Diseases And Disorders Anastasia Kellogg
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Abscess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A localized collection of fluid (often pus) in a tissue </...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Alkalosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disturbance of the acid-alkaline balance resulting in ...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Anhidrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inability to sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anorexia <...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Ascites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of fluid in the abdomen (ie after congestive he...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any microorganism of the class Schizomycetes </li></ul></...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Bursa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sac filled with fluid and found wherever there might other...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Capillary Refill Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time required for normal blood flow and ...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Contusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bruise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cystitis </li></ul><ul><...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dystocia </...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord </li><...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation of the body temperature above normal </li></ul></u...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Gingiva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gums of the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gut Stasis </...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Hygroma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sac distended with a serous fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Immunization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of making an individual immune, usually t...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Laceration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A torn, jagged-edged wound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacri...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Mastitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the udder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metritis...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The membrane that surrounds a bone </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Pyrexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fever; an abnormally high body temperature </li></ul></u...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally fast heartrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxin...
Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Urticaria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vector </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Digestive Disorders <ul><li>The three main problems caused by improper feeding are colic, laminitis (founder), and choke <...
Colic <ul><li>Colic is the number one killer of horses in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Colic is a general term appl...
Colic <ul><li>Colic may be caused by overeating, a sudden change in diet, exercise too soon after eating, overwork, chewin...
Colic <ul><li>Symptoms of colic include signs of discomfort and restlessness, biting at the flanks, kicking at the stomach...
Colic <ul><li>Problems in the uterus, kidneys, and bladder may also create symptoms of colic </li></ul><ul><li>A colicky h...
Colic <ul><li>Rolling could cause a usually fatal condition known as twisted gut, or a knot in the intestine, and if the h...
Colic <ul><li>If an untreated, colicky horse shows sudden relief of pain, it is an extremely bad sign. The horse’s intesti...
Colic <ul><li>The four major types of colic are Spasmodic Colic (cramp colic), Flatulent Colic (gaseous distention, tympan...
Spasmodic Colic <ul><li>Spasmodic colic involves sudden, severe contractions in the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Spasmodic...
Spasmodic Colic <ul><li>In a case of spasmodic colic, the onset of symptoms is sudden and severe </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom...
Spasmodic Colic <ul><li>In the case of spasmodic colic, borborygmi (gut sounds) will increase </li></ul><ul><li>The horse ...
Impaction Colic <ul><li>Impaction colic involves an obstruction (blockage) in the large or small intestine </li></ul><ul><...
Impaction Colic <ul><li>Impaction colic is most frequently caused by bolting the feed, overeating, eating straw bedding, i...
Impaction Colic <ul><li>In the case of impaction colic, the onset of symptoms is gradual </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of imp...
Impaction Colic <ul><li>In the case of impaction colic, borborygmi (gut sounds) will be absent </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral o...
Flatulent Colic <ul><li>Flatulent colic, or gaseous distension, involves a severe case of gas </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous di...
Flatulent Colic <ul><li>In the case of gaseous distension, symptoms are neither as sudden and severe as in spasmodic colic...
Flatulent Colic <ul><li>Symptoms of gaseous distension include an enlargment of the abdomen, most noticeable in the upper ...
Flatulent Colic <ul><li>Treatment of gaseous distention includes walking, administering mineral oil through a stomach tube...
Intestinal Catastrophe <ul><li>Intestinal catastrophe involves a twisting or inversion of the intestine, and is severe and...
Intestinal Catastrophe <ul><li>Types of intestinal catastrophe include volvulus (twisting) of the intestines, intussuscept...
Intestinal Catastrophe <ul><li>Intestinal catastrophe is commonly called Twisted Gut </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted gut is caus...
Laminitis <ul><li>Laminitis is commonly called founder </li></ul><ul><li>Laminitis is a systematic shock characterized by ...
Laminitis <ul><li>Founder is caused by watering when hot, overeating, bedding on black walnut shavings, concussion to the ...
Laminitis <ul><li>Laminitis develops when one of the above situations causes a development of organic toxins, leading to s...
Laminitis <ul><li>Symptoms include heat in the hooves, a pounding pulse in the vessels supplying the hoof (digital arterie...
Laminitis <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL THE VET. THIS IS AN EMERGENCY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soak the ...
Laminitis <ul><li>Chronic laminitis results from a case of laminitis that progresses to produce a deformity in the foot </...
Laminitis <ul><li>Due to the weakening of the structures surrounding the coffin bone, the deep digital flexor tendon, whic...
Laminitis <ul><li>Careful, regular hoof trimming and rest are essential to recovery </li></ul><ul><li>A heart-bar shoe may...
Choke <ul><li>Choke is exactly what the name implies, the horse has choked on his feed and has a bolus lodged in his esoph...
Choke <ul><li>Symptoms of choke include great distress, head poked forward, coughing, excessive salivation, sweating, stam...
Choke <ul><li>Due to spasms of the esophagus, it may be necessary to use tranquilizers to relax the muscles and withdraw t...
Choke <ul><li>To prevent choke, any treats fed should be cut into small pieces, and horses that bolt their feed should hav...
Diarrhea <ul><li>Diarrhea, or scours, is a symptom, not a disease, in which the feces are watery, frequent, and often disc...
Diarrhea <ul><li>Causes of diarrhea include infection, stress, overeating, poisoning, and the bacteria salmonella in the c...
Protozoal Diarrhea <ul><li>Protozoal diarrhea is caused by stress, which allows the protozoa Trichomonas to multiply rapid...
Protozoal Diarrhea <ul><li>Treatment for protozoal diarrhea includes the veterinary administration of fluids, electrolytes...
Colitis-X <ul><li>Colitis-X is a swelling of the colon due to stress, and may be fatal if not treated quickly </li></ul><u...
Colitis-X <ul><li>Treatment: call the vet, who will administer electrolytes, fluids, and antibiotics </li></ul>
Salmonellosis <ul><li>Salmonellosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria salmonellosis </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon...
Enteritis <ul><li>Enteritis is the inflammation of the intestines, often resulting in diarrhea, and is a condition, not a ...
Enteritis <ul><li>Symptoms of enteritis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dullness and lack of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Croupous Enteritis <ul><li>Croupous enteritis is an inflammation of the intestines due to a retention of oxalic acid in th...
Emaciation <ul><li>Emaciation is muscle wasting and weight loss caused by starvation, parasites, bad teeth or enteritis </...
Emaciation <ul><li>In the case of bad teeth, the horse may be switched to a pelleted ration, and hard to chew feeds such a...
Hernia <ul><li>The term hernia refers to a rupture, and is a protrusion of any organ through the wall of its cavity, and u...
Hernia <ul><li>Most abdominal hernias are reducible </li></ul><ul><li>The four types of abdominal hernias are </li></ul><u...
Hernia <ul><li>Umbilical hernias should be watched closely, but left alone, since they usually correct themselves </li></u...
Hernia <ul><li>Scrotal and inguinal hernias usually correct themselves </li></ul><ul><li>A ventral hernia occurs due to in...
Hernia <ul><li>Old broodmares sometimes suffer a ventral hernia due to rupture of the broad ligament and/or other supporti...
Pervious Urachus (Leaky Naval) <ul><li>Pervious urachus is a common condition in foals, where urine is being passed throug...
Dehydration <ul><li>Dehydration is a loss of fluid from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration may be caused by diarrhea, ...
Dehydration <ul><li>The dehydration test involves pinching a fold of skin. If it sticks together, the horse is dehydrated ...
Dehydration <ul><li>If the horse’s reluctance to drink strange water during a trip has caused the dehydration, force feedi...
Heatstroke <ul><li>Heatstroke is due to the upset of the temperature regulating mechanisms of the body </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Heatstroke <ul><li>Symptoms of heatstroke develop suddenly, and include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distress and high temperatur...
Azoturia <ul><li>Common names include tying up, setfast, Monday morning disease, coffee urine disease, and blackwater dise...
Azoturia <ul><li>Azoturia usually occurs in horses that are used to hard work and good feed when they are given several da...
Azoturia <ul><li>In azoturia, muscle tissue is destroyed, and as the muscles break down, they release myoglobin, which is ...
Azoturia <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop the horse as soon as symptoms begin, and do not move it again </li><...
Azoturia <ul><li>Prevention: a balanced diet, and reduction of protein intake during idle periods is best </li></ul><ul><l...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) <ul><li>Also called pulmonary emphysema, heaves, equine asthma, and broken wi...
COPD <ul><li>Treatment: the horse’s intake of hay should be reduced, replacing it with pelleted rations and beet pulp, and...
Laryngeal Hemiplegia <ul><li>Laryngeal hemiplagia is commonly referred to as roaring or whistling (or laryngeal paralysis)...
Laryngeal Hemiplegia <ul><li>Paralysis occurs on the left side of the larynx because the left recurrent nerve is longer th...
Laryngeal Hemiplagia <ul><li>Although laryngeal hemiplagia may not be prevented or cured, the affected side of the larynx ...
Rhinopneumonitis <ul><li>Rhinopnemonitis is commonly called rhino </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinopneumonitis is a viral infection ...
Rhino <ul><li>Rhino may cause abortion (loss of a fetus) in broodmares, or even an “abortion storm” effecting an entire fa...
Rhino <ul><li>Symptoms of abortion include a sticky, rust colored discharge from the vulva, and if the abortion occurs lat...
Rhino <ul><li>Symptoms of rhino include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge, cough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling o...
Rhino <ul><li>Prevention of rhinopneumonitis includes vaccination and avoiding exposure of healthy animals to horses with ...
Pleurisy <ul><li>Pleurisy is a severe inflammation of the membrane surrounding the lungs, and is not a common condition in...
Pleurisy <ul><li>Treatment includes calling the vet, draining the thoracic cavity, administering antibiotics, and good nur...
Equine Influenza <ul><li>Equine influenza is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract caused ...
Equine Influenza <ul><li>Treatment: isolate the infected horse, and keep him warm and dry; rest for at least 10 days is es...
Strangles <ul><li>Strangles may also be called distemper or shipping fever </li></ul><ul><li>Strangles is an extremely con...
Strangles <ul><li>The symptoms of strangles include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling of the lymph glands in the head and nec...
Strangles <ul><li>Treatment: immediately isolate infected horse(s) and call the vet, who will give penicillin and streptom...
Pneumonia <ul><li>Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs that usually occurs as a secondary complication to another dis...
Pneumonia <ul><li>Aspiration pneumonia results from a foreign body in the lungs, and may be caused by the improper passage...
Pneumonia <ul><li>Treatment: keep the horse warm and dry, and call the vet who will conduct tests, administer antibiotics,...
Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Viral arteritis is not very common </li></ul><ul><li>Viral arteritis is a contagious viral infecti...
Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Treatment includes rest, proper nursing, and antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>A vaccination is availa...
Pharyngitis <ul><li>Pharyngitis is an inflammation of pharynx which is common in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Often the only s...
Pharyngitis <ul><li>The exact cause is unknown, but bacteria, air pollution, and stress have been blamed </li></ul><ul><li...
Laryngitis <ul><li>Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx which is common in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of lar...
Laryngitis <ul><li>Causes may include exposure to dust, smoke and pollution, stress, improper use of a stomach tube, and a...
Coughs <ul><li>Coughs are a symptom, and should not be treated without finding and treating the cause as well </li></ul><u...
Epistaxis and Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage <ul><li>Epistaxis, commonly called a nosebleed, occurs during or after...
EIPH <ul><li>Bleeding in the lungs during work is called exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and if it occurs frequentl...
EIPH <ul><li>Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage is associated with a rise in blood pressure during exercise which ruptu...
EIPH <ul><li>Bartlett’s Childers, through whom 90 percent of all thoroughbreds trace back to the Darley Arabian in their t...
Tetanus <ul><li>Tetanus is sometimes called lockjaw </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus begins with bacterial infection in a punctur...
Tetanus <ul><li>An anaerobic bacteria is a bacteria which does not require oxygen in order to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Sy...
Tetanus <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL THE VET who will administer tranquilizers and muscle relaxants to red...
Tetanus <ul><li>Prevention of tetanus includes vaccination with either tetanus toxoid (preferable) or tetanus antitoxin an...
Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>There are three kinds of equine encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Equine En...
Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>VEE has been almost entirely wiped out </li></ul><ul><li>In all three, the brain and spin...
Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>The symptoms of all three include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call the vet, who will administer an anti-inflammatory dr...
Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Prevention includes vaccination against EEE and WEE; VEE is extremely rare, although ther...
Wobbler Syndrome <ul><li>Wobbles is what killed Calumet Farm’s remarkably fast colt Gen. Duke, the “horse time has forgott...
Wobbler Syndrome <ul><li>Treatment: injections of corticosteroids help for a while, but once the horse can no longer move ...
Rabies <ul><li>Rabies is a deadly viral disease which attacks the nervous system and is spread through the saliva of infec...
Rabies <ul><li>Euthanasia is the only treatment, and government health officials will require an autopsy in all suspected ...
Equine Infectious Anemia <ul><li>Common names include swamp fever and EIA </li></ul><ul><li>EIA is an infectious viral dis...
Equine Infectious Anemia <ul><li>Subacute or chronic EIA only shows in poor condition and an occasional fever; unapparent ...
Myocarditis <ul><li>Myocarditis, or heart strain, is the most common heart problem in the horse, and heart conditions are ...
Anemia <ul><li>Anemia is a condition in which the horse has a deficiency of either red blood cells (erythrocytes) or hemog...
Anemia <ul><li>Iron and copper deficiencies can cause anemia </li></ul>
Nephritis <ul><li>Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney, usually caused by toxic irritants </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic irrit...
Serum Hepatitis (Theiler’s Disease) <ul><li>Serum hepatitis is an acute toxic inflammation of the liver, probably caused b...
Serum Hepatitis <ul><li>Treatment for serum hepatitis involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering mineral oil and neomyci...
Chronic Interstitial Hepatitis <ul><li>Chronic interstitial hepatitis is cirrhosis of the liver, usually as a secondary co...
Jaundice (Icterus) <ul><li>Jaundice is a symptom, not a disease in its own </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice is a yellowness of t...
Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, causing an imbalance of su...
Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes causes weight loss, metabolic problems, increased water intake, and excessive urination </li></u...
Hyperlipemia <ul><li>Hyperlipemia is an excess level of lipids (fats) in the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of hyp...
Salivary Calculi (Cheek Stones) <ul><li>Salivary calculi is the blockage of the duct serving the paratid salivary gland, a...
Epiphora <ul><li>Epiphora is excessive lacrimation (tearing) </li></ul><ul><li>Tears should drain down the nasolacrimal du...
Conjunctivitis <ul><li>Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye, and is one of the most common eye ...
Conjunctivitis <ul><li>Conjunctivitis may be caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Blepharospasm <ul><li>Blepharospasm is the contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle, causing the eyelids to be tightly ...
Periodic Ophthalmia (Recurrent Uveitis) <ul><li>Period opthalmia is commonly called moonblindness </li></ul><ul><li>Period...
Periodic Opthalmia <ul><li>The exact cause of periodic opthalmia is unknown, but suspected factors include </li></ul><ul><...
Periodic Opthalmia <ul><li>The test for periodic opthalmia involves injecting fluorescein dye, which will appear green in ...
Periodic Opthalmia <ul><li>There is no treatment for periodic opthalmia, but keeping the horse in a dark stall during the ...
Photophobia <ul><li>Photophoia is the inability to tolerate light, and is usually a symptom of some other disorder </li></...
Cataracts <ul><li>Cataracts are opacities of the optic lens (clouding of the eye) </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts may be conge...
Glaucoma <ul><li>Glaucoma is an increase in intraocular pressure (pressure within the eyeball) </li></ul><ul><li>Glaucoma ...
Dermoid Cysts <ul><li>A dermoid cyst is a misplaced growth of skin which grows and produces hair wherever it happens to be...
Detached Corpora Nigra <ul><li>Detached corpora nigra is a condition in which the part of the eye that reduces light intak...
Corneal Ulcerations <ul><li>Corneal ulceration are severe sores on the cornea, caused by trauma to the eye, such as a dire...
Entropion and Ectropion <ul><li>Entropion is the inversion (folding in) of the eyelid and lashes, usually involving the lo...
Entropion and Ectropion <ul><li>Both entropion and ectropion may be congenital (present at birth) or trauma induced </li><...
Skin Disorders <ul><li>Many skin disorders are caused by parasitic conditions, so please see the notes on parasites, inclu...
Urticaria <ul><li>Urticaria, or hives, is an acute allergic skin reaction that is due to increased capillary permeability ...
Urticaria <ul><li>Urticaria will disappear after the cause has been identified and removed </li></ul>
Habronemiasis (Summer Sores) <ul><li>Habronemiasis, or summer sores, is a skin condition caused by the larval stage of the...
Summer Sores <ul><li>Symptoms of summer sores include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pus filled lesions which granulate and enlarge...
Mange <ul><li>Mange is a parasitic skin infection caused by mites </li></ul><ul><li>The three types of mange are sarcoptic...
Mange <ul><li>Psoroptic mange is the most contagious, and the scabs are moist, not dry </li></ul><ul><li>Chorioptic mange ...
Warbles <ul><li>Warbles is an infestation of hypoderma, or “cattle grub” which burrows beneath the skin over the withers, ...
Aural Plaques <ul><li>Aural plaques are white or gray lesions found on the inner surface of the outer ear that resembles w...
Ventral Midline Dermatitis <ul><li>Ventral midline dermatitis is a line of thickened, scaly lesions on the belly, caused b...
Simulidae <ul><li>Simulidae is a potentially deadly skin condition caused by the bite of the black fly (buffalo gnat) </li...
Simulidae <ul><li>Symptoms of simulidae include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood congested swellings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Onchocercal Filariasis <ul><li>Onchocercal filrariasis is the infestation of the nematode onchocerca cervicalis </li></ul>...
Onchocercal Filariasis <ul><li>This condition may be related to periodic opthalmia </li></ul>
Allergic Dermatitis (Queensland Itch or Sweet Itch) <ul><li>Allergic dermatitis is an allergic reaction to the bite of the...
Photosensitization <ul><li>Photosensitization is caused by hypersensitivity to the sun, resulting from photodynamic substa...
Photosensitization <ul><li>Treatment includes identifying the plant containing the photodynamic substances and removing it...
Dermatophilosis (Rain Scald) <ul><li>Dermatophilosis, also called streptothricosis or “rain scald” is a skin condition spr...
Rain Scald <ul><li>Treatment includes protection from rain and flies, rigorous grooming, and application of antibiotic oin...
Contact Dermatitis <ul><li>Contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin in response to irritating conditions </li></u...
Vitiligo <ul><li>Vitiligo is a loss of pigment from the skin, there is no treatment, and the cause is unknown </li></ul>
Cutaneous Papillomatosis (Warts) <ul><li>Warts are epidermal growths that are caused by a virus, and they are benign (not ...
Eczema <ul><li>Eczema is a skin condition in which moist patches appear on the skin and horse may stock up </li></ul><ul><...
Anhidrosis <ul><li>Anhidrosis is an inability to sweat </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for anhidrosis are unknown, but it is...
Potomac Horse Fever <ul><li>Potomac horse fever is a fatal viral disease spread by insects which was discovered in Marylan...
Combined Immunodeficiency (CID) <ul><li>Combined immunodeficiency is an immune disorder found in Arabian foals </li></ul><...
Inflammations vs Organ Involved The intestines Enteritis Brain and spinal cord Encephalomyelitis The brain Encephalitis Th...
Inflammations vs Organ Involved The kidneys Nephritis Muscle Myositis Spinal cord membranes Meningitis The uterus Metritis...
Inflammations vs Organ Involved The eye Uveitis Mucous membranes Rhinitis The pharynx Pharyngitis Intestinal membrane Peri...
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Diseases And Disorders

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Diseases And Disorders

  1. 1. Diseases And Disorders Anastasia Kellogg
  2. 2. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Abscess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A localized collection of fluid (often pus) in a tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acidosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condition of acid accumulation in the body due to a disturbance of the acid-alkaline balance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having a short and relatively severe course or duration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal fibrous connection between structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A microorganism that lives in the presence of oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Alkalosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disturbance of the acid-alkaline balance resulting in too little acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alopecia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A loss of hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaerobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organism capable of living/growing without oxygen (ie clostridium tetani) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A blood disorder characterized by a low red cell count or a low amount of hemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Anhidrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inability to sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anoxia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical substance produced by microorganisms which has the ability to inhibit or kill other microorganisms </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Ascites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of fluid in the abdomen (ie after congestive heart failure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ataxia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoordination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atresia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A closure of a normal body opening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atrophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decrease in the size of a tissue or organ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ausculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to an organ during diagnosis </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any microorganism of the class Schizomycetes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not malignant or recurrable, (not cancerous) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Borborygmi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gut sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An abnormally slow heartrate </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Bursa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sac filled with fluid and found wherever there might otherwise be friction between bodily structures, especially around tendons, and may also be found where muscles pass over one another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cachexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasting or malnutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tube inserted into a body cavity to remove fluid </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Capillary Refill Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time required for normal blood flow and and color to return to an area of the gingava to which pressure has been applied (1-2 seconds) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term, continued, and NOT ACUTE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congenital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contagious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be passed from one horse to another </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Contusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bruise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cystitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the urinary bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of fluid from the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent passing of abnormally liquid feces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysphagia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in swallowing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dystocia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally difficult foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysuria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in urination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eczema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A term for dermatitis (inflammation of the skin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encephalitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enteritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epistaxis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nosebleed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Euthanasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercy killing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having a disagreeable odor (ie thrush) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation of the body temperature above normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flaccid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flabby and without tone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fossa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hollow or depressed area, especially in a bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the group of organisms responsible for mycotic diseases (ie ringworm) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Gingiva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gums of the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gut Stasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An absence of peristalsis and borborygmi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hematoma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A localized collection of blood in a tissue due to blood vessel breakage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hernia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Hygroma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sac distended with a serous fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyper- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prefix which means too much </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Icterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to the disease in question </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Immunization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of making an individual immune, usually through vaccination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking something into the body through the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condition in which bile is deposited in the skin, resulting in a yellowish appearance </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Laceration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A torn, jagged-edged wound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacrimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watering of the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luxation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislocation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malignant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tending to become progressively worse, usually refers to tumors which grow back if removed, and usually results in death </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Mastitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the udder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nephritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteomyelitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection of bone, usually in the lower legs of young horses following injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paralysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of the ability of movement </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The membrane that surrounds a bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periostitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the periosteum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peritoneum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The membrane that surrounds the intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peritonitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the peritoneum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depraved appetite; eating things that are not food </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Pyrexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fever; an abnormally high body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quidding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping half chewed food from the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhinitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the mucous membranes (catarrh) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Septicemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of a disease </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally fast heartrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organic poison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tumor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mass of new tissue which grows independently and has no useful function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hollowed out space in an organ or tissue, especially the stomach, forming a weak spot due to irritation and loss of dead tissue </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Basic Medical Definitions <ul><li>Urticaria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disease carrying organism </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Digestive Disorders <ul><li>The three main problems caused by improper feeding are colic, laminitis (founder), and choke </li></ul>
  23. 23. Colic <ul><li>Colic is the number one killer of horses in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Colic is a general term applied to abdominal pain, usually associated with some form of intestinal spasm or blockage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Colic <ul><li>Colic may be caused by overeating, a sudden change in diet, exercise too soon after eating, overwork, chewing problems, parasites (especially large strongyles, ingesting sand when eating off the ground, chewing on and swallowing rubber (off of fences or feeders), drinking while hot, lipomas (fatty tumors), embolisms, or gas </li></ul>
  25. 25. Colic <ul><li>Symptoms of colic include signs of discomfort and restlessness, biting at the flanks, kicking at the stomach, pawing and stomping, elevated temperature, sweating, abnormal pulse, attempting to lay down and roll, abnormal borborygmi (gut sounds) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Colic <ul><li>Problems in the uterus, kidneys, and bladder may also create symptoms of colic </li></ul><ul><li>A colicky horse should be walked, and not allowed to roll, and the vet should be called, especially in the case of gut stasis (absence of gut sounds) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Colic <ul><li>Rolling could cause a usually fatal condition known as twisted gut, or a knot in the intestine, and if the horse cannot be transported to a facility for surgery almost immediately it will be fatal </li></ul><ul><li>A horse with a twisted gut will be in extreme pain, and his actions will be violent </li></ul>
  28. 28. Colic <ul><li>If an untreated, colicky horse shows sudden relief of pain, it is an extremely bad sign. The horse’s intestines have probably ruptured and this will probably be fatal </li></ul>
  29. 29. Colic <ul><li>The four major types of colic are Spasmodic Colic (cramp colic), Flatulent Colic (gaseous distention, tympanitic colic, wind colic, bloat), Impaction Colic (Obstructive Colic), and Intestinal Catastrophy or Twisted Gut (including torsion, intussusception, and volvulus colic) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Spasmodic Colic <ul><li>Spasmodic colic involves sudden, severe contractions in the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Spasmodic colic is commonly called cramp colic </li></ul><ul><li>Spasmodic colic is most frequently caused by drinking while hot, drinking large quantities of cold water, overwork, chilling after work or in severe rain and cold </li></ul>
  31. 31. Spasmodic Colic <ul><li>In a case of spasmodic colic, the onset of symptoms is sudden and severe </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of spasmodic colic include severe pain, pawing, kicking at the belly, biting at the flanks, stretching as though to urinate, lying down and getting up repeatedly, rolling, and violent behavior as pain increases </li></ul>
  32. 32. Spasmodic Colic <ul><li>In the case of spasmodic colic, borborygmi (gut sounds) will increase </li></ul><ul><li>The horse should be walked and not allowed to roll </li></ul><ul><li>A veterinarian will administer a spasmolytic (relaxant) drug </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent spasmodic colic is often the work of the large strongyle, which damages the mesentary artery </li></ul>
  33. 33. Impaction Colic <ul><li>Impaction colic involves an obstruction (blockage) in the large or small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Impaction colic is sometimes called obstructive colic </li></ul><ul><li>Sand colic is a form of impaction colic </li></ul>
  34. 34. Impaction Colic <ul><li>Impaction colic is most frequently caused by bolting the feed, overeating, eating straw bedding, intestinal calculi (intestinal stones, often caused by eating rubber or other foreign objects), ingesting sand, blockage of the intestines by the large roundworm (Ascaris equorum) and fatty tumors </li></ul>
  35. 35. Impaction Colic <ul><li>In the case of impaction colic, the onset of symptoms is gradual </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of impaction colic include poor appetite, decreased passing of manure, manure is harder and drier than normal, and symptoms of abdominal pain come and go with increasing severity </li></ul>
  36. 36. Impaction Colic <ul><li>In the case of impaction colic, borborygmi (gut sounds) will be absent </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral oil is often administered through a stomach tube in this type of colic, in addition to painkilling drugs </li></ul>
  37. 37. Flatulent Colic <ul><li>Flatulent colic, or gaseous distension, involves a severe case of gas </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous distension is commonly caused by eating too much lush pasture or large quantities of green vegetables, or feeding moldy hay or other poor quality feed, or as a result of impaction colic </li></ul>
  38. 38. Flatulent Colic <ul><li>In the case of gaseous distension, symptoms are neither as sudden and severe as in spasmodic colic nor as gradual as in impaction colic </li></ul>
  39. 39. Flatulent Colic <ul><li>Symptoms of gaseous distension include an enlargment of the abdomen, most noticeable in the upper right flank, abnormal respiration rate (due to pressure on the diaphragm), small quantities of manure, and signs of abdominal pain such as pawing, kicking the belly, and biting the flanks </li></ul>
  40. 40. Flatulent Colic <ul><li>Treatment of gaseous distention includes walking, administering mineral oil through a stomach tube, and in severe cases performing a laparotomy (opening the abdomen to release gas) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Intestinal Catastrophe <ul><li>Intestinal catastrophe involves a twisting or inversion of the intestine, and is severe and often fatal </li></ul>
  42. 42. Intestinal Catastrophe <ul><li>Types of intestinal catastrophe include volvulus (twisting) of the intestines, intussusception (telescoping of the intestines), and rotation of the intestine around the mesentary (a double fold of the peritoneum which supports the intestines thorough which blood vessels run) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Intestinal Catastrophe <ul><li>Intestinal catastrophe is commonly called Twisted Gut </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted gut is caused by rolling during one of the other types of colic </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include severe pain and violent behavior, sweating, fast pulse rate, collapse, shock, and death </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery is often the only treatment for twisted gut </li></ul>
  44. 44. Laminitis <ul><li>Laminitis is commonly called founder </li></ul><ul><li>Laminitis is a systematic shock characterized by ripples in the hoof wall due to damage of the sensitive laminae in the hoof. In severe cases, the coffin bone will rotate, and even protrude through the sole of the hoof </li></ul>
  45. 45. Laminitis <ul><li>Founder is caused by watering when hot, overeating, bedding on black walnut shavings, concussion to the hoof (road founder), turning out on lush pasture when not conditioned to it, improper cooling out after work, retained placenta after foaling (postparturient founder), standing for long periods during shipping, and obesity </li></ul>
  46. 46. Laminitis <ul><li>Laminitis develops when one of the above situations causes a development of organic toxins, leading to systemic shock which causes a release of histamine into the circulating blood; vascular changes cause a severe decrease in the arterial blood to the arch of the foot, leading to the characteristic problems of laminitis </li></ul>
  47. 47. Laminitis <ul><li>Symptoms include heat in the hooves, a pounding pulse in the vessels supplying the hoof (digital arteries), lameness, and the “founder stance” </li></ul><ul><li>A foundered horse will stand with all four feet as far forward as possible, because he is attempting to remove his weight from his toes </li></ul>
  48. 48. Laminitis <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL THE VET. THIS IS AN EMERGENCY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soak the horse’s feet in ice water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vet will inject antihistamines and perhaps diuretics to reduce edema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bute and pads on the feet will help reduce pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited forced exercise is often necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packing the feet may provide some relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention includes proper management and checking the mare’s afterbirth to be sure no part of it has been retained </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Laminitis <ul><li>Chronic laminitis results from a case of laminitis that progresses to produce a deformity in the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Results of chronic laminitis includes a dropped sole, rings around the hoof parallel to the coronary band, and rotation of the coffin bone </li></ul>
  50. 50. Laminitis <ul><li>Due to the weakening of the structures surrounding the coffin bone, the deep digital flexor tendon, which attaches to the back of the coffin bone, may pull upward and dislocate the bone, causing it to protrude through the sole </li></ul><ul><li>Rings on the hoof wall result from varied hoof growth caused by poor blood supply to the hoof </li></ul>
  51. 51. Laminitis <ul><li>Careful, regular hoof trimming and rest are essential to recovery </li></ul><ul><li>A heart-bar shoe may provide relief to a horse with chronic laminitis </li></ul><ul><li>It may take a year of rest before a horse can return to work after the onset of laminitis </li></ul>
  52. 52. Choke <ul><li>Choke is exactly what the name implies, the horse has choked on his feed and has a bolus lodged in his esophagus (not the trachea) </li></ul><ul><li>Choke is caused by whole apples, fine leaves in hay, and small, dry pellets when eaten by greedy horses or horses who bolt their feed </li></ul>
  53. 53. Choke <ul><li>Symptoms of choke include great distress, head poked forward, coughing, excessive salivation, sweating, stamping, running backwards, food and water may pass out of the nostrils </li></ul><ul><li>A choking horse should be allowed to get it’s head down to cough, and a veterinarian should be called </li></ul>
  54. 54. Choke <ul><li>Due to spasms of the esophagus, it may be necessary to use tranquilizers to relax the muscles and withdraw the object from the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>If fluid and particles drain into the lungs, aspiratic pneumonia will set in, and this condition is always fatal </li></ul>
  55. 55. Choke <ul><li>To prevent choke, any treats fed should be cut into small pieces, and horses that bolt their feed should have a few large stones placed in their feed tub to slow them down </li></ul><ul><li>Hay should never be fed in a place where the horse would be unable to get his head down, and horses should be checked often during shipping </li></ul>
  56. 56. Diarrhea <ul><li>Diarrhea, or scours, is a symptom, not a disease, in which the feces are watery, frequent, and often discolored </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea often occurs in the young foal during his dam’s foal heat, about seven to ten days after foaling </li></ul>
  57. 57. Diarrhea <ul><li>Causes of diarrhea include infection, stress, overeating, poisoning, and the bacteria salmonella in the case of salmonellosis </li></ul>
  58. 58. Protozoal Diarrhea <ul><li>Protozoal diarrhea is caused by stress, which allows the protozoa Trichomonas to multiply rapidly, and is severe </li></ul>
  59. 59. Protozoal Diarrhea <ul><li>Treatment for protozoal diarrhea includes the veterinary administration of fluids, electrolytes (due to water loss), and a trichomonacide, followed by a mixture of feces from a healthy horse to reestablish the proper bacterial mixture in the intestines </li></ul>
  60. 60. Colitis-X <ul><li>Colitis-X is a swelling of the colon due to stress, and may be fatal if not treated quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe depression and weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak, rapid pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyspnea (difficulty breathing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock and subnormal temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue mucosa </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Colitis-X <ul><li>Treatment: call the vet, who will administer electrolytes, fluids, and antibiotics </li></ul>
  62. 62. Salmonellosis <ul><li>Salmonellosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria salmonellosis </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonellosis can cause diarrhea, endotoxemia, septicemia, internal abscesses, abortion, and death </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes antibiotics and dehydration treatment </li></ul>
  63. 63. Enteritis <ul><li>Enteritis is the inflammation of the intestines, often resulting in diarrhea, and is a condition, not a disease </li></ul><ul><li>Enteritis may be caused by dietary problems, intestinal impaction, intestinal calculi (bowel stones), ingestion of sand, and ingestion of irritant drugs or poisonous plants </li></ul>
  64. 64. Enteritis <ul><li>Symptoms of enteritis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dullness and lack of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colic symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The vet should be called, and food withheld until a complete diagnosis is made, but water should be available </li></ul>
  65. 65. Croupous Enteritis <ul><li>Croupous enteritis is an inflammation of the intestines due to a retention of oxalic acid in the blood cause by eating foods high in oxalates, such as beet tops </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of croupous enteritis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood streaked diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restlessness, then depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickened intestinal wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Temperature is normal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes mineral oil, antibiotics, intestinal protectants, and rest </li></ul>
  66. 66. Emaciation <ul><li>Emaciation is muscle wasting and weight loss caused by starvation, parasites, bad teeth or enteritis </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment involves increasing the diet (with care) and eliminating the cause of the condition, either by treating the enteritis or by deworming the horse </li></ul>
  67. 67. Emaciation <ul><li>In the case of bad teeth, the horse may be switched to a pelleted ration, and hard to chew feeds such as corn should be removed from the diet </li></ul>
  68. 68. Hernia <ul><li>The term hernia refers to a rupture, and is a protrusion of any organ through the wall of its cavity, and usually involves the abdominal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>The three types of hernias are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducible (can be pushed back) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreducible (cannot be pushed back) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strangulated (blood supply is cut off) </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Hernia <ul><li>Most abdominal hernias are reducible </li></ul><ul><li>The four types of abdominal hernias are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inguinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An umbilical hernia occurs in foals, and is an imperfect closure of the umbilicus through which a portion of the intestine is protruding </li></ul>
  70. 70. Hernia <ul><li>Umbilical hernias should be watched closely, but left alone, since they usually correct themselves </li></ul><ul><li>A scrotal hernia may also occur in a foal, and involves a portion of the intestine protruding into the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>A inguinal hernia is simply a scrotal hernia that did not reach the scrotum, but stopped in the inguinal cavity </li></ul>
  71. 71. Hernia <ul><li>Scrotal and inguinal hernias usually correct themselves </li></ul><ul><li>A ventral hernia occurs due to injury to the abdominal wall, and surgery is necessary to correct the condition </li></ul>
  72. 72. Hernia <ul><li>Old broodmares sometimes suffer a ventral hernia due to rupture of the broad ligament and/or other supporting structures, and euthanasia is often the only solution </li></ul>
  73. 73. Pervious Urachus (Leaky Naval) <ul><li>Pervious urachus is a common condition in foals, where urine is being passed through the naval </li></ul><ul><li>In the fetus, urine is passed through the urachus, a small structure within the umbilical cord, and into the allantoic sac, rather than through the urethra </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of pervious urachus, the closure of the urachus is imperfect and urine dribbles through the naval, and most cases correct themselves </li></ul>
  74. 74. Dehydration <ul><li>Dehydration is a loss of fluid from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration may be caused by diarrhea, excessive sweating, heat stress, and lack of fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of dehydration include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dullness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunken eyeballs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in skin elasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased pulse rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased respiration rate </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Dehydration <ul><li>The dehydration test involves pinching a fold of skin. If it sticks together, the horse is dehydrated </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for dehydration includes replacing the lost fluid, with a stomach tube or even intravenously if necessary, and giving a balanced mixture of electrolytes </li></ul>
  76. 76. Dehydration <ul><li>If the horse’s reluctance to drink strange water during a trip has caused the dehydration, force feeding large quantities of salt may drive them to drink, and in the future strange water may be disguised with molasses </li></ul>
  77. 77. Heatstroke <ul><li>Heatstroke is due to the upset of the temperature regulating mechanisms of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of heatstroke include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperature, low humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working hard in extreme conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working for long periods in the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of adequate water </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Heatstroke <ul><li>Symptoms of heatstroke develop suddenly, and include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distress and high temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased respiratory rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak, rapid pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nostrils red and dilated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilated pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staggering and collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes moving the horse to the shade, cold hosing, ice applied to the head and jugular groove, in order to reduce body temperature, followed by rest </li></ul>
  79. 79. Azoturia <ul><li>Common names include tying up, setfast, Monday morning disease, coffee urine disease, and blackwater disease </li></ul><ul><li>Rhabdomyolysis is also a term for azoturia </li></ul><ul><li>The term tying up usually refers to a mild version of azoturia </li></ul><ul><li>While not a digestive disorder, azoturia is caused by dietary factors </li></ul>
  80. 80. Azoturia <ul><li>Azoturia usually occurs in horses that are used to hard work and good feed when they are given several days of rest without dietary adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Azoturia may be related to selenium and vitamin E </li></ul>
  81. 81. Azoturia <ul><li>In azoturia, muscle tissue is destroyed, and as the muscles break down, they release myoglobin, which is passed out through the urine, causing kidney damage </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tremors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctance to move which increases with work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles will eventually be hot, swollen, and trembling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hindquarters are most often affected first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A discoloration of the urine (usually to dark brown) </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Azoturia <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop the horse as soon as symptoms begin, and do not move it again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply cold packs to the area, and call the vet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT APPLY HEAT, it will spread the damage by increasing circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vet will give a muscle relaxant and an anti-inflammatory drug such as bute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A supplement of vitamin E and selenium will help remove the myoglobins and other by-products from the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During recovery, the horse should not receive grain </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Azoturia <ul><li>Prevention: a balanced diet, and reduction of protein intake during idle periods is best </li></ul><ul><li>Mares tie up more frequently than stallions and geldings </li></ul>
  84. 84. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) <ul><li>Also called pulmonary emphysema, heaves, equine asthma, and broken wind </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: a heavey horse will have a chronic cough, and may eventually develop a heave line; a heave line is a line of overdeveloped muscles along the bottom of the rib cage caused by the effort of constant coughing </li></ul>
  85. 85. COPD <ul><li>Treatment: the horse’s intake of hay should be reduced, replacing it with pelleted rations and beet pulp, and if the horse gets hay, it should be watered down to reduce dust; straw bedding should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention includes avoiding dusty or moldy hay </li></ul>
  86. 86. Laryngeal Hemiplegia <ul><li>Laryngeal hemiplagia is commonly referred to as roaring or whistling (or laryngeal paralysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Roaring is caused by a paralysis of the left side of the larynx due to the degeneration of the recurrent nerve which supplies the muscles of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Laryngeal hemiplagia is hereditary </li></ul>
  87. 87. Laryngeal Hemiplegia <ul><li>Paralysis occurs on the left side of the larynx because the left recurrent nerve is longer than the right, due to the fact that the left recurrent nerve is forced to wrap around the aorta, while the right recurrent nerve is allowed to take a more direct path </li></ul>
  88. 88. Laryngeal Hemiplagia <ul><li>Although laryngeal hemiplagia may not be prevented or cured, the affected side of the larynx may be tied back surgically, reducing the resistance it causes </li></ul>
  89. 89. Rhinopneumonitis <ul><li>Rhinopnemonitis is commonly called rhino </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinopneumonitis is a viral infection most commonly affecting young horses and pregnant mares </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinopneumonitis is caused by the equine herpes I virus </li></ul>
  90. 90. Rhino <ul><li>Rhino may cause abortion (loss of a fetus) in broodmares, or even an “abortion storm” effecting an entire farm </li></ul>
  91. 91. Rhino <ul><li>Symptoms of abortion include a sticky, rust colored discharge from the vulva, and if the abortion occurs later in the pregnancy, the placenta may be retained, leading to severe metritis (inflammation of the uterus) and perhaps laminitis </li></ul>
  92. 92. Rhino <ul><li>Symptoms of rhino include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge, cough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling of the eyelids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper respiratory inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever and lack of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call the vet, who will administer an antibacterial treatment to prevent secondary infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate sick horses from healthy ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate healthy horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest is essential </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Rhino <ul><li>Prevention of rhinopneumonitis includes vaccination and avoiding exposure of healthy animals to horses with rhino </li></ul>
  94. 94. Pleurisy <ul><li>Pleurisy is a severe inflammation of the membrane surrounding the lungs, and is not a common condition in the horse, although it may occur in severe cases of pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of pleurisy include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctance to move or turn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shivering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dullness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, shallow breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid in the thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Pleurisy <ul><li>Treatment includes calling the vet, draining the thoracic cavity, administering antibiotics, and good nursing </li></ul>
  96. 96. Equine Influenza <ul><li>Equine influenza is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract caused by the in influenza virus a/equi 1 or A/equi 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Complications may involve the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of influenza include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry cough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate fever (102 to 106) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serous nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dsyspnea (difficulty breathing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and weakness </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. Equine Influenza <ul><li>Treatment: isolate the infected horse, and keep him warm and dry; rest for at least 10 days is essential; water down hay to reduce dust </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention includes vaccination and proper management </li></ul>
  98. 98. Strangles <ul><li>Strangles may also be called distemper or shipping fever </li></ul><ul><li>Strangles is an extremely contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria responsible for strangles is streptococcus equi or streptococcus zooepidemicus </li></ul>
  99. 99. Strangles <ul><li>The symptoms of strangles include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling of the lymph glands in the head and neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abscessing of the lymph glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high fever (103-106 degrees) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff extension of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysphagia (difficult swallowing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A moist cough </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Strangles <ul><li>Treatment: immediately isolate infected horse(s) and call the vet, who will give penicillin and streptomycin, and may surgically drain the abscesses in the lymph nodes, or simply encourage them to break naturally with warm applications </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of strangles include vaccination </li></ul>
  101. 101. Pneumonia <ul><li>Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs that usually occurs as a secondary complication to another disease, often resulting from the mismanagement of sick horse </li></ul><ul><li>A mild viral infection of the upper respiratory tract may lead to pneumonia through a secondary bacterial infection </li></ul>
  102. 102. Pneumonia <ul><li>Aspiration pneumonia results from a foreign body in the lungs, and may be caused by the improper passage of a stomach tube, smoke inhalation, or a complication of choke </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of pneumonia include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever (104-106 degrees) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyspnea (difficult breathing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cough </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Pneumonia <ul><li>Treatment: keep the horse warm and dry, and call the vet who will conduct tests, administer antibiotics, and perhaps use inhalation therapy (nebulization or misting); rest is essential for about a month </li></ul>
  104. 104. Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Viral arteritis is not very common </li></ul><ul><li>Viral arteritis is a contagious viral infection which causes a partial degeneration of the arterial walls and may cause abortions in broodmares </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of viral arteritis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling of limbs, face, eyelids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive lab test </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Treatment includes rest, proper nursing, and antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>A vaccination is available but usually not necessary </li></ul>
  106. 106. Pharyngitis <ul><li>Pharyngitis is an inflammation of pharynx which is common in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Often the only sign of pharyngitis is poor performance (ie Affirmed in the 1978 Marlboro Cup) </li></ul><ul><li>Later, symptoms may include abnormal sounds, coughing, and epistaxis (nosebleeding) </li></ul>
  107. 107. Pharyngitis <ul><li>The exact cause is unknown, but bacteria, air pollution, and stress have been blamed </li></ul><ul><li>The only treatment is rest and perhaps antibiotics </li></ul>
  108. 108. Laryngitis <ul><li>Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx which is common in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of laryngitis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red mucous membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure to the area over the larynx produces coughing, pain </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. Laryngitis <ul><li>Causes may include exposure to dust, smoke and pollution, stress, improper use of a stomach tube, and as a secondary condition to diseases such as strangles </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes rest and good nursing </li></ul>
  110. 110. Coughs <ul><li>Coughs are a symptom, and should not be treated without finding and treating the cause as well </li></ul><ul><li>The causes of a cough include respiratory infection, parasites, choke, dry respiratory passages, and dust </li></ul>
  111. 111. Epistaxis and Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage <ul><li>Epistaxis, commonly called a nosebleed, occurs during or after stressful and demanding activity </li></ul><ul><li>The blood may originate in the nasal passages or the lungs (exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage) </li></ul>
  112. 112. EIPH <ul><li>Bleeding in the lungs during work is called exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and if it occurs frequently the horse is said to be a “bleeder” </li></ul>
  113. 113. EIPH <ul><li>Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage is associated with a rise in blood pressure during exercise which ruptures fragile capillaries in the nasal passages and respiratory system, and the condition is thought to be hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage is most common in thoroughbred race horses </li></ul>
  114. 114. EIPH <ul><li>Bartlett’s Childers, through whom 90 percent of all thoroughbreds trace back to the Darley Arabian in their tail male lines, was a bleeder (and the condition may be hereditary) </li></ul><ul><li>The drug Furosemide (Lasix) is commonly used in treating bleeders, since it lowers blood pressure </li></ul>
  115. 115. Tetanus <ul><li>Tetanus is sometimes called lockjaw </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus begins with bacterial infection in a puncture wound, and becomes a dangerous disease with a mortality (death) rate of 80 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus is caused by clostridium tetani, an anaerobic bacteria </li></ul>
  116. 116. Tetanus <ul><li>An anaerobic bacteria is a bacteria which does not require oxygen in order to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of tetanus include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle stiffness and spasms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third eyelid is visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses to stimuli are exaggerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If left untreated, the horse will collapse, be unable to rise, sweat profusely, and have a high fever that ends in death </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. Tetanus <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL THE VET who will administer tranquilizers and muscle relaxants to reduce muscular spasms, antibiotics, and tetanus antitoxin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The horse should be kept in a cool, dark stall, and be allowed to rest for several weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be necessary to use a stomach tube if the horse is unable to swallow </li></ul></ul>
  118. 118. Tetanus <ul><li>Prevention of tetanus includes vaccination with either tetanus toxoid (preferable) or tetanus antitoxin and the proper care of wounds; if a horse that is not on a vaccination program is wounded, vaccination with tetanus antitoxin will provide protection more quickly </li></ul>
  119. 119. Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>There are three kinds of equine encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (WEE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The most serious of the three is EEE, which has a mortality rate of ninety percent </li></ul><ul><li>WEE has a mortality rate of fifty percent </li></ul>
  120. 120. Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>VEE has been almost entirely wiped out </li></ul><ul><li>In all three, the brain and spinal cord are inflamed due to a viral disease transmitted by insects from carriers such as birds and rodents </li></ul>
  121. 121. Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>The symptoms of all three include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and excessive amount of sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tremors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drooped lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to swallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual behavior (aimless wandering, attempts to climb trees and other objects, walking into walls, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  122. 122. Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call the vet, who will administer an anti-inflammatory drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the horse confined to prevent a self induced injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be necessary to use a sling to keep the horse standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying ice to the head may help reduce pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the horse survives, there is a chance of brain damage </li></ul>
  123. 123. Equine Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Prevention includes vaccination against EEE and WEE; VEE is extremely rare, although there is a vaccine available </li></ul>
  124. 124. Wobbler Syndrome <ul><li>Wobbles is what killed Calumet Farm’s remarkably fast colt Gen. Duke, the “horse time has forgotten,” in 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Wobbles is a lack of coordination that begins in the hind limbs and spreads to the front due to lesions in the spinal column which may be hereditary </li></ul>
  125. 125. Wobbler Syndrome <ul><li>Treatment: injections of corticosteroids help for a while, but once the horse can no longer move around, euthanasia is necessary </li></ul>
  126. 126. Rabies <ul><li>Rabies is a deadly viral disease which attacks the nervous system and is spread through the saliva of infected animals; all mammals are susceptible to rabies, including humans, and it always results in death </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the bite wound that is the source of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperexcitability and aggresiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convulsion and paralysis followed by death </li></ul></ul>
  127. 127. Rabies <ul><li>Euthanasia is the only treatment, and government health officials will require an autopsy in all suspected cases </li></ul>
  128. 128. Equine Infectious Anemia <ul><li>Common names include swamp fever and EIA </li></ul><ul><li>EIA is an infectious viral disease spread by biting insects and causing anemia </li></ul><ul><li>In acute EIA, the symptoms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden high fever (105-108) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy sweating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The horse will either recover or die within a week </li></ul></ul>
  129. 129. Equine Infectious Anemia <ul><li>Subacute or chronic EIA only shows in poor condition and an occasional fever; unapparent carriers show no symptoms at all, but test positive when given a Coggin’s test </li></ul><ul><li>There is no treatment or cure for EIA </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention requires testing all horses on a bi-yearly basis, using the agar-gel immunodiffusion test, or Coggin’s test and destroying all horse’s that test positive; this testing procedure has almost entirely wiped out EIA </li></ul>
  130. 130. Myocarditis <ul><li>Myocarditis, or heart strain, is the most common heart problem in the horse, and heart conditions are rare </li></ul><ul><li>Rest is the only treatment </li></ul>
  131. 131. Anemia <ul><li>Anemia is a condition in which the horse has a deficiency of either red blood cells (erythrocytes) or hemoglobin (oxygen carrying pigment) in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia is not a primary disease, but a symptom of other disorders, or the result of a deficiency in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>The horse’s normal red cell count should be between 6 million and 12 million (9 million) </li></ul>
  132. 132. Anemia <ul><li>Iron and copper deficiencies can cause anemia </li></ul>
  133. 133. Nephritis <ul><li>Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney, usually caused by toxic irritants </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic irritants include endotoxins (produced inside the body) and exotoxins (produced outside the body) </li></ul><ul><li>Endotoxins may be produced from bacterial and viral infection and metabolic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Exotoxins come from chemicals and plants </li></ul><ul><li>Founder and azoturia also involve kidney damage </li></ul>
  134. 134. Serum Hepatitis (Theiler’s Disease) <ul><li>Serum hepatitis is an acute toxic inflammation of the liver, probably caused by a virus, and not very common in the horse </li></ul><ul><li>Serum hepatitis usually follows about 40 to 70 days after injection with a product containing a serum, such as tetanus antitoxin, or after a blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Serum hepatitis is highly fatal, with an 80% mortality (death) rate, but survivors will recover within four days </li></ul>
  135. 135. Serum Hepatitis <ul><li>Treatment for serum hepatitis involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering mineral oil and neomycin to empty the intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration treatment/prevention, often including intravenous fluid administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serum hepatitis was discovered by Theiler in South Africa </li></ul>
  136. 136. Chronic Interstitial Hepatitis <ul><li>Chronic interstitial hepatitis is cirrhosis of the liver, usually as a secondary condition or due to the ingestion of poisonous plants </li></ul>
  137. 137. Jaundice (Icterus) <ul><li>Jaundice is a symptom, not a disease in its own </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice is a yellowness of the skin, sclera of the eye, and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bile pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice is more common in people than in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Neonatal jaundice is sometimes seen in foals </li></ul>
  138. 138. Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, causing an imbalance of sugar in the blood, which is not common in the horse </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of diabetes, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of pancreas, while diabetes insipidus is caused by a tumor of the pituitary </li></ul>
  139. 139. Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes causes weight loss, metabolic problems, increased water intake, and excessive urination </li></ul><ul><li>Regular insulin injections are required to correct this condition, which is often impractical in the horse </li></ul>
  140. 140. Hyperlipemia <ul><li>Hyperlipemia is an excess level of lipids (fats) in the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of hyperlipemia include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite, depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle fasiculation (involuntary twitching) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ataxia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray white coating on the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dietary changes are necessary to correct this condition </li></ul>
  141. 141. Salivary Calculi (Cheek Stones) <ul><li>Salivary calculi is the blockage of the duct serving the paratid salivary gland, and minor surgery corrects the condition </li></ul>
  142. 142. Epiphora <ul><li>Epiphora is excessive lacrimation (tearing) </li></ul><ul><li>Tears should drain down the nasolacrimal duct, and tears on the face indicate a disorder such a blockage of the nasolacrimal duct, a foreign body in the eye, or other irritation to the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphora is also a symptom of periodic opthalmia </li></ul>
  143. 143. Conjunctivitis <ul><li>Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye, and is one of the most common eye disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis may be acute, chronic, primary, or secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis may be accompanied by a serous, mucous, or purulent (pus) discharge </li></ul>
  144. 144. Conjunctivitis <ul><li>Conjunctivitis may be caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalazia californiensis infestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habronema larvae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment involves removing the cause and applying a topical ointment and an antibiotic </li></ul><ul><li>Minor surgery may be necessary to remove thelazia californiensis nematomdes from the eye </li></ul>
  145. 145. Blepharospasm <ul><li>Blepharospasm is the contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle, causing the eyelids to be tightly shut </li></ul><ul><li>Blepharospasm is a secondary condition to some other ailment, and may be a symptom of periodic opthalmia </li></ul><ul><li>The cause must be treated to cure blepharospasm </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on required healing time, the veterinarian may block the auriculo-palpebral nerve to reduce pain </li></ul>
  146. 146. Periodic Ophthalmia (Recurrent Uveitis) <ul><li>Period opthalmia is commonly called moonblindness </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic opthalmia is a condition involving periodic attacks of inflammation of the eyeball, shrinking of the eyeball, and finally blindness </li></ul>
  147. 147. Periodic Opthalmia <ul><li>The exact cause of periodic opthalmia is unknown, but suspected factors include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riboflavin (B2) deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leptospirosis (an acute bacterial disease causing hemolytic anemia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onchocercia infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxoplasma gondii infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of periodic opthalmia include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphora (excessive lacrimation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photophobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouding of the cornea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pus accumulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray or dull iris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally small pupil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blepharospasm </li></ul></ul>
  148. 148. Periodic Opthalmia <ul><li>The test for periodic opthalmia involves injecting fluorescein dye, which will appear green in the eye of a horse with periodic opthalmia </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic opthalmia is a recurrent disease, with each attack lasting longer and worsening the horse’s vision until permanent blindness finally results </li></ul>
  149. 149. Periodic Opthalmia <ul><li>There is no treatment for periodic opthalmia, but keeping the horse in a dark stall during the attacks and treating the symptoms will be helpful. Riboflavin supplements and oral administration of diethylcarbamazine (to kill the onchocercia) may also be tried </li></ul>
  150. 150. Photophobia <ul><li>Photophoia is the inability to tolerate light, and is usually a symptom of some other disorder </li></ul><ul><li>The horse should be kept in a dark stall, and the cause must be identified and treated </li></ul><ul><li>Photophobia is often a symptom of periodic opthalmia </li></ul>
  151. 151. Cataracts <ul><li>Cataracts are opacities of the optic lens (clouding of the eye) </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts may be congenital (present at birth), primary (independent of other conditions), and therefore caused by trauma, or secondary (as a condition of another disorder) </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts may be removed surgically if necessary </li></ul>
  152. 152. Glaucoma <ul><li>Glaucoma is an increase in intraocular pressure (pressure within the eyeball) </li></ul><ul><li>Glaucoma may be congenital of the result of trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for glaucoma include administration of miotics (drugs which constrict the pupil), and occasionally surgical removal of a luxated (dislocated) lens </li></ul>
  153. 153. Dermoid Cysts <ul><li>A dermoid cyst is a misplaced growth of skin which grows and produces hair wherever it happens to be found </li></ul><ul><li>A dermoid cyst is most commonly found on the cornea, and looks like a hairy wart growing on the eyeball, and may be surgically removed </li></ul>
  154. 154. Detached Corpora Nigra <ul><li>Detached corpora nigra is a condition in which the part of the eye that reduces light intake is detached, sometime interfering with vision </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical removal of tissue may be necessary, but most cases are mino and no treatment is necessary </li></ul>
  155. 155. Corneal Ulcerations <ul><li>Corneal ulceration are severe sores on the cornea, caused by trauma to the eye, such as a direct blow </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking the auriculo-alpebral nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of antibiotic ointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cycloplegic drug (allows dilation of eye) </li></ul></ul>
  156. 156. Entropion and Ectropion <ul><li>Entropion is the inversion (folding in) of the eyelid and lashes, usually involving the lower eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>Entropion causes frequent blinking, epiphora, and discharges from the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Ectropion is eversion (folding out) of the lower eyelid, exposing the conjuntiva </li></ul><ul><li>Ectropion causes chronic conjunctivitis, epiphora, and inflammation of the cornea (keratitis) </li></ul>
  157. 157. Entropion and Ectropion <ul><li>Both entropion and ectropion may be congenital (present at birth) or trauma induced </li></ul><ul><li>Entropion may also be caused by blepharospasm </li></ul><ul><li>Ectropion may also be caused by paralysis of the facial nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Both entropion and ectropion may be surgically corrected </li></ul>
  158. 158. Skin Disorders <ul><li>Many skin disorders are caused by parasitic conditions, so please see the notes on parasites, including Ringworm, Gulf Coast Fungus, Summer Sores, etc. Fistulous Withers and Poll Evil are listed with unsoundnesses </li></ul>
  159. 159. Urticaria <ul><li>Urticaria, or hives, is an acute allergic skin reaction that is due to increased capillary permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Urticaria has a rapid onset, may be accompanied by a fever, and is characterized by many round flat topped swellings which may itch intensely </li></ul><ul><li>Urticaria may be caused by an allergic reaction to insect bites, antibiotics, hormones, food, or drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Hives are more common in thin skinned horses </li></ul>
  160. 160. Urticaria <ul><li>Urticaria will disappear after the cause has been identified and removed </li></ul>
  161. 161. Habronemiasis (Summer Sores) <ul><li>Habronemiasis, or summer sores, is a skin condition caused by the larval stage of the internal parasite habronemia ssp, or stomach worms </li></ul><ul><li>The house fly (musca domestica) and the stable fly (stomoxys calcitrans) deposit the larvae of the stomach worm (habronemiasis ssp) in wounds, around the eyes, and on the sheath </li></ul>
  162. 162. Summer Sores <ul><li>Symptoms of summer sores include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pus filled lesions which granulate and enlarge with proud flesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddish brown, protruding, bleeding tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected areas greasy, itchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment of summers sores involves administering organophosphates to kill the larvae, as well as trichlorfon, DMSO, and an antibacterial agent, and sometimes surgical removal and pressure bandaging </li></ul>
  163. 163. Mange <ul><li>Mange is a parasitic skin infection caused by mites </li></ul><ul><li>The three types of mange are sarcoptic, psoroptic, and chorioptic </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcoptic mange is the most common type of mange </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms of mange include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, hairless patches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry scabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense itching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick, wrinkled skin </li></ul></ul>
  164. 164. Mange <ul><li>Psoroptic mange is the most contagious, and the scabs are moist, not dry </li></ul><ul><li>Chorioptic mange affects the fetlocks and lower legs </li></ul><ul><li>Proper hygiene is needed for prevention, and treatment with a lindane spray or dip will kill mites in case of infection </li></ul>
  165. 165. Warbles <ul><li>Warbles is an infestation of hypoderma, or “cattle grub” which burrows beneath the skin over the withers, and is most common in horses kept with cattle </li></ul><ul><li>The two species of warbles are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoderma bovis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoderma lineatum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes surgically removing the larvae, since if the warble dies beneath the skin severe infection will occur </li></ul>
  166. 166. Aural Plaques <ul><li>Aural plaques are white or gray lesions found on the inner surface of the outer ear that resembles warts </li></ul><ul><li>There is no treatment for aural plaques, but they do not do any harm, other than cosmetically </li></ul>
  167. 167. Ventral Midline Dermatitis <ul><li>Ventral midline dermatitis is a line of thickened, scaly lesions on the belly, caused by the bites of the horn fly </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment include cleansing with a mild soap and applying antibiotic ointment </li></ul>
  168. 168. Simulidae <ul><li>Simulidae is a potentially deadly skin condition caused by the bite of the black fly (buffalo gnat) </li></ul><ul><li>A toxin produced by the black fly can cause cardio respiratory disorders due to the increase in capillary permeability, which causes fluid to drain from the circulatory system into other tissues and body cavities </li></ul>
  169. 169. Simulidae <ul><li>Symptoms of simulidae include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood congested swellings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme itching and loss of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listlessness, depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart palpitations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes fly protection, repellents, and night turn-out, rather than daytime turn-out </li></ul>
  170. 170. Onchocercal Filariasis <ul><li>Onchocercal filrariasis is the infestation of the nematode onchocerca cervicalis </li></ul><ul><li>Infected sand flies carry the microfilaria and infect the horse by biting </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms are recurrent and seasonal, including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense itching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling, hair loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment involves killing the microfilaria by administering diethylcarbamazine (caricide) </li></ul>
  171. 171. Onchocercal Filariasis <ul><li>This condition may be related to periodic opthalmia </li></ul>
  172. 172. Allergic Dermatitis (Queensland Itch or Sweet Itch) <ul><li>Allergic dermatitis is an allergic reaction to the bite of the sandfly (culicoides) that results in severe itching </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes administering antihistamines and corticosteroids, use of fly repellents, and use of antibacterial ointment to prevent secondary infection </li></ul>
  173. 173. Photosensitization <ul><li>Photosensitization is caused by hypersensitivity to the sun, resulting from photodynamic substances deposited in non pigmented, or white areas of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of photosensitization include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A marked line between pigmented and non pigmented areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of small, firm nodules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A distinct odor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dried, cracked skin </li></ul></ul>
  174. 174. Photosensitization <ul><li>Treatment includes identifying the plant containing the photodynamic substances and removing it from the diet, keeping the horse out of sunlight, and applying lotions </li></ul><ul><li>For a list of plants causing photosensitization, see the poisonous plants presentation </li></ul>
  175. 175. Dermatophilosis (Rain Scald) <ul><li>Dermatophilosis, also called streptothricosis or “rain scald” is a skin condition spread mechanically by flies and caused by the bacteria dermatophilus congolensis </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of rain scald include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesions on the back that consist of thick crusts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin underneath the crusts is pink and moist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaking skin </li></ul></ul>
  176. 176. Rain Scald <ul><li>Treatment includes protection from rain and flies, rigorous grooming, and application of antibiotic ointment </li></ul>
  177. 177. Contact Dermatitis <ul><li>Contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin in response to irritating conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include itching, redness, blisters, and crusting </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment involves mild cleansing and elimination of the cause </li></ul>
  178. 178. Vitiligo <ul><li>Vitiligo is a loss of pigment from the skin, there is no treatment, and the cause is unknown </li></ul>
  179. 179. Cutaneous Papillomatosis (Warts) <ul><li>Warts are epidermal growths that are caused by a virus, and they are benign (not cancerous) </li></ul><ul><li>Warts usually disappear on their own, buy may be surgically removed if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Warts are most common in young horses, since an immunity is developed </li></ul>
  180. 180. Eczema <ul><li>Eczema is a skin condition in which moist patches appear on the skin and horse may stock up </li></ul><ul><li>Eczema is caused by a diet too high in protein </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary changes and cleansing the affected area clear up the condition </li></ul>
  181. 181. Anhidrosis <ul><li>Anhidrosis is an inability to sweat </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for anhidrosis are unknown, but it is a symptom of vitamin E deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Change in diet and/or climate will reverse the condition </li></ul>
  182. 182. Potomac Horse Fever <ul><li>Potomac horse fever is a fatal viral disease spread by insects which was discovered in Maryland in the mid-1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>A vaccine is now available for PHF </li></ul><ul><li>I know this picture is gross, but severe diarrhea is symptom </li></ul>
  183. 183. Combined Immunodeficiency (CID) <ul><li>Combined immunodeficiency is an immune disorder found in Arabian foals </li></ul><ul><li>CID is hereditary, due to a single recessive gene </li></ul><ul><li>Foals with CID lack the ability to produce immunoglobins, and are deficient in lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Foals die of a secondary bacterial infection, most commonly pneumonia, within five months </li></ul>
  184. 184. Inflammations vs Organ Involved The intestines Enteritis Brain and spinal cord Encephalomyelitis The brain Encephalitis The skin Dermatitis Urinary bladder Cystitis Conjunctiva of eye Conjunctivitis Bursa over a tendon Bursitis Bronchi of the lungs Bronchitis A joint Arthritis
  185. 185. Inflammations vs Organ Involved The kidneys Nephritis Muscle Myositis Spinal cord membranes Meningitis The uterus Metritis The udder Mastitis The larynx Laryngitis Laminae of the hoof Laminitis The liver Hepatitis The stomach Gastritis
  186. 186. Inflammations vs Organ Involved The eye Uveitis Mucous membranes Rhinitis The pharynx Pharyngitis Intestinal membrane Peritonitis Periosteum of bone Periostitis Bone Osteomyelitis

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