Gaits And Movement


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Gaits And Movement

  1. 1. Gaits And Movement Anastasia Kellogg
  2. 2. Gaits And Movement <ul><li>The most common gaits of the horse are the walk, trot, canter, and gallop; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(some texts list them as the four natural gaits, while other texts either consider the canter and gallop to be the same gait, or ignore one or the other) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good movement is important in all breeds, although breed standards may have different definitions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gaits And Movement <ul><li>A daisy cutter is a horse whose stride is flat and near the ground; this is desirable in a Thoroughbred or hunter, but a serious defect in a Saddlebred or Hackney </li></ul><ul><li>Moving straight, without throwing the legs either inward or outwards, is desired in almost all breeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Peruvian Paso is the most notable exception </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gaits And Movement <ul><li>Good engagement refers to reaching well forward with the hind legs, ‘using the hindquarters’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Natural Vs. Artificial Gaits <ul><li>The terms natural and artificial often lead to confusion and disagreement, since most ‘gaited’ breeds are born with the ability to perform their special “artificial” gaits </li></ul><ul><li>For our purposes, a natural gait is one that the average horse performs at birth, without special training, and without generations of breeding to produce a varied gait </li></ul><ul><li>The natural gaits are therefore the walk, trot, (canter), and gallop </li></ul>
  6. 6. Natural Vs. Artificial Gaits <ul><li>The artificial gaits are therefore the pace, amble, slow gait, rack, running walk, fox trot, paso fino, paso corto, paso largo, paso de andatura, and tolt </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Gaits <ul><li>Two things are almost always included in the definition of an individual gait: number of beats and whether it is lateral or diagonal </li></ul><ul><li>Simply put, in a diagonal gait the foreleg and opposite hind leg work together </li></ul><ul><li>Simply put, in a lateral gait, the foreleg and hind leg on the same side work together </li></ul><ul><li>Number of beats refers to the number of separate footfalls before the sequence repeats. Two feet striking the ground simultaneously create a single beat. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gaits <ul><li>Walk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A slow, flat footed natural four beat lateral gait, and the basis for virtually all training </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Gaits <ul><li>Trot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A natural, two beat diagonal gait with great variations in possible speed; the style of trot varies from breed to breed and from use to use </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Gaits <ul><li>Canter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A three beat, natural gait with suspension (a moment with no feet on the ground); technically diagonal, although it is rare to hear it called such; the canter is actually just a slow gallop and is therefore sometimes ignored by older texts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Gaits <ul><li>Gallop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A natural, fast three beat gait; first beat is made by a hind foot, then the other hind foot with its diagonal forefoot, then the remaining forefoot </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Gaits <ul><li>Run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A gallop extended to its utmost and becoming a four beat gait as the diagonal pair becomes dissociated; the hind foot striking the ground before its diagonal forefoot </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Gaits <ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to which foreleg is not part of the diagonal pair, and therefore reaches slightly farther, during a canter, gallop, or run </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrong lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally, the horse should lead with the inside foreleg; if he does not, he is on the wrong lead (this is of course irrelevant when traveling in a straight line) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disunited or cross cantering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The horse is on one lead in the front and the opposite lead in back. Extremely uncomfortable to ride and unstable for the horse </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Gaits <ul><li>Counter canter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is taking the outside lead purposefully, and is not recommended on green, unbalanced horses </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Gaits <ul><li>Pace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An artificial two beat lateral gait performed most notably by harness racing Standardbreds, although many breeds are capable of it; pacers are nicknamed “side-wheelers” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Gaits <ul><li>Amble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually refers to the slow gait </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Gaits <ul><li>Rack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fast , four beat lateral gait demonstrated by the five gaited Saddlebred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also visible in other gaited breeds </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Gaits <ul><li>Slow gait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four beat lateral gait similar to, but slower than, the rack; also called the amble or single foot </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Gaits <ul><li>Running walk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four beat lateral gait of the Tennessee Walker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of TWH’s move like the horse at left…but… </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Gaits <ul><li>Running walk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is what you will see in a contest…however gruesome and sad it is </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Gaits <ul><li>Paso fino </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four beat lateral gait and the slowest gait of the Paso Fino, the fine walk </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Gaits <ul><li>Paso corto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four beat lateral gait slightly faster than the paso fino; while the paso fino is highly collected, the paso corto is an extended gait </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Gaits <ul><li>Paso largo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four beat lateral gait slightly faster then the paso fino; this is the fastest gait that the Paso is usually asked to perform, and is sometime compared to the running walk; may reach 16 miles per hour </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Gaits <ul><li>Trocha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest gait of which the Paso Fino is capable, two beat lateral gait identical to the pace; a serious breech of etiquette to perform in public and a serious fault in the show ring </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Gaits <ul><li>Trocha y galope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A broken gait in which the pace is mixed with the canter or gallop; another bad idea in public, although said to be comfortable to ride </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Gaits <ul><li>Paso llano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowest gait of the Peruvian Paso, although they also perform a natural walk </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Gaits <ul><li>Sobreanando </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast broken pace performed by the Peruvian Paso </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Gaits <ul><li>Hauchano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True pace performed by the Peruvian Paso </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Gaits <ul><li>Thread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Peruvian Paso with excellent ‘thread’ makes smooth transitions from the flat walk through all of the faster gaits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pisos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Peruvian Paso with pisos has good timing, extension, animation, smoothness, elegance, and forward motion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gateado </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarkably smooth, supple, and catlike quality possessed by superior Peruvian Pasos </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Gaits <ul><li>Tolt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running walk of the Icelandic pony, sometimes said to be more similar to the rack </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Gaits <ul><li>Missouri Fox Trot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four beat diagonal, broken trot. At first glance, the horse appears to be walking with his front end and trotting behind </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Gaits <ul><li>Paso De Andatura </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High stepping gait of the Andalusian (“Spanish Walk”) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Gaits <ul><li>Termino </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outward swing of the leg displayed by the Peruvian Paso during its gaits (NOT TO CONFUSED WITH PADDLING, termino comes from the shoulder, and is a very graceful movement) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Extension <ul><li>When a horse extends his gait properly, his strides come at the same rate, but are longer, and he therefore covers ground faster without increasing the tempo </li></ul>
  35. 35. Collection <ul><li>When a horse collects properly, he brings his hind end under him, he does not simply slow down </li></ul>
  36. 36. Gait Defects <ul><li>Winging in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The foreleg swings to the inside </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Gait Defects <ul><li>Winging out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called paddling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The foreleg swings to the outside; considered the lesser of two evils </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Gait Defects <ul><li>Plaiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called rope walking, refers to placing the feet in front of each other while in motion. Usually caused by narrow conformation. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Gait Defects <ul><li>Striking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to any time a horse hits his own leg with a hoof </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A vaguer term for striking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the striking of a foreleg with a hind leg on the same side; usually happens at the trot, and usually refers to the toe of the hind foot striking the heel of the front foot </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Gait Defects <ul><li>Overreaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the horse actually grabs his front heel and does injury to himself with a hind foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speedy cutting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the striking of a hind leg with a foreleg, usually in sports such as barrel racing which include sharp turns at high speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross firing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes used incorrectly in reference to a disunited canter, but actually refers to a pacer striking a foreleg with the diagonal hind leg </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Miscellaneous <ul><li>While standing, a horse carries 65% of his weight on the forelegs </li></ul><ul><li>While standing, a horse’s center of gravity is very close to the heart girth </li></ul><ul><li>While moving, a horse’s center of gravity varies continuously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the horse is said to be on his forehand, he is carrying himself with his center of gravity too far forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a horse engages his hindquarters, his balance shifts back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The head and neck are also important in balance </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Miscellaneous <ul><li>It is recommended that you review conformation and gaits at the same time </li></ul>