INTRODUCTION LEADERSHIP- IT IS THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE A GROUP TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS. CONTINUED TILL LATE 40’S –TRAIT THEORIES CONTINUED TILL LATE 60’S – BEHAVIORAL THEORIES PRESENTLY- CONTINGENCY AND MODERN THEORIES
DIFFERNCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT BRINGS ABOUT ORDER AND CONSISTENCY BY DRAWING UP FORMAL PLANS, DESIGNING RIGID ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND MONITORING RESULTS AGAINST PLANS LEADERSHIP IS ABOUT COPING WITH CHANGE, ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS BY DEVELOPING A VISION OF THE FUTURE AND COMMUNCATING THIS VISION TO OTHERS AND INSPIRING THEM
TRAIT THEORIES THEORIES THAT CONSIDER PERSONAL QUALITIES AND CHARACTERISTICS THAT DIFFERENTIATE LEADERS FROM NON-LEADERS.
THE DESIRE TO LEAD
HONESTY AND INTERGITY
LIMITATIONS NO UNIVERSAL TRAIT THAT PREDICTS LEADERSHIP IN AN INDIVIDUAL UNCLEAR AND NOT SEPERATING FROM CAUSE AND EFFECT DOESN’T DISTINGUISH BETWEEN EFFECTIVE AND INEFFECTIVE LEADER
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES THEORIES PROPOSING THAT SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS DIFFERENTIATE LEADERS FROM NON LEADERS
OHIO STATE STUDIES
INITIATING STRUCTUREEXTENT TO WHICH A LEADER IS LIKELY TO DEFINE AND STRUCTURE HIS OR HER ROLE AND THOSE OF SUBORDINATES IN THE SEARCH FOR GOAL ATTAINMENT
CONSIDERATION- THE EXTENT TO WHICH A LEADER IS LIKELY TO HAVE JOB RELATIONSHIPS CHARACTERIZED BY MUTUAL TRUST, RESPECT FOR SUBORDINATES IDEAS AND REGARD FOR THEIR FEELINGS
Blake Mouton Managerial Grid The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: Concern for People – This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task Concern for Production – This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
Country Club Leadership – High People/Low Production This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. But production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
Produce or Perish Leadership High Production/Low People Also known as Authoritarian Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees.
Impoverished Leadership Low Production/ Low People This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony.
Middle-of-the-Road Leadership Medium Production/Medium People This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect.
Team Leadership High Production/High People These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. Here the employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization’s success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust andrespect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high production.
FIEDLER MODEL IDENTIFY THE LEADERSHIP STYLE TASK ORIENTED RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED LEAST PREFERRED COWORKER(LPC) TEST IF THE LPC IS DESCRIBED IN POSITIVE TERMS(HIGH SCORE) LEADER IS RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED IF THE LPC IS DESCRIBED IN NEGATIVE TERMS(LOW SCORE) LEADER IS TASK ORIENTED
DEFINE THE SITUATION LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS DEGREE OF CONFIDENCE, TRUST AND RESPECT MEMBERS HAVE IN THEIR LEADER WILL EITHER BE GOOD OR BAD
TASK STRUCTURE DEGRESS TO WHICH THE JOBASSIGNMENTS ARE PROCEDURIZED( STRUCTURED OR UNSTRUCTURED) WILL EITHER BE HIGH OR LOW
POSITION POWER THE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE A LEADER HAS OVER POWER VARIABLE SUCH AS HIRING , FIRING, DISCIPLINE,PROMOTIONS, AND SALARY INCREASES WILL EITHER BE STRONG OR WEAK
HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL THEORY A CONTINGENCY THEORY THAT FOCUSES ON FOLLOWER’S READINESS(WILLINGNESS) THE EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE HAVE THE ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO ACCOMPLISH A SPECIFIC TASK
UNABLE AND UNWILLING- LEADER NEEDS TO GIVE SPECIFIC AND CLEAR DIRECTIONS UNABLE AND WILLING- LEADER NEEDS TO DISPLAY HIGH TASK ORIENTATION TO COMPENSATE FOLLOWER’S ABILITY ABLE AND UNWILLING- LEADER NEEDS TO USE PARTICIPATIVE STYLE ABLE AND WILLING- LEADER DOESN’T NEED TO DO MUCH
Path-Goal Theory Formulated by Robert House proposes that the leader can affect the performance, satisfaction, and motivation of a group in different ways: Offering rewards for achieving performance goals Clarifying paths towards these goals Removing obstacles to performance
Directive leadership: Specific advice is given to the group and ground rules and structure are established. For example, clarifying expectations, specifying or assigning certain work tasks to be followed. Supportive leadership: Good relations are promoted with the group and sensitivity to subordinates needs is shown.
Participative leadership: Decision making is based on consultation with the group and information is shared with the group. Achievement-oriented leadership: Challenging goals are set and high performance is encouraged while confidence is shown in the groups ability.
Modern theories of leadership Charismatic leadership Transformational leadership Transactional leadership Social cognitive approach
Charismatic leadership Charismatic Leadership involves creating a self-image so powerful that people are naturally drawn to you.The Charismatic Leader gathersfollowers through dint of personality andcharm, rather than any form of externalpower or authority.
ETHICAL CHARISMATIC LEADER Uses power to serve others Aligns vision with follower’s needs and aspirations Considers and learns from criticism Open, two- way communication Coaches, develops and supports followers; shares recognition with others
UNETHICAL CHARISMATIC LEADER Uses power only for personal gain or impact Promotes own personal vision Demands own decisions be accepted without question One- way communication Insensitive to follower’s needs
Transformational leadership Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transformLeaders inspire followers to transcend theirown self interests for the good of theorganization, and who possess charisma
Characteristics of transformational leaders Provide vision and sense of mission Communicates high expectations Develop a strategy for maintaining the vision Promotes intelligence Gives personal attention
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Where leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirement
Characteristics of transactional leader Contracts the exchange of rewards for efforts, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action. Intervenes when standards are not met Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.
Primary Differences between Transformational & Transactional LeadershipCategories Transactional TransformationalLeader’s source Rank, position Character, competenceof powerFollower reaction Compliance CommitmentTime frame Short term Long termRewards Pay, promotion, etc. Pride, self-esteem, etc.Counseling focus Evaluation Development
Cognitive resource theory A theory of leadership that states that stress unfavorably effects the situation, and intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
Cognitive Resource Theory predicts that: A leaders cognitive ability contributes to the performance of the team only when the leaders approach is directive Stress affects the relationship between intelligence and decision quality. Experience is positively related to decision quality under high stress
Autocratic Leadership Style Also known as Authoritarian leadership style Manager retains as much power and decision making authority aspossible Does not consult staff, nor allowed to give any input Staff expected to obey orders without receiving anyexplanations Structured set of rewards and punishments
Most effective Not effective New, untrained staff do Staff become not know which tasks to perform or which procedures follow tense, fearful, or Effective supervision resentful provided only through detailed orders and instructions Staff depend on Staff do not respond to their manager to any other leadership style make all their Limited time in which to make a decision decisions A manager’s power challenged by staff Low staff Work needs to be morale, high coordinated with another department or turnover and organization absenteeism and work stoppage
Democratic Leadership Style It also known as a Participative style Encourages staff to be a part of the decision making Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities • Allows staff to establish goals • Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted • Recognizes and encourages achievement
Most effective Not effective Wants to keep staff informed about matters that Not enough time to affect them. get everyone’s Wants staff to share in input decision-making and problem-solving duties. Easier and more Wants to provide cost-effective for opportunities for staff to the manager to develop a high sense of personal growth and job make the decision satisfaction. & Can’t afford A large or complex problem mistakes that requires lots of input to solve Manager feels Changes must be made or threatened by this problems solved that affect type of leadership staff Want to encourage team Staff safety is a building and participation critical concern when highly skilled or experienced staff
Boss Centered Employee CenteredTheory X Theory YAutocratic DemocraticProduction centered Employee centeredInitiating structure ConsiderationTask Directed Human relationDirective Supportive/Participativ e
Boss-centered Employee-centered Leadership leadershipUse of authority by the managers Area of freedom for subordinates Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager presents defines limits; permitsManager presents subordinates tomakes sells presents problems, asks group to tentative function within decision ideas and gets make decisiondecision and decision defined limits invites suggestions,announce it subject to questions makes change decision Range of behavior
Laissez-faire Also known as the “hands-off¨ style The manager provides little or no direction gives staff as much freedom aspossible All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own
Most effective Not effective Staff highly skilled, Staff feel insecure at experienced, and the unavailability of a educated manager Staff have pride in their The manager cannot work and the drive to do provide regular feedback it successfully on their to staff on how well they own are doing Outside experts, such as Managers unable to staff specialists or thank staff for their good consultants used work Staff trustworthy and The manager doesn’t experienced understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her
LEADER ROLESAND SKILLS
INFORMATIONAL ROLES DESCRIBES THE ACTIVITES USED TO MAINTAIN AND DEVELOP AN INFORMATION NETWORK
MONITOR: SEEKS AND RECEIVES INFORMATION DISSEMINATOR- FORWARDS INFORMATION TO CONCERNED MEMBERS SPOKERPERSON- TRANSMITS INFORMATION TO OUTSIDER THROUGH SPEECHES
INTERPERSONAL ROLESPERTAINS TO RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS AND ARE RELATED TO HUMAN SKILLS
FIGUREHED-PERFORMS CEREMONIES AND SYMBOLIC DUTIES LIASON- MAINTAINS INFORMATION LINKS BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL MEMBERS LEADER- MOTIVATING AND DIRECTING SUBORDINATES
DECISIONAL ROLE PERTAINS TO THOSE EVENTS ABOUT WHICH THE MANAGER MUST MAKE A CHOICE AND TAKE ACTION
ENTREPRENEUR- CREATES STRATEGIES AND PROJECTS DISTURBANCE HANDLER- TAKES CORRECTIVE ACTION DURING CONFLICT RESOURCE ALLOCATOR-SCHEDULING BUDGET AND OTHER RESOURCES NEGOTIATOR- NEGOTIATIONS DURING UNION MEETING, SALES, ETC
LEADERSHIP SKILLS CULTURAL FLEXIBILITY COMMUNICATION SKILLS HRD(HUMAN RESOURCEDEVELOPMENT) SKILLS CREATIVITY SELF MANAGEMENT OF LEARNING