techniques Modeling Techniques Leads & Lags Schedule Compression Scheduling Tool 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Schedule Baseline Project Schedule Schedule Data Project Calendars Project Mgmt Plan Updates Project Documents Updates Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements & schedule constraints to create the project schedule model. It’s key benefit is that by entering schedule activities durations, resource availabilities, and logical relationship into scheduling tool, it generates a schedule model date of completions.
  • 26. 4 PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAM 7 ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATE 1. 8 PROJECT SCOPE STATEMEN T SCHEDULE NETWORK ANALYSIS 2. CRITICAL PATH METHOD 3. CRITICAL CHAIN METHOD 4. RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE 5. MODELING TECHNIQUE 6. LEADS & LAGS 7. SCHEDULE COMPRESSION 8. SCHEDULING TOOL SCHEDULE BASELINE 12 ENTERPRISE ENVIRONME NT FACTORS (EEF) 10 PROJECT STAFF ASSIGNMEN T PROJECT SCHEDULE 1 SCHEDULE MANAGEMEN T PLAN 13 13 ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION AL AL PROCESS PROCESS ASSETS ASSETS (OPA) (OPA) 9 RISK REGISTER 2 ACTIVITY LIST 3 ACTIVITY ATTRIBUT ES 5 ACTIVITY RESOURC E RQRMENT S 6 RESOURC E CALENDA RS 11 RESOURCE BREAKDWN STRUCTUR E TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S OUTPUT OUTPU T SCHEDULE DATA PROJECT CALENDAR PROJECT MGMT PLAN UPDATES PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES
  • 27. 6. DEVELOP SCHEDULE DEVELOPING AN ACCEPTABLE PROJECT SCHEDULE IS AN ITERATIVE PROCESS THAT REQUIRES REVIEW & REVISION OD DURATION ESTIMATE TO CREATE THE PROJECT SCHEDULE MODEL TO ESTABLISH AN APPROVED SCHEDULE THAT SERVES AS A BASELINE TO TRACK THE PROGRESS. ONCE THE ACTIVITY START & FINISH DATE HAVE BEEN DETERMINED, IT’S COMMON TO ASSIGN PROJECT STAFFS TO THE ACTIVITIES & CONFIRM NO CONFLICT WITH THE RESOURCE CALENDARS.
  • 28. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – DEVELOP SCHEDULE 1. SCHEDULE NETWORK ANALYSIS A TECHNIQUE THAT EMPLOYES VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES SUCH AS CRITICAL PATH METHOD, CRITICAL CHAIN METHOD, WHAT IF ANALYSIS & RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES TO GENERATES THE PROJECT SCHEDULE 2. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) • A METHOD TO ESTIMATE THE MINIMUM PROJECT DURATION & DETERMINE SCHEDULING FLEXIBILITY ON THE LOGICAL NETWORK PATHS WITHIN THE SCHEDULE MODEL. • IT CALCULATES EARLY START, EARLY FINISH, LATE START, & LATE FINISH DATES FOR ALL ACTIVITIES WITH NO REGARDS TO RESOURCE LIMITATIONS BY PERFORMING A FORWARD & BACKWARD PASS ANALYSIS. • A CRITICAL PATH IS THE SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES THAT REPRESENTS THE LONGEST PATH THROUGH A PROJECT, WHICH DETERMINES THE SHORTEST POSSIBLE PROJECT DURATION. • THE RESULTING EARLY & LATE START & FINISH DATES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE PROJECT SCHEDULE, RATHER THEY INDICATE THE PERIODS WITHIN WHICH THE ACTIVITY COULD BE EXECUTED. • IT IS USED TO CALCULATETHE AMOUNT OF SCHEDULING FLEXIBILITY ON THE LOGICAL NETWORK PATHS WITHIN THE SCHEDULE MODEL TOTAL FLOAT IS THE AMOUNT OF TIME AN ACTIVITY CAN SLIP BEFORE IT STARTS TO CAUSE DELAY TO THE PROJECT . • ANY ACTIVITY OF A CRITICAL PATH IS CALLED CRITICAL PATH ACTIVITY. • CRITICAL PATH MAY HAVE POSITIVE, ZERO OR NEGATIVE TOTAL FLOAT DEPENDING ON CONSTRAINTS APPLIED
  • 29. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – DEVELOP SCHEDULE 3. CRITICAL CHAIN METHOD (CCM) • IS A SCHEDULE METHOD THAT ALLOWS FOR BUFFERS ON ANY PROJECT SCHEDULE PATH TO ACCOUNT FOR LIMITED RESOURCE & PROJECT UNCERTAINTIES. • IT’S DEVELOPED FROM CPM WITH ADDITION OF THE EFFECT OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION, RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION, RESOURCE LEVELING & ACTIVITY DURATION UNCERTAINTY BY INTRODUCING THE CONCEPT OF BUFFERS & BUFFER MANAGEMENT. • THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED CIRITICAL PATH METHOD IS THE CRITICAL CHAIN METHOD 4. RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE • RESOURCE LEVELING: A TECHNIQUE IN WHICH START & FINISH DATES ARE ADJUSTED BASED ON RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS WITH THE GOAL OF BALANCING DEMAND FOR RESOURCE WITH THE AVAILABLE SUPPLY. IT IS USED WHEN SHARED RESOURCES ARE ONLY AVAILABLE AT CERTAIN TIMES AND LIMITED • RESOURCE SMOOTHING: A TECHNIQUE THAT ADJUST THE ACTIVITIES AS LONG AS THEY DON’T EXCEED CERTAIN PREDEFINED LIMIT. ACTIVITIES MAY ONLY BE DELAYED WITHIN THEIR FREE & TOTAL FLOAT THIS THIS TECHNIQUE DOESN’T OPTIMIZE ALL RESOURCES. 5. MODELING TECHNIQUE • WHAT IF SCENARIO ANALYSIS: WHAT IF THE SITUATION REPRESENTED BY SCENARIO “X” HAPPENS? THE OUTCOME CAN BE USED TO ASSES THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT & PREPARING CONTINGENCY & RESPONSE PLAN • SIMULATION: CALCULATING MULTIPLE PROJECTS DURATIONS WITH DIFFERENT SETS OF ACTIVITY ASSUMPTIONS FROM THREE-POINT ESTIMATING. THE MOST COMMON MODELING TECHNIQUE IS MONTE CARLO ANALYSIS
  • 30. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – DEVELOP SCHEDULE 6. LEADS & LAGS 7. SCHEDULE COMPRESSION IS A TECHNIQUE USED TO SHORTEN THE SCHEDULE DURATION WITHOUT REDUCING THE PROJECT SCOPE IN ORDER TO MEET SCHEDULE CONSTRAINTS. THEY ARE: • CRASHING: USED TO SHORTEN THE SCHEDULE DURATION FOR THE LEAST INCREMENTAL COST BY ADDING RESOURCES BY APPROVING OVERTIME, EXPEDITED SHIPPING OR BRINGING IN ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. CRASHING WORKS ONLY ON THE CRITICAL PATH WHERE ADDITIONAL RESOURCES WILL SHORTEN ACTIVITY DURATION. IT MAY NOT BE ALWAYS VIABLE BECAUSE IT INCREASES RISKS & COSTS. • FAST TRACKING: A SCHEDULE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE IN WHICH ACTIVITIES OR PHASES NORMALLY DONE IS SEQUENCE ARE PERFORMED IN PARALLEL FOR AT LEAST A PORTION OF THEIR DURATION. FAST TRACKING MAY RESULT ON REWORK & INCREASED RISK & ONLY WORK ON ACTIVITIES THAT CAN BE OVERLAPPED FOR EXAMPLE: CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION BEFORE COMPLETION OF ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING 8. SCHEDULING TOOL • AUTOMATED SCHEDULING TOOL CONTAIN THE SCHEDULE MODEL & EXPEDITE THE SCHEDULE BY GENERATING START & FINISH DATES BASED ON THE INPUTS OF ACTIVITIES, NETWORK DIAGRAMS, RESOURCES & ACTIVITIES DURATIONS USING SCHEDULE NETWORK ANALYSIS. THIS CAN BE DONE MANUALLY OR USING A PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
  • 31. SCHEDULE BASELINE 1. PROJECT SCHEDULE SCHEDULE DATA PROJECT CALENDARS PROJECT MGMT PLAN UPDATES PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES SCHEDULE BASELINE AN APPROVED VERSION OF A SCHEDULE MODEL THAT CAN ONLY BE CHANGED VIA FORMAL CHANGE CONTROL PROCEDURES 2. PROJECT SCHEDULE OFTEN PRESENTED GRAPHICALLY SUCH AS: • • MILESTONE CHARTS: SIMILAR TO BAR CHART BUT ONLY IDENTIFY START OR COMPLETION (NO ACTIVITY) • 3. BAR CHARTS: A.K.A. GANTT CHART WHERE ACTIVITIES ON VERTICAL & DATES ARE ON HORIZONTAL AXIS FROM START TO FINISH HAMMOCK ACTIVITY = BROADER & MORE COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY ACTIVITY PROJECT SCHEDULE NETWORK DIAGRAMS: A.K.A. PURE LOGIC DIAGRAM WHERE ACTIVITY ON NODE DIAGRAM FORMAT SHOWING ACTIVITIES & RELATIONSHIP WITHOUT A TIME SCALE SCHEDULE DATA A COLLECTION OF INFO FOR DESCRIBING & CONTROLLING THE SCHEDULE THAT INCLUDES SCHEDULE MILESTONE, ACTIVITIES, ATTRIBUTES & DOCUMENTATION OF ALL IDENTIFIED ASSUMPTIONS & CONSTRAINTS 4. PROJECT CALENDARS 5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES 6. PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES
  • 32. (MONITORING & CONTROLLING PROCESS GROUP) 7. CONTROL SCHEDULE Control Schedule Inputs, Tools & Techniques, & Outputs INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. • • Schedule Management Plan Project Schedule Work Performance Data Project Calendars Schedule Data Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) OUTPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Performance Reviews Project Mgmt Software Resource Optimization Techniques Modeling Techniques Leads & Lags Schedule Compression Scheduling Tool 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Work Performance Info Schedule Forecast Change Requests Project Management Plan Updates Project Documents Updates OPAs Updates Control Schedule is the process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress & manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan. It’s key benefit is it provides the means to recognize deviation from the plan and take corrective actions & thus minimize risk.
  • 33. • • Existing formal & informal schedule control related policies • Schedule Control Tools Monitoring & Reporting methods to use 6 ORGANIZATION AL PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) 1 PROJECT MANAGEMEN T PLAN 5 SCHEDU LE DATA PERFORMANCE REVIEWS 2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE 3. RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES 4. MODELING TECHNIQUES 5. LEADS & LAGS 6. SCHEDULE COMPRESSION 7. SCHEDULING TOOL 3 WORK PERFORMANCE DATA 2 PROJECT SCHEDUL E 4 PROJECT CALENDAR S 1. WORK PERFORMANC E INFORMATION SCHEDULE FORECASTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUE S OUTPUT OUTPU T CHANGE REQUESTS PROJECT MGMT PLAN UPDATES OPAs UPDATES PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES
  • 34. CONTROL SCHEDULE UPDATING THE SCHEDULE MODEL REQUIRES KNOWING THE ACTUAL PERFORMANCE DATA. ANY CHANGE TO SCHEDULE BASELINE MUST GO THROUGH PERFORM INTEGRATED CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS. CONTROL SCHEDULE IS CONCERNED WITH: • DETERMINING THE CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECT SCHEDULE • INFLUENCING THAT FACTORS THAT CREATE SCHEDULE CHANGE • DETERMINING IF THE PROJECT SCHEDULE HAS CHANGED • MANAGING THE ACTUAL CHANGES AS THEY OCCUR. IF AGILE APPROACH IS UTILIZED, CONTROL SCHEDULE IS CONCERNED WITH: • DETERMINING THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE PROJECT SCHEDULE BY COMPARING THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF WORK DELIVERED & ACCEPTED AGAINTS THE ESTIMATES OF WORK COMPLETED FOR THE ELAPSED TIME CYCLE • CONDUCTING RESTOSPECTIVE REVIEWS (SCHEDULE REVIEWS TO RECORD LESSONS LEARNED) FOR CORRECTING PROCESSES & IMPROVING • REPRIORITIZING THE REMAINING WORK PLAN (BACKLOG) • DETERMINING THE RATE AT WHICH THE DELIVERABLES ARE PRODUCED, VALIDATED & ACCEPTED (VELOCITY) IN GIVEN TIME FOR ITERATION (AGREED WORK CYCLE DURATION, TYPCIALLY TWO WEEKS OR ONE MONTH) • DETERMINING THAT THE PROJECT SCHEDULE HAS CHANGED, AND • MANAGING THE ACTUAL CHANGES AS THEY OCCUR.
  • 35. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES – CONTROL SCHEDULE 1. PERFORMANCE REVIEWS • TREND ANALYSIS – EXAMINES PROJECT PERFORMANCE OVER TIME TO DETERMINE WHETHER PERFORMANCE IS IMPROVING OR DETERIORATING • CRITICAL PATH METHOD • CRITICAL CHAIN METHOD • EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT – SCHEDULE VARIANCE (SV) & SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE INDEX (SPI) ARE USED TO ASSES THE MAGNITUDE OF VARIANCE TO THE ORIGINAL SCHEDULE BASELINE. TOTAL FLOATS AND EARLY FINISH ARE ESSENTIAL TO THIS 2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE 3. RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES 4. MODELING TECHNIQUES 5. LEADS & LAGS 6. SCHEDULE COMPRESSION 7. SCHEDULING TOOL
  • 36. WORK PERFORMANC E INFORMATION SCHEDULE FORECASTS CHANGE REQUESTS PROJECT MGMT PLAN UPDATES OPAs UPDATES PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES 1. WORK PERFORMANCE INFORMATION 2. SCHEDULE FORECAST: ESTIMATE OR PREDICTIONS OF CONDITIONS & EVENTS IN THE PROJECT’S FUTURE BASED ON INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE AVAILABLE. UPDATED & REISSUED BASED ON WORK PERFORMANCE INFO. 3. CHANGE REQUESTS 4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN UPDATES • SCHEDULE BASELINE; SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PLAN; AND COST BASELINE 5. PROJECT DOCUMENTS UPDATES • SCHEDULE DATA • PROJECT SCHEDULE • RISK REGISTER 6. ORGANIZATION PROCESS ASSETS (OPA) UPDATES • CAUSES OF VARIANCES; CORRECTIVE ACTIONS CHOSEN & ITS REASONS; AND OTHER TYPES OF LESSONS LEARNED FROM SCHEDULE CONTROL
  • 37. END OF SECOND KNOWLEDGE AREA: PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT