PERCEPTION• “A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment”
Sub processes of perception• Stimulus or situation• Confrontation• Situation person interaction• Registration• Interpretation• Feedback• Behavior• Consequences
Factors influencing perception• The perceiver - attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences and expectations• The target• The situation
Attribution theory• “When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused”• Internally caused behavior are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual• Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes, I-e having been forced into the behavior by the situation
Factors involve in Attribution• Consensus related to other people (do other act this way in a situation?)• Consistency related to time (does this person act this way in this situation at other times?)• Distinctiveness relates to other tasks (does this person act differently in in other situations?)
Selective perception• People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience , and attitudes.
Factors in selectivity• Intensity• Size• Contrast• Repetition• Motion• Novelty and familiarity
Social perception• “Social perception is directly concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals, how we get to know others”• Organizational participants must realize that their perceptions of another person are greatly influenced by their own characteristics and the characteristics of the other person
Halo Effect• “Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic”
Contrast effect• “Evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics”
Projection• “Attributingone’s own characteristics to other people”
Stereotyping• “Judgingsomeone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs”
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