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P1 presentation for the MSc in Urbanism, Delft University of Technology the Netherlands.

P1 presentation for the MSc in Urbanism, Delft University of Technology the Netherlands.

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  • 1. Exploring Potentials of Chinese New TownsAnalysis & Strategy to Promote Spatial integration and Socio-economic diversity; the case of Songjiang new town, Shanghai
  • 2. Yu Ye 4119177 Y.Ye-1@student.tudelft.nl Yeyu_hust@yahoo.cn Mentorship: Spatial Planning and Strategy Akkelies van Nes, 1st mentor A.vanNes@tudelft.nl Urban DesignMeta Berghauser Pont , 2nd mentor M.Y.BerghauserPont@tudelft.nl
  • 3. CHAPTER 1: CONTEXT INTRODUCTION
  • 4. New towns in China since 1990s, Source: Zhou, J. Searching for good urban form from utopian cities to Chinese new towns, 2008Since Deng Xiaoping reopened China and Open-Policy was implemented in 1978 cities have beenexperiencing unprecedented growth. The urbanization rate is tripled from 17.92% in 1978 to 46.59% in thepast twentity years (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2010). To handle the urgent demand from work migrants and reduce the problems caused by congestion in megacities, decentralization and new towns are widely accepted for Chinese urban planners. Since 1990s, overone hundred new towns were planned and emerged in China CONTEXT INTRODUCTION Chapter 1/4
  • 5. modernism urbanIt seems likeplanning and strict zonings did notcreate high quality built environment
  • 6. Social fragmentation and thelack of urban life become commoncharacteristics in Chinese new towns
  • 7. When new towns in China are still trying to search their own identity, mostEuropean new towns built between the fifties and seventies are regardsas dull, monotonous places and even the planning debacle made by idealmodernist planning (Duivesteijn, 2010 cited in Provoost, 2010, p. 11).Nowadays, no matter European new towns need regeneration or Chinese new towns under construction, themain aim of them is transforming to complete cities (Reijndorp, 2006). The diagram illustrating the social characters differences between new town and complete city. Rijndorp, A. source: Vernieuwing van de nieuwe stad. INTI, 2009Here, new towns are defined as human settlements which are built according to a master plan, includingsatellite cities and large urban extensions (Provoost, 2010). While complete city is shaped by a variety ofplans, ideologies, economic and political situations, etc. through a longer course of time. CONTEXT INTRODUCTION Chapter 1/7
  • 8. The diagram about social, economic and physcial relationshipsThis research dwells on the interacted relationships among spatial andsocio-economic dimensions. Just as Hiller (1984, p. 6) pointed out that: “By giving shape and formto our materialized world, architecture structures the system of space in which we live and move. In that itdoes so, it has a direct relation – rather than a merely symbolic one – to social life…”Therefore, understandingthe key spatial compositions which can provide conditions for urban complexity in such a way can promotesthe transformation of new town into a complete, multi-layered and varied city.And because of the interacted spatial and socio-economic dimensions, the analyses need to integrate thespatial and socio-economic analysis together, which are uncommon in previous researches. But with theprogress of computer technology, GIS-related analysis is drawing out a new research direction tointegrate spatial and social-economic analyses together. CONTEXT INTRODUCTION Chapter 1/8
  • 9. CHAPTER 2: DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE STUDY, SONGJIANG NEW TOWN
  • 10. CITY CENTER OF CHANGZHOU CITY CENTER OF WUXI CITY CENTER OF SUZHOU CITY CENTER OF SHANGHAI SONGJIANG DISTRICT CITY CENTER OF JIAXING Songjiang new town is a large satellite town locating in the southeast part of Shanghai municipality and on CITY CENTER OF Hangzhou the regional development corridor from Shanghai to Hangzhou DESCRIPTION OF SONGJIANG NEW TOWN Chapter 2/10
  • 11. The time distance from Songjiang new town toShanghai is nearly 1 hour by metro and 50 minby car. Now Metro Line 9 is connected this newtown with city center of Shanghai. DESCRIPTION OF SONGJIANG NEW TOWN Chapter 2/11
  • 12. TO HONGQIAO AIRPORT 25km METRO LINE 9 TO CENTER 1h HIGHWAY A9 TO CENTER 39km TO PUDONG INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 68km HU-NING RAILWAY SONGJIANG NEW TOWN SONGJIANG OLD CITY New Town Construction area Industry Hihgway Railway Metro TO HANGZHOU 112KMThe historically-grown old Songjiang city is located between Highway A9 and Hu-ning railway, while theSongjiang new town is developed across of Highway A9. DESCRIPTION OF SONGJIANG NEW TOWN Chapter 2/12
  • 13. The development of Songjiang new town is divided into two steps.Infrastructures, key projects and economic sectors were finished in the first development phase (2000-2003),including the universities and central green belt city hall.The second phase (2003-2005) aims to accept the population transfer from the ‘central city’ of Shanghai andfocuses on residential projects (Wang, 2004). Overall, in ten years, a new town covering an area of 22.4 km2has been built.In order to attract residents from crowded city center of Shanghai, the main function in Songjiang new town isliving. Not only apartments for middle-class people, luxury villa is built in this new town as well. The ‘new-townconcept’ is based on independently functional nodes, in contrast to old dormitory towns. However, because ofthe strict zoning, oversimplified function is still a feature in Songjiang new town. DESCRIPTION OF SONGJIANG NEW TOWN Chapter 2/13
  • 14. CHAPTER 3: PRELIMINARY COMPARISON RESEARCH SONGJIANG NEW TOWN v.s. OLD SONGJIANG CITY
  • 15. An instant city making (22.4 km2 in 10 years) guided by strict zoning and was fermented in the Chinesemiddle class dream: gated community and private cars finally forgot urban vitality.The image is urban, but the atmosphere is unanimated and suburban. Ironically, the population density inSongjiang new town is similar to its more successful old Songjiang city.A comparison between old Songjiang new town and the old city can help usto set the preliminary research direction in the future deeper study. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/15
  • 16. 3.1 Applying three quantitative methods for the study of new townsSpace Syntax is a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configuration. In this method,urban structure is abstracted and mapped with a network of axes representing the movement in the city. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/16
  • 17. 3.1 Applying three quantitative methods for the study of new towns AMENITIES 80 20 BIFUNCTIONAL 60 40 40 60 MIXED 20 80 MONOFUNCTIONAL WORKING HOUSING Ternary diagram: monofunctional, bifunctional, Source: Van den Hoek , The Mixed Use Index (Mixed-use Index) as Planning Tool for (New) Towns in the 21st Century.Mixed-use Index is conceived as a quantitative planning tool to measure the functional compositionand the mix of uses, which is initiated by Van den Hoek in 2008.MXI = (%HOUSING / %WORKING / %AMENITIES). Housing includes variousbuildings for living, such as apartments, condominium and town houses etc. Working means a place to work;office, factory and laboratory for instance. Amenities contain all commercial, retail, societal, universities,cultural amenities. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/17
  • 18. 3.1 Applying three quantitative methods for the study of new towns The relationships between FSI, GSI,OSP,L and N, b, Tf, source: Berghauser Pont & Haupt, Spacematrix: Space, Density and Urban formSpacematrix uses the following measures: floor space index (FSI), ground space index (GSI), andnetwork density (N). These three measures are represented in a three-dimensional diagram, the Spacematrix.FSI on the y-axis gives an indication of the built intensity in an area and GSI on the x-axis reflects thecoverage, or compactness, of the development. And L represents the average number of floors.The N on y-axis denotes the network density of the urban layout, and b on the x-axis the profile width of thestreet. The tare space (Tf) as a percentage of public space. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/18
  • 19. 3.2 Spatial comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historicallydeveloped old town based on Space Syntax Spatial accessibility analysis of old Songjiang city with high metrical radius Spatial accessibility analysis of old Songjiang city with low metrical radius COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/19
  • 20. 3.2 Spatial comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historicallydeveloped old town based on Space Syntax Commercial amenities of old Songjiang city the highly integrated areaThe most typical feature in historically-evolved Songjiang city is(shown in dark red and orange) coincides with the town centre.It is a walkable environment for both locals and visitors to support the overlapping of different place of flowsand the creating of a “thick urban social space”The high density of connections and relations provide strong centrality and uniquecharacteristics for old Songjiang city. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/20
  • 21. 3.2 Spatial comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historicallydeveloped old town based on Space Syntax Spatial accessibility analysis of Songjiang new town with high metrical radiusIn contrast to the old city, Songjiang new town shows totally different characteristics. In high metrical radiusanalysis, the most integrated area is main vehicular roads and the new towncentre do not well link with the highest integration streets. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/21
  • 22. 3.2 Spatial comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historicallydeveloped old town based on Space Syntax Spatial accessibility analysis of Songjiang new town with low metrical radius no highly integrated area can be found in newWhile in low metrical radius analysis,town centre. Actually, most integrated areas are in the superblocks and farfrom the main street. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/22
  • 23. 3.2 Spatial comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historicallydeveloped old town based on Space Syntax Commercial amenities of Songjiang new townCommercial function tends to no mix in Songjiang new town. The superblockpattern developing in this failure structure separates the whole town intofragmented, isolated residential islands. the planned town centre does not have high integration in urbanTherefore,structure and becomes a relatively segregated area in spatial accessibility pattern. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/23
  • 24. 3.3 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown based on Mixed-used Index Spatial entiites of old Songjiang city and new townThe data measured in this research is floor space in the units of m2. The specific functional data is collectedand counted through zoning maps from the municipality of Songjiang and filed work. The total amount of floorspace within buildings and different functions on different floors are taken into consideration.Old Songjiang city and the new town are mapped together and divided into 275 spatial entities onneighborhood scale based on zoning plan in order to facilitate the collection of data COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/24
  • 25. 3.3 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown based on Mixed-used Index AMENITIES 96 69 75 4 61 49 72 80 3 81 20 30 28 66 79 80 73 23 22 62 65 32 15 2 1 21 60 5 67 40 33 52 16 27 80 8 19 9 55 63 53 11 10 14 40 60 17 39 67 29 31 36 58 38 91 68 79 20 80 13 25 95 41 94 76 44 43 42 45 56 46 54 51 24 14 40 47 90 60 48 59 57 97 70 100 20 71 37 99 77 88 35 85 74 84 87 98 89 93 92 50 82 83 WORKING HOUSING Ternary diagram: Functioanl mixture of old Songjiang city COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/25
  • 26. 3.3 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown based on Mixed-used Index AMENITIES 80 20 60 40 Town centre 40 60 20 80 Residential area Industrail area WORKING HOUSING Ternary diagram: Urban typologies and their MXI positions in old cityIn the old centre of Songjiang, balanced mixture can be found. The averaged mix-balance is MXI=28/33/39. Housing, working and amenities are balanced around each other. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/26
  • 27. 3.3 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown based on Mixed-used Index AMENITIES 170 102 192191 147 125 127196 271 130 115 196 143 204 209 203 131 205 169 208 207 117 206 132 80 114 116 118 20 213 120 246 119 223 126 162 105 123 60 148 40 245 273 266 40 109 200 60 111 242 255 168 134 194 20 173 172 112 146 214 158 80 157 236 197 235 156 159 202 149 228 226 141 135 219 167 248 155 198 129 150163227 199 128 101 263104 152 122 164 251 107 188110 138 225165 259 185 106 247 238 182 103 139 272 161 108 270 267218 231 268 136 113 252 229239 257 265 110 142 211 249244 250 260 164 154256 184 234 254 221 274109 137 166 216 243 233 165222 261 175220 124 258 241 176 181 168 224 177187 215 253 212 189153 167 275 179 232 230 217 186264 174180 133 237 269190147178 121 201 140 WORKING HOUSING Ternary diagram: Functioanl mixture of Songjiang new townMono-functional residential units are dominant in new town. In old Songjiang city,most entities are gathering in the right corner of the triangle with 75 percent of housing.However, in the new town, most of them are focused on the extreme right block with more than 90 percent ofhousing. They are built to follow the zoning restrictions of functionalist separation. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/27
  • 28. 3.3 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown based on Mixed-used Index AMENITIES Universities 80 20 Town centre 60 40 40 60 20 80 Residential area Industrail area WORKING HOUSING Ternary diagram: Urban typologies and their MXI positions in new townUniversities show an excessively mono-functional characteristic. Those campuseslocated in the middle of this new town, which ought to become the core to enrich diversity, are unattractiveareas.. Huge block size, low population density and simplified function make this area unsafe during vacations. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/28
  • 29. 3.3 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown based on Mixed-used Index Functional sections of Songjiang according to the MXIMore interesting is the analysis of the functional sections. The functional section of old city in West-EastII clearly shows the increase of mixture from periphery towards the city center. It looks like there is astrong correlation between centrality and functional mixture in Chinesehistorically-grown towns as well.While in the new town, no relationship between centrality and mixture can be found in West-East I. Functionalcompositions show a causeless fluctuation. Amenities are dominated in new town centre. It seemslike new town planners in China did not consider this correlation; therefore, flourishing town centre cannot becreated. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/29
  • 30. 3.4 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldcity based on Spacematrix FSI-GSI of Spacematrix with 9 different environmental types in Songjiang old cityFrom the perspective of block type compositions, we can find that main block types in this city aremid-rise stripe and block types (61.0%), while low-rise block type is an important composition as well (13.0%).Furthermore, the city also consists of many of high-rise developments, located in the periphery areas (12.0%).From the perspective of geometric locations, in general, low-rise block type mainly located in thehistorical core and surrounded by middle-rise block type. Then, from center to periphery, the types tend tochange from middle-rise stripe type, low-rise stripe to high-rise types. A clear clue about block types andgeometric locations can be found in this old city. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/30
  • 31. 3.4 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldcity based on Spacematrix FSI-GSI diagram with 9 different environmental types in Songjiang new townHowever, this analysis shows totally different features in Songjiang new town . The high-rise point and stripe types play dominant role (52.0%) in it, while low-rise block types (28.0%) are common aswell. But the number of middle-rise blocks makes a great fall down, from 61% decreases to 19.9%.The geometric locations of various urban forms are different as well. Middle-rise types are mainly close toold Songjiang city. And low-rise point block type is located in the geometric center of Songjiang new town,surrounded by high-rise blocks. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/31
  • 32. 3.4 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldcity based on Spacematrix Nf(b) diagram showing network density and profile width in Songjiang old cityThe analyses in network density and profile width also reveal a different feature between old Songjiangcity and its new counterpart . In the old city, an obvious transforming trend fromhistorical core to the periphery can be found. There is high network density and profilewidth in the historical core, nevertheless, both two indicators decrease from the center to the periphery. Itmeans that the urban form is transforming from small blocks mixed with narrow streets tobig blocks mixed with wide streets. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/32
  • 33. 3.4 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldcity based on Spacematrix Nf(b) diagram showing network density and profile width in Songjiang new townIn contrast with the clear changing trend, no clue about geometric location and networkdensity can be found in Songjiang new town. The clutters scattered within a certain range, whichgenerally has lower network density and higher profile width. What is meantby this is that big blocks and wide streets are the main mainstream in newtown area. it seems like the historically-evolved old city has its own growthTo sum up,logic in urban form, while the newly built counterpart did not follow thishidden logic line. The comparison between new and old city demonstrates that middle-rise or low-riseblock types and small block, dense network urban form may create positive influence on urban quality. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/33
  • 34. 3.5 Comparison study between Songjiang new town and its historically developed oldtown from social-economic perspectivesObviously, inhabitants in Songjiang new town are extremely depending on the city center of Shanghai whileresidents from Songjiang old city are working locally.And the personal income fit in with the monotonous compositions of people in Songjiang new town: themainstream residents in Songjiang new town are middle class and upper class people (nearly 190,000).College students also occupy a high portion in it (100,000).Real estate price in Songjiang new town is unafforable for most bull-collar people.The average age revealshomogeneous population compositions in Songjiang new town as well. the population structure in Songjiang new townOverall, as a newly-birthed town,is oversimplified and most residents have to suffer a long commute tocity center of Shanghai. While old Songjiang city has more accomplishedpopulation structure. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/34
  • 35. 3.6 Conclusion of comparison studyTo sum up, based on the analyses above, several spatial and socio-economic differencescan be found between the new town and old city. Specifically, the old city has a spatial structureproviding centrality, mixed functional distributions, clear development logic in urban form and diversepopulation compositions, which are lacking in the new town. all those results are separated and cannot be integrated togetherNevertheless,to get a concrete conclusion.Whether those factors are the whole reasons leading to higher spatialintegration and socio-economic diversity is uncertain. a quantitative research methodIn order to make a deep understanding in this subject,integrating spatial and social aspects is needed. Therefore, applying GISmethod into further research is the road one must follow. transformation process from the newly birthed town to a moreIn addition,attractive city is still unknown. Whether it is merely related with time, with spatial structure,with functional mixture, or with other spatial compositions in regional or local level? In what sense thesocio composition of the people working and living play a role in this transformation? How to accelerate thistransformation process and left space for complexity?Making a reivew for Dutch new town developments in the past half-centurywill be a meaningful research direction. COMPARISON : OLD CITY & NEW TOWN Chapter 3/35
  • 36. CHAPTER 4: PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • 37. Spatial and socio-economic problems leading to the lack of urbanitySongjiang new town as a research example has demonstrated its isolated spatial structure, disorderedurban form and oversimplified socio-economic constructions in preliminary study. Apparently, higherspatial integration and socio-economic diversity are needed for building an attractive city. In this sense, itrequires a complementary research on regional, urban and local scales toseek key compositions which can promote this transformation.Unexplored potential of Songjiang new town: transforming to a completecityAs it stated above, the transforming process from new town to complete city is the main trend of new towndevelopments. Therefore, a special look should be given to the evolution potential of Songjiang new town.Thus, there is a need to study the Dutch new town evolutions in past fiftyyears in order to define a transforming model. PROBLEM STATEMENT Chapter 4/37
  • 38. CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH QUESTION & DESIGN
  • 39. 5.1 Research questions How to promote spatial integration and socio-economicThe main research question is:diversity in Songjiang new town while accelerate its transformation towardsa complete city? analyses in the Netherlands,Based on the preliminary research, the further study will begin withand then convert the conclusions into Chinese context to guide Chinese new towndevelopments. Newly birthed towns in China do not have enough references in historical development,nevertheless, through reviewing the development process of Dutch post-war new towns in both spatial andsocio-economic dimensions, a transformation model can be raised. New towns, no matter in the Netherlands or China, most of them are built up in a short time with a particularspatial structure and clear social-economic paradigm. They can be seen as a kind of mass producing goods.Therefore, new towns in China are also applicable in this model in a long course of time.Then, many strategies in regional and urban level can be identified to promote urban vitalityin Chinese new towns.In addition, on the local level, several spatial compositions influence urbanity as well. Thus, investigations inseveral sections of historically-grown cities can lead to a deeper understanding about sensitivepoints in built environment, which can encourage the grow of vitality. Integrating the conclusions with Chinesecontext, several design guidelines for new towns in China can be proposed to improve its vitality aswell. RESEARCH QUESTION & DESIGN Chapter 5/39
  • 40. In order to better understand the elements contained in the main research question, four sub-questions areformulated:The Netherlands:1) What is the transforming process of Dutch new towns in spatial and socio-economicdimensions through time? How to define and measure this transformation model?2) How to define various spatial compositions promoting urban vitality in local level?China:3) What is Songjiang new town’s position in this transformation model and how to accelerate itstransformation by strategy?4) How to apply spatial compositions to guide Songjiang new town’s development. RESEARCH QUESTION & DESIGN Chapter 5/40
  • 41. 5.2 Research design and approachIn order to answer the questions, the research will be divided into four parts:The Netherlands:Step 1 Identifying the transforming process of Dutch new towns in spatial and social-economic aspects aims toset a transformation model to understand the normalization process of new town.1) Literature review to categorize the standards.2)Research the changing Dutch post-war new towns to understand the transformation during course of time.3)roviding a measurable transformation model.Methods: Literature review; Historical research of transformation in post-war new town; SpaceSynatx; GIS-related simulation methods: Mixed-use Index; Spacemate, Comparison study amongLelystad, Almere and Zoetermeer;Step 2 Analyzing the potential compositions of urban vitality on local levels to identify the key compositions.1)Literature review to choose the potential compositions on local level.2)Surveying urban sections in popular historically grown cities to examine those potential compostions through the help of space syntax and GIS-related simulation models.3)Identifying the key elements on local level.Methods: Literature review of urban centrality and vitality; Space Synatx; GIS-related simulationmethods: Mixed-use Index; Spacemate, Comparing several urban sections of Rotterdam andAmsterdam; RESEARCH QUESTION & DESIGN Chapter 5/41
  • 42. 5.2 Research design and approachChina:Step 3 Overview of Songjiang new town and old town to find their positions in the transformation model inorder to improve urban vitality by strategy and policy.1)Researching current Songjiang new town and old town through literature review and GIS-related simulationmethods.2)Providing the strategy and policy to promote its development.Methods: Historical review of Songjiang new town and old town; Historical statistics; Space Synatx;GIS-related simulation methods: Mixed-use Index; Spacemate, Comparison study betweenSongjiang new town and old town;Step 4 Converting conclusions in step 2 to Chinese context in order to identify design guidelines for Songjiangnew town.1)Converting key compositions into Chinese context2)Providing the guidelines to encourage urban vitalityMethods: Literature review of comparison research about new towns in Europe and China, interview ofkey actors; RESEARCH QUESTION & DESIGN Chapter 5/42
  • 43. 5.3 Research structure and timetable RESEARCH QUESTION & DESIGN Chapter 5/43
  • 44. CHAPTER 6: RELEVANCE
  • 45. 6.1 Scientific relevanceThe proposed research takes on qualitative issues such as urban vitality and street life from an angle ofquantitative research. It is mainly related to the department of Urbanism, TU Delft’s studies focusing on thesocio-economic performance of urban form through spatial analysis with a quantitative approach, including theworks of Meta Berghauser Pont, Bardia Mashhoodi, Birgit Hausleitner, Akkelies van Nes, etc.The investigation will allow for the better understanding of hidden urban orders in new town development. Itis also contribute to the former studies of International New Town Institution (INTI), e.g. Model Town: UsingUrban Simulation Models in New Town Planning, Vernieuwing van de nieuwe stad, New Towns for the 21stcentury: Planned versus Unplanned, New Town Roots: Geboren en getogen Zoetermeerders over hun stad.6.2 Urban character wantedNowadays, Songjiang new town is not an attractive place but its ambition to become a complete city is high.The latest comprehensive plan will make the city as one of three biggest sub centers in Shanghai’s periphery.The future performance of the city is thus very dependent on how to promote its spatial and economic-socialstructure. RELEVANCE Chapter 6/45
  • 46. Any Questions?

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