Effect Of Music in Advertisement on Consumer Behavior
• “Music has long been an efficient and effective means for triggering moods and communicating None verbally. It is, therefore, not surprising that music has become a major component of• Consumer marketing, both at the point of purchase and in advertising.” Bruner, 1990.
History• The idea of music goes back to olden times, when street vendors hawked their goods to the tune of a melodic chant.• Advertisements have relied heavily on music to get people’s attention, set a mood, creates the right brand image and to sell the advertisers product.• Early television commercials in the 1950s, featured well known classical masterpieces as background music.• The works of the "Waltz King", Johann Strauss, an Austrian composer of the mid 1880s were among the most popular pieces used as background music for television commercials.• His "Artists Life". "Tales from the Vienna Woods", "Voices of spring", "Emperor Waltz" and of course, "The Blue Danube" was all used as background music for Palmolive Soap, Cashmere Bouquet Beauty Bar and other soap and beauty aid commercials. Rossinis "William Tell Overture" and Tchaikovskys "1812 Overture" were popular background tracks for breakfast cereal and food commercials.
Role Of Music• Entertainment:• Good music contributes to the effectiveness of an advertisement by making it more attractive. A good ad engages the attention of an audience, and thus makes it entertaining for them.• Structure/Continuity• Music may also be employed in various structural roles. The most important structural role is tying together a sequence of visual images and/or a series of dramatic episodes, narrative voice-overs, or a list of product appeals. This is the function of continuity.• Memorability• Music increases the Memorability of a product or the products name. in a way that Consumers are known to favor products which elicit some degree of recognition or familiarity.
• Lyrical Language• A fourth technique of musical enhancement is the use of lyrical language. Vocal music permits the conveyance of a verbal message in a non spoken way.• Targeting• Once an appropriate medium is chosen, a second consideration is targeting in which the main aim is to to engage or captivate those viewers who constitute the target demographic group.• Authority Establishment• Closely related to the targeting function is the use of music to enhance an ads credibility, to establish its authority.• through expert testimony Authority may also be fostered through testimonials of non-technical authorities .Thus to an extent advertising succeeds in enticing an audience, the advertising must have some genuine appeal.•
• Music helps in making impulsive purchases• Music helps consumers associate some feelings or emotions such as joy, love, fear, hope, sexuality, fantasy and helps in developing a mood for shopping.• Increase brand loyalty• Music helps in enhancing brand loyalty in a way that it integrates the meaning of a message of the particular brand thus creating brand loyalty amongst the customers.• Music is a positive addition to the consumer environment• Music plays an important role by creating a positive environment, under which all consumers are influenced by music.
Commercial Business Uses of Music in Advertising• Business uses of music in advertising date back to the earliest days of broadcast media. In the 1920s and 1930s, marketers like Procter and Gamble pioneered the concept of linking brand names to distinctive musical and dramatic themes.
• The approach was used not only in radio ads, but also in programming that the companies developed and controlled. It was later adapted to television commercials and to the enormously popular soap operas of the 1950s.• Now, music is used in advertising in key formats as a useful tool to sell products.
Radio• Two characteristics of radio give music a particularly important role.• First, the medium is entirely dependent on engaging, creative audio.• Second, because most listeners tune into the radio while driving or performing other activities, music helps to focus the consumers attention on the product.• Jingles, which are original tunes composed specifically to support a certain brand, are widespread in radio advertising
TELEVISON AND MULTIMEDIA• Producers of television commercials and other forms of multimedia advertising frequently purchase licensing rights to popular music.• In these media, it is important for music to complement, not compete with, the visual elements of an ad.• Songs and background tunes can be more memorable than pictures and words in establishing a mood or bringing a brand image to life
Branded Entertainment• Rapidly growing in popularity , this is the newest way of integrating music with a business strategy.• An original entertainment product, like a music video, is created by marketers to showcase their brand.• The idea is to build consumers sense of connection to a brand by engaging them with music.
COKE STUDIO• Music is helping Coke against its competitor Pepsi in the cola war in Pakistan.• Coke now claims 35% of market share in Pakistan, Pepsis market share is now down to 65% from a high of 80% in 1990s which was achieved mainly through sponsorship of cricket in Pakistan.• Helped by the media boom in Pakistan, the show has had dramatic success since it was launched three years ago.
Effects of Music on Shoppers and Restaurant Patrons• According to a research people who heard music while shopping or eating at a restaurant or mall is influenced by the music and it effects what they buy and what they spend• Loudness, pace, rhythm of music effects on how long consumer spend their time in malls and restaurants, how much they purchase and how they view brands or products positively or negatively.
• Departmental stores which play top 20 music on the music chart, shoppers over 25 of that departmental stores believe that they have spent more time there and purchased more.• On the other hand, departmental stores which play soft instrumental music, shoppers under 25 believe that they have spent more time shopping than they have.• Therefore, these findings indicate that less preferred or unfamiliar music slows down the perceived time of the shoppers. (Yalch & Spangenberg, 1990).
USES OF DIFFERENT TYPE OF MUSIC• FAST OR SLOW MUSIC IN A RETAIL ENVIRONMENT• Research found out that people move steadily when slow rhythm music is played. taking almost 20 seconds more• Study was conducted in two supermarkets found a huge increase in sales when slow rhythm music was played:• "In that study the gross sales increased from $12,112 for the fast rhythm music to $16,740 for the slow rhythm music. This is an increase of 38%.“
USES OF FAST OR SLOW MUSIC IN RESTAURANTS• Where you dont want people to linger, you could be better off playing loud, fast tempo music especially if you run a fast-moving restaurant. But, retail environments often want their clients to stay for longer time in their stores, so softer music is more appropriate.• A study discovered that customer spent almost 23% more money in a restaurant when softer music was being played. Interestingly, increase in spending came on the drinks bill (which grew by almost 51% on avg), which are the most profitable items in most restaurants
LOUD MUSICOne research states that• "A person is likely to stay in a restaurant playing soft music 20% longer than if the music is loud, with a slight increase in the amount of money spent on food and drinks. For grocery stores, it was found that the volume made no difference on how much money was spent. Another study by Caldwell and Hibbert (2002) found that when slow music was played, patrons stayed for 20% longer but also spent more on food and drink - in fact, up to 50% more. In other words, to keep your customers, keep it soft and slow. And likewise, if you want quick turnover, speed things up and keep it loud."• In café or bars, where music is very loud and fast that it hinders conversation, people drink more and drink faster.• In gyms, where loud dance remixes are played ,people are found to be more enjoying doing their daily workouts
• Classical or slow music• In a study it has been found out that “Classical music” increases the amount of money people are willing to spend. Normally, people will buy more expensive goods when classical music is being played in the environment.
Use of hit songs and unknown songs"Popular or hit" music is too catchy, and causes lower purchasing in retail environments and decreased productivity in offices.• The music that should be played has to be good and very close enough to hit music that people enjoy it, but it must not be too catchy.