MECHANICAL INSPECTION GUIDEAVANT-PROPOS 5Mechanical Inspection GuideAs part of its highway safety mandate, the Société de l’as-surance automobile du Québec established a mechanicalinspection program for road vehicles.The present guide sets forth the inspection proceduresand standards applicable to most vehicles. Designed as aquick reference tool for mechanics and highway carrierenforcement officers, it describes mechanical inspectionprocedures as well as the minor and major defects mostlikely to be encountered.The contents of this guide are drawn from the HighwaySafety Code and the Regulation respecting safety stan-dards for road vehicles. We therefore encourage users toconsult the Code and Regulation for all legal questions.FOREWORDWe would like to thank the Direction de la coordinationdes opérations de contrôle routier and the following asso-ciations for their invaluable advice:❚ Association du camionage du Québec❚ Association des propriétaires d’autobus du Québec❚ Association des mandataires en vérification mécanique❚ Association du transport écolier du QuébecForewordMECHANICAL INSPECTIONThe SAAQ has implemented various measures toprotect the public against the risks inherent inuse of the road, one of which is to ensure thatvehicles using Québec roads are mechanicallysafe. Therefore, certain types of vehicle arerequired to undergo a sporadic or periodicmechanical inspection.Limits of the technical appraisalThe technical appraisal is a legal requirement. Itconsists of a visual inspection of the compo-nents listed in this guide. To find out whetheryour vehicle is mechanically safe, we highly rec-ommend that you submit it to a mechanicalinspection by your mechanic as well.
MECHANICAL INSPECTION GUIDETABLE OF CONTENTS 6TABLE OF CONTENTSGeneral Information 8Section 1LIGHTS AND SIGNALS 91.1 Headlights, lights and reflectors 91.2 Electric cable, plug, connection, 12socket, battery1.3 Headlight alignment 13Section 2STEERING SYSTEM 19General information 192.1 Steering wheel 192.2 Steering column and slip joint 202.3 Steering box or rack and pinion 212.4 Steering linkage 222.5 Power steering 242.6 King pin 252.7 Ball joints 26Section 3FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICE 293.1 Frame and underbody 293.2 Load space 313.3 Landing gear 313.4 Sliding bogie 323.5 Upper coupler 333.6 King pin 333.7 Turntable platform 343.8 Fifth wheel 343.9 Other coupling devices 36Section 4SUSPENSION 39Section 5BRAKES 47General Information 475.1 Parking brake 475.2 Hydraulic braking system 485.3 Anti-lock braking system 525.4 Electromagnetic braking system 525.5 Air braking system and components 535.6 Working order of air braking system 545.7 Working order of mechanical 56components and air braking system5.8 Disc brakes 595.9 Drum brakes 61Section 6FUEL AND ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS 636.1 Fuel system 636.2 Engine control system 65Section 7EXHAUST SYSTEM 67Section 8WINDOWS AND REARVIEW MIRRORS 698.1 Windows 698.2 Rearview mirrors 70Section 9ACCESSORIES 719.1 Sun visor 719.2 Horn 719.3 Windshield wipers and washer fluid 719.4 Heater system and defroster 729.5 Engine start out of gear 729.6 Speedometer and odometer 729.7 Indicator lights or gauges on school buses 729.8 Retractable stop sign in school buses 739.9 Clutch control 739.10 First-aid kit and chemical fire 73extinguisher in school buses9.11 Crossing control arm on school buses 739.12 Drive shaft 73TableofContents
■ Minor defect■ Major defectPassenger vehicles andlight trucks only:Trailers and semi-trailers only:Straight-body trucks only:Truck tractors only:School busesand minibuses only:Motor coaches only:City buses only:Dump trucks only:MECHANICAL INSPECTION GUIDETABLE OF CONTENTS 7Section 10TIRES AND WHEELS 7510.1 Tires 7510.2 Wheels 78Section 11BODY 81General Information 8111.1 Engine hood 8111.2 Tilt cab 8211.3 Bumpers 8211.4 Cab door 8311.5 Door or cover of load space 8311.6 Cab floor 8311.7 Load space 8311.8 Air bag and seat belts 8411.9 Seats and bench seats 8411.10 Service and exit doors 8511.11 Emergency exit8511.12 Interior equipment 8611.13 Equipment for transporting 86persons with disabilitiesAppendix 1Pressure Conversion Table 87Appendix 2Length Conversion Table 88Appendix 3Special Information Regarding Windows 89Alphabetical index 90English/French Glossary 91French/English Glossary 92KEYA pictogram in the margin means that this provisionapplies to this category of vehicle only.Key
MECHANICAL INSPECTION GUIDEGENERAL INFORMATION 8PRECEDENCE OF MANUFACTURER’S STANDARDSUNITS OF MEASUREMENTCONDITIONS FOR MECHANICAL INSPECTIONSAFETY RULEThe inspection procedures and compliance criteriadescribed in this guide may not apply to certain vehicles, inwhich case the vehicle manufacturer’s standards shall takeprecedence.General InformationImperial measures are indicated in parentheses for infor-mation purposes and have no legal substance.An inspection agent may refuse to inspect a vehicle wheredirt or other obstructing matter (ice, grease, rust, etc.) pre-vents a complete visual inspection of all vehicle compo-nents. The vehicle must be without a load.The client may clean his vehicle himself and then comeback for an inspection or, with the client’s permission andat his expense, the agent may clean the dirty or obstructedcomponents before proceeding with the inspection.To ensure that the vehicle does not move unexpectedlyduring inspection, wheel chocks should be placed in frontof and behind the drive axle on the driver’s side of the vehi-cle or, in the case of a tandem axle, between the axles. Putthe gearshift lever in “N” (Neutral), release the parkingbrake and turn the ignition switch to the “ON” position.Never go underneath a vehicle with its engine running.GeneralInformation
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 9PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTPerform a visual inspection of the following headlightsand lights to make sure they are in proper working order.Check each position using the control lever. Make surethe headlights, lights and reflectors are firmly attached totheir anchorage by gently pushing them in all directions.N.B.: Subject to restrictions expressly provided for in theHighway Safety Code, owners may install additional lightsor headlights on their vehicle provided those required bythe Code are present and of the proper colour (e.g.amber lights at the rear of semi-trailers that remain litexcept when flashing).N.B.: See the drawings at the end of this section for theplacement and colour of required lights.General Information:■ The required headlights, lights or reflectors are notpresent or are not mounted in the locations designedfor that purpose.■ A headlight or light does not function or does notshine with the intensity specified by the manufacturer.■ A headlight, light, lens or reflector is missing, brokenor cracked so as to let water in, or is loose, dis-coloured, painted over or of the wrong colour.■ A device or material is mounted on or affixed to thevehicle, a headlight, light or lens so as to hide or dimthe light.a) HeadlightsMake sure the high and low beams are functioningproperly. If the vehicle is equipped with retractingheadlight bases or headlight shutters, make sure theyare working properly as well.Check headlight alignment using either a screen asdescribed on pages (13 and 14) or specially designedinstruments provided with the vehicle (e.g. levels).■ One of the headlights is not the required colour(white).■ The high-beam indicator light does not work.■ Headlight alignment does not comply with standards.■ A headlight cover or shutter does not open properly,does not completely withdraw to expose the head-lights or does not remain in the fully open positionwhen the headlights are on.■ The vehicle does not have at least one low-beamheadlight that works.1.1 HEADLIGHTS, LIGHTS AND REFLECTORSSection 1 Lights and SignalsSection1LightsandSignals
Section1LightsandSignalsLIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 10PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTb) Front and rear parking lightsand rear reflectorsN.B.: The rear of a trailer or semi-trailer may be fittedwith reflective strips, instead of reflectors, as long asthey are installed in compliance with section 1.3.■ The front parking lights are not the required colour(amber or white).■ The rear parking lights are not the required colour(red).■ The rear reflectors are not the required colour (red).■ The vehicle does not have at least one rear park-ing light that works.c) Brake lightsCheck to see whether the lights are working properly bygently depressing the brake pedal.N.B.: If the vehicle is equipped with a centre stop lamp, itmust be checked as well. Centre stop lamps aremandatory in passenger vehicles manufactured afterJanuary 1, 1987.■ The brake lights are not the required colour (red).■ The vehicle does not have at least one brake lightthat works.d) Turn-signal lightsN.B.: Tractor semi-trailers are not required to have turn-signal lights at the rear if they are equipped with dou-ble-face turn-signal lights on the front.■ The front lights are not the required colour (amber orwhite).■ The rear lights are not the required colour (amber orred).■ The turn-signal indicator does not function.e) Side marker lights and reflectorsN.B.: Side marker and clearance lights may be com-bined on condition that the light used is visible fromthe side, front or rear, as the case may be.N.B.: Motor vehicles measuring 9.1 m (30 ft) or morein length must carry side reflectors and marker lightsmidway between the front and rear side marker lights.N.B.: The sides of a trailer or semi-trailer may be fittedwith reflective strips, instead of reflectors, as long asthey are installed in compliance with section 1.3.■ The side marker lights or reflectors on the front arenot the required colour (amber).■ The side marker lights or reflectors at the rear are notthe required colour (red).■ The lights or reflectors midway between the front andrear side marker lights, if required, are not therequired colour (amber).f) Hazard warning lightsN.B.: Required only where they were installed as partof the original equipment. ■ The indicator light does not function.
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 11PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTg) Clearance lightsN.B.: Where the rear identification lights are mountedat the very top of the vehicle, the clearance lights neednot be mounted in the upper right and left extremities.The front and rear clearance lights may be combinedwith the side marker lights on condition that they arevisible from the side, front or rear, as the case may be.N.B.: Not required at the rear of tractor semi-trailersthat do not have a load space.■ The clearance lights on the front are not the requiredcolour (amber), are not placed at the same height orare more than 15 cm (6 in) from the upper right andleft extremities of the vehicle.■ The clearance lights at the rear are not the requiredcolour (red), are not placed at the same height or aremore than 15 cm (6 in) from the upper right and leftextremities of the vehicle.h) Identification lightsN.B.: Not required at the rear of tractor semi-trailersthat do not have a load space.N.B.: Where the rear identification lights are notplaced at the very top of the vehicle, they may beallowed in certain closed semi-trailers manufacturedthis way.■ The identification lights on the front are not therequired colour (amber), are not grouped in a hori-zontal row at the centre above the windshield, or arenot spaced between 15 cm (6 in) and 30 cm (12 in)apart.■ The identification lights at the rear are not therequired colour (red), are not grouped in a horizontalrow at the centre as close as possible to the top of thevehicle, or are not spaced between 15 cm (6 in) and30 cm (12 in) apart.i) Backup lightN.B.: The backup light does not have to be controlledby the position of the gearshift lever and is notrequired in trailers and semi-trailers.■ The backup light is not the required colour (white).■ Where the light is controlled by the gearshift lever, itdoes not turn off when the vehicle is no longer inreverse.■ Where the light is hand-controlled, it does not work.j) Licence plate lightN.B.: Required only where the licence plate is affixedto the rear of the vehicle. ■ One of the lights does not work.l) Daytime running lightsN.B.: All vehicles manufactured after December 11989 must be equipped with two white or amber day-time running lights on the front. These lights may bealone or combined with the headlights or parkinglights.■ One of the lights is not the required colour.■ One of the lights does not work.k) Instrument lights■ One of the lights does not work.Section1LightsandSignals
Section1LightsandSignalsLIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 12PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTm) Interior lightsCheck the lighting for the centre aisle, the entranceand exit steps and the boarding space. ■ One of the lights does not function.n) Reflective stripsN.B.: Except for trailers designed exclusively fordwelling or office purposes, all trailers and semi-trail-ers measuring at least 2.05 m in width and having agross vehicle weight rating of 4,500 kg or more mustbe equipped with reflective material in accordancewith the Motor Vehicle Safety Act.N.B.: A series of reflectors may be used instead ofreflective strips as long as the reflectors are spaced atno more than 100 mm apart, measured from centre-to-centre.N.B.: School buses are not required to have reflectivestrips; however, if they do, the strips must be yellow.■ The reflective strips or their installation do not complywith section 1.3.■ The reflective material is poorly attached, lacking, notvisible, seriously damaged or not of the requiredlength.o) Flashing lights on school busesVisually inspect the flashing lights on the top of thefront and rear of the bus and on the retractable stopsign to make sure they work properly.■ A light is not the required colour or does not comeon.■ The indicator light does not function.Conduct an inspection of all visible parts without disas-sembling them and with the circuits turned on. ■ An electric cable, plug, connection, socket or switch isbroken, abraded, cracked, corroded or worn in a waythat impedes the good working order of the compo-nent connected to it.■ An electric cable that is not grounded is not coveredwith a protective and insulating sheath.■ There is a short circuit in one of the electric cables.■ The operation of one circuit interferes with the opera-tion of another circuit.■ A battery terminal has extreme corrosion build-up.■ The battery or battery cover, where part of the origi-nal equipment, is not secured properly.1.2 ELECTRIC CABLE, PLUG, CONNECTION, SOCKET, BATTERY
PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTLIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 131.3 INSPECTION OF HEADLIGHT ALIGNMENT1.3.1ProcedureInspect headlight alignment using a screen as indicat-ed below:Place the vehicle so that it is facing the screen and theheadlights are directly above a painted line on thefloor.Align the centre of the vehicle with a line drawn downthe centre of the screen by looking through the centreof the rear window and over the hood ornament. Askthe driver to adjust the position of the vehicle so thatit is in line with these two points. If there is no hoodornament, mark the centre of the windshield and rearwindow with masking tape and use these two pointsto place the centre line of the vehicle in direct line withthe centre of the screen.Adjustablevertical stripsAdjustablehorizontal stripHorizontal line oppositecentre of headlightsminimum3,6 metres (12 ft.)Distance betweenheadlightsCentre line ofscreenDrawing of a screen forchecking headlightalignment8 metresCentre line of vehiclePainted line on floorN.B. If a special instrument is used to check head-light alignment, it should be used as directed by themanufacturer.Section1LightsandSignals
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 14PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT1.3.2 High beamsWith the vehicle correctly positioned, turn the head-lights on high beam and check the centre of the high-intensity zone on the screen.a) Horizontal alignment■ The centre of the high-intensity zone is more than10 cm (4 in) on the left or right of the vertical linepassing through the centre of both headlights.b) Vertical alignment■ The centre of the high-intensity zone is more than 10cm (4 in) above or below the horizontal line passingthrough the centre of both headlights.Horizontal tolerance10 cm (4 in.)Vertical tolerance10 cm (4 in.)Vertical line passing through thecentre of the left headlightVertical line passing through thecentre of the right headlightHorizontal line passing throughthe centre of both headlights1.3.3 Low beamsWith the vehicle correctly positioned, turn the head-lights on low beam and check to see where the leftand upper extremities of the high-intensity zone areon the screen.Horizontal tolerance10 cm (4 in.)Vertical tolerance10 cm (4 in.)Vertical line passing through thecentre of the left headlightVertical line passing through thecentre of the right headlightHorizontal line passing throughthe centre of both headlightsSection1LightsandSignals
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 15PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTa) Horizontal adjustment■ The left extremity of the high-intensity zone is morethan 10 cm (4 in) on the left or right of the vertical linepassing through the centre of the headlight.b) Vertical adjustment■ The upper extremity of the high-intensity zone is morethan 10 cm (4 in) above or below the horizontal linepassing through the centre of both headlights.HeadlightsFront parking lights (amber or white)Front turn-signal lights (amber or white)Side marker lights and reflectors on front (amber)Side marker lights and reflectors at rear (red)Side marker lights and reflectors midwaybetween front and rear side marker lights (amber)Licence plate light(white)Backup light (white)Rear parking lights (red)Rear turn-signal lights (red or amber)Brake lights (red)Front clearance lights (amber)Front identification lights (amber)Rear clearance lights (red)Rear identification lights (red)Rear reflector (red)For vehicles measuring 2.03 m or less in widthFor vehicles measuring 9.1 m or more in lengthFor vehicles measuring over 2.03 m in widthMust be installed above the top of the windshield188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.Required lights and signals in heavy vehicles12352113131511141091684 5445 6 47Section1LightsandSignals
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 16HeadlightsFront parking lights (amber or white)Front turn-signal lights (amber or white)Front clearance lights (amber)Front identification lights (amber)Side marker lights and reflectors on front (amber)Side marker lights and reflectors midway betweenfront and rear side marker lights (amber)Side marker lights and reflectors at rear (red)Identification lights (red)Rear clearance lights (red)Rear turn-signal lights (red or amber)Rear parking lights (red)Brake lights (red)Backup light (white)Rear reflectors (red)Licence plate lightTwo (2) flashing red lights on the front, visiblefrom a distance of 500 ft at all times, indicatingthat children are getting on or off the school busTwo (2) flashing red lights at the rear indicatingthat children are getting on or off the school busFlashing red lights on the stop signFor vehicles measuring 2.03 m or less in widthFor vehicles measuring 9.10 m or more in lengthFor vehicles measuring over 2.03 m in widthMust be installed above the top of the windshieldFor school buses with a chassis manufactured after July 1, 199768 751211131415169104133145161512189101114136781722.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.17.18.19.Section1LightsandSignals
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 17HeadlightsFront parking lights (amber or white)Front turn-signal lights (amber or white)Front hazard warning lightsSide marker lights on front (amber)Side marker lights at rear (red)Rear parking lights (red)Brake lights (red)Rear turn-signal lights (red or amber)Rear hazard warning lights (red)Rear reflectors (red)Licence plate lightBackup lights (white)Side220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.13.Front1432Rear56811 13 127910830 cm(12 in.)30 cm(12 in.)30 cm(12 in.)Section1LightsandSignalsLocation of reflector strips Height ColourUpper rear-facing corner At the top WhiteHorizontal surface of rear bumper bar, on its entire width, facing the rear No requirement Alternating red and white sectionsOn trailer’s entire width, facing the rear As horizontal as practicable and as close Alternating red and white sections,as practicable, beween 375 mm and 1525 mm or solid white, solid yellowfrom the ground or alternatign white and yellowOn each side, facing sideward, over at least 50% of vehicle lenght, As horizontal as practicable and as close Alternating red and white sections,starting and ending at extremities as practicable, beween 375 mm and 1525 mm or solid white, solid yellowfrom the ground or alternatign white and yellow
LIGHTS AND SIGNALSSECTION 1 18Section1LightsandSignals
Visually and manually inspect the steering components.■ A component of the steering system is displaced, bent,modified, worn, damaged or used to the point ofhampering the handling of the vehicle.■ The front wheels are visibly out of alignment.a) Maximum play◆ If the vehicle has power steering, the engineshould be running, the fluid in the reservoir atthe level recommended by the manufacturer andthe belt tight enough so that it does not slip.◆ Place the front wheels in the straight-ahead posi-tion.◆ Turn the steering wheel from left to right until thewheels move.◆ Align a reference point on the circumference ofthe steering wheel with a ruler.◆ Turn the steering wheel in the opposite directionuntil the front wheels move.◆ Measure how far the reference point has moved.For a vehicle whose gross vehicle weight rating(GVWR) is less than 4,500 kg■ 51 mm (2 in) for power steering.■ 75 mm (3 in) for standard steering.■ 10 mm (3/8 in) for rack-and-pinion steering, power or not.■ 60 mm (2 3/8 in) for power steering.■ 87 mm (3 1/2 in) for standard steering.■ 15 mm (5/8 in) for rack-and-pinion steering.For a vehicle whose gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is4,500 kg or morePower or standard steering:■ 90 mm (3 1/2 in) where the diameter of the steeringwheel is 500 mm (20 in) or less.■ 100 mm (4 in) where the diameter of the steeringwheel is greater than 500 mm (20 in).Power steering:■ 180 mm (7 1/8 in) where the diameter of the steeringwheel is 500 mm (20 in) or less.■ 200 mm (8 in) where the diameter of the steeringwheel is greater than 500 mm (20 in).Standard steering:■ 133 mm (5 1/4 in) where the diameter of the steeringwheel is 500 mm (20 in) or less.■ 200 mm (8 in) where the diameter of the steeringwheel is greater than 500 mm (20 in).STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 19PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTGENERAL INFORMATION2.1 STEERING WHEELSection 2 Steering SystemSection2SteeringSystem
b) Mounting and anchorage of steering wheelPerform a visual and manual inspection by pullingand pushing on the steering wheel in all directions. Ifthe vehicle is equipped with an adjustable steeringwheel, make sure the adjustment mechanism is func-tioning properly.■ The steering wheel is not firmly attached to the steer-ing column.■ The steering wheel does not remain in the desiredposition (in the case of an adjustable steering wheel).■ The steering wheel does not remain in its normalposition and there is a risk of separation.c) ConditionVisually inspect the condition of the steering wheel■ The steering wheel is warped, cracked, broken, dam-aged or modified.■ The original steering wheel has been replaced with asteering wheel that has an outside diameter of lessthan 30 cm (12 in) or an uneven surface.a) Mounting and anchorage of steering columnPerform a visual and manual inspection by pullingand pushing on the steering wheel and column in alldirections to make sure the column is securelyanchored.■ The steering column is not securely anchored.■ A bolt is loose.■ A mounting component is missing, cracked or bro-ken and there is a risk of separation.■ The steering column has moved from its normalposition and there is a risk of separation.STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 20PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT2.2 STEERING COLUMN AND SLIP JOINTb) Column bearingCheck the column bearings and joints according to thefollowing procedure:◆ Turn the steering wheel 1/4 turn to the left andright;◆ Pull and push on the steering wheel in the direc-tion of the column.■ A bearing rattles, is jammed or obstructed, or theamount of play is outside the specifications.Section2SteeringSystem
If the vehicle is equipped with power steering, the engineshould be running, the fluid in the reservoir at the level rec-ommended by the manufacturer and the belt tight enoughso that it does not slip.◆ Turn the steering wheel from left to right until there isresistance.◆ Visually inspect the steering box or rack and pinion tomake sure they are securely mounted.◆ Count the number of turns required to bring the steer-ing wheel from the centre to as far left and right aspossible.◆ Check the clearance between the tires and frame orbody in every position.N.B.: Where possible, straight-body trucks should not beloaded during this inspection; otherwise, the inspectionshould be performed with the front of the vehicle partiallylifted or while driving ahead very slowly in an open area.■ The steering box, auxiliary box or rack and pinion isnot securely attached to the vehicle.■ There is a major oil leak.■ A mounting component is slack or has been repairedby means of welding.■ When turned, the steering wheel sticks or becomesblocked.■ There is a difference of more than one-half turnbetween the number of turns required to bring thesteering wheel from the centre to as far left or right aspossible.■ The clearance between the tire and the chassis frameor body when the steering wheel is turned is less than25 mm (1 in).■ The steering box or auxiliary steering box hasmoved from its normal position and there is a riskof separation.STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 21PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTc) Joints and slip jointCheck the amount of play in joints, the slip joint andcouplings by gently turning the steering wheel fromleft to right so that the wheels move.■ A joint or coupling is damaged, slack, repaired bymeans of welding, jammed, obstructed or has a freeplay outside the specifications.■ A slip joint has a rotation play of more than 1.2 mm(0.05 in) between the splines, or a vertical play ofmore than 6.4 mm (1/4 in) in the shaft.■ A slip joint or cross and roller universal joint ofthe steering column is in imminent danger ofbreaking.■ A joint in the steering column is in imminent dan-ger of breaking.2.3 STEERING BOX OR RACK AND PINIONSection2SteeringSystem
STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 22PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT2.4 STEERING LINKAGEInspect the steering linkage with the wheels on the ground.If the vehicle is equipped with power steering, the engineshould be running, the fluid in the reservoir at the level rec-ommended by the manufacturer and the belt tight enoughso that it does not slip.◆ Place the wheels in the straight-ahead position.◆ Turn the steering wheel from left to right until thewheels move.◆ Visually inspect all components and check the amountof play in the direction of the movement or the forceapplied on the couplings or joints.Never go underneath a vehicle with its engine running.■ A mounting component is bent out of shape or hasbeen repaired by means of welding.■ A component of the steering linkage is bent out ofshape or damaged.■ There is excessive play in a coupling or joint.■ A component of the steering linkage is cracked,broken, not securely mounted, repaired withwelds or so damaged as to affect the parallelism ofthe wheels.■ A ball joint of the steering linkage has playexceeding 3.2 mm (1/8 in) in the direction of themovement or the applied force.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11312123456714111089Steering boxSector shaftPitman armDrag linkKing pinSteering armSpindleKnuckle armTie rod endAdjusting sleeveCross tubeUniversal jointSteering columnFront axelRailSingle-axle steering systemSection2SteeringSystem
STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 231334326 152 18.104.22.168.5.6.Steering boxPitman armDrag linkSteering armUniversal jointSteering columnListSwaybarlink kitTie rodIdler armTie rod endSwaybarCenter linkPitman armAdjusting sleeveRack and pinionTie rod Tie rod endSteering columnSchematic diagram of a two-axle steering systemSchematic diagram of a standard steering linkageSchematic diagram of a rank-and-pinion steering systemSection2SteeringSystem
STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 24PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT2.5 POWER STEERINGVisually or manually inspect the following components.The engine should be off.a) Fluid levelb) Beltc) Connections and couplingsd) Pumpe) Auxiliary cylinderf) Working order◆ Turn the engine on.◆ Turn the steering wheel to the left andNOTE : Where possible, straight-body trucks should not beloaded during this inspection; otherwise the inspectionshould be performed while slowly advancing the truck afew metres.■ The fluid in the reservoir is not at the level recom-mended by the manufacturer.■ The belt of the pump is not at the tension determinedby the manufacturer, slips when the steering wheel isturned, or has a cut in it.■ The belt has cuts and is in imminent danger ofbreaking.■ A connection or coupling is cracked, damaged orpoorly attached.■ A connection is leaking (more than a slight seepage).■ A connection has a cut and is in imminent dangerof breaking.■ The pump is poorly mounted or leaks other thanslight seepage.■ The pump is poorly mounted and there is a dan-ger of breaking.■ The auxiliary cylinder is not firmly attached to thevehicle or leaks other than slight seepage.■ The auxiliary cylinder is not firmly attached andthere is a danger of breaking.■ The power steering does not function properly.■ The power steering does not function at all.Section2SteeringSystem
STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 25PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT2.6 KING PINa) Horizontal play◆ Lift the wheels off the ground.◆ As needed, apply the service brakes to eliminatebearing play.◆ Place your hands on the top and bottom of thewheel and swing it back and forth from the insideto outside.Note : You can also use a pry bar. Insert it in thewheel rim or under the tire.◆ Measure the amount of play in the king pin. Ifneeded, use a micrometer.■ The horizontal play measured at the outside circum-ference of the tire is greater than:— 3.2 mm (1/8 in) where the diameter of the lowerrim is 51 cm (20 in);— 4.8 mm (3/16 in) where the diameter of the rimis 51 cm (20 in) or more.■ The king pin is seized up.b) Vertical play◆ Lift the wheels off the ground.◆ Place a pry bar under the wheel and press down.◆ Measure the amount of vertical play between theaxle and the bracket of the king pin. If needed,use a micrometer.■ The vertical play measured between the bracket of theking pin and the axle is greater than 2.5 mm (3/32 in).Section2SteeringSystem1020304050600King pinAxle beam
Wearindicator◆ Depending on the type of suspension system, lift thefront of the vehicle so as to unlock the joint to bechecked.◆ If necessary, install a micrometer on the suspensionarm so as to measure the vertical and horizontal playbetween the ball joint and its housing.■ A ball joint connected to a suspension arm has50% more play than the manufacturer’s standardor could come out of its housing if knocked.■ The vertical or horizontal play measured is greaterthan that determined by the manufacturer.STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 26PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT2.7 BALL JOINTS– Horizontal playPlace your hands on the top and bottom of the tireand try to swing it back and forth.NOTE : Do not measure the horizontal play wherenot indicated by the manufacturer.– Vertical playPlace a pry bar under the tire and lift it enough tooffset the weight of the wheel and tire.N.B.: Where the joints have a wear indicator, per-form the inspection with the wheels on theground.■ Where a joint has a wear indicator, the position of theindicator is not within the limits determined by themanufacturer.Section2SteeringSystem
STEERING SYSTEMSECTION 2 27MaximumtoleranceMaximumtoleranceHorizontal play Vertical playMaximumtoleranceHorizontal playMaximumtoleranceVertical playMaximumtoleranceHorizontal playMaximumtoleranceVertical playSection2SteeringSystemSpring suspension on upper arm MacPherson strut suspensionSpring or torsion bar suspension on lower arm
Visually inspect the following components:a) Side railsNote: These requirements apply to all types of siderails (single and double channel).General Information■ A component of the chassis frame is broken,cracked or sags in a way that makes a mobile partand the body touch.■ A component of the frame is so cracked or brokenthat it hampers the good working order or reducesthe solidity of a steering, suspension, coupling,engine or transmission component.■ A side rail is broken in a place where there is nostress, cracked, misshapen or perforated by rust.■ A side rail is in imminent danger of breaking.■ There is a crack of 37 mm (1 1/2 in) or more in thevertical part of the side rail (web) or a crack of25 mm (1 in) or more in the horizontal lower partof the side rail (flange).■ There is a crack beginning in the horizontal lowerpart of the side rail and extending into the verticalpart.FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 29PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT3.1 FRAME AND UNDERBODYSide railCross memberStraight crackFlangeWebSection 3 Frame, Underbody and Coupling DeviceSection3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDevice
Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDeviceSection3b) Cross membersc) Engine, gearbox, cab supportsTo check the engine supports:◆ Set the parking brake;◆ Put the vehicle in drive or reverse gear;◆ Gently rev the engine.d) Parts of the frame used to secure the body, load,load space, suspension and steeringe) Floor joists■ A cross member is missing, cracked, bent, perforatedby rust or not securely mounted.■ A support is missing, cracked, damaged, broken, bentor not securely mounted.■ A component is missing, out of order, not securelymounted, damaged, cracked, broken or bent.■ A joist is missing, damaged, cracked, broken, bent ornot securely mounted.FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 30PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTJoistJoist
PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT3.2 LOAD SPACEVisually inspect the following components:– Panels, side rails, platform– Fasteners, stoppers■ A panel, side rail, platform or other element delimit-ing the load space is not securely mounted.■ The platform or one of the panels is not strongenough to support the maximum loads determined byregulation.■ A bracket, clamp, fastener or stopper is missing,cracked, broken or loose, or worn or corroded to thepoint that its capacity is reduced.3.3 LANDING GEARCheck the condition and working order of the landinggear by performing a visual and manual inspection. ■ A component of the landing gear is blocked, seizedup, warped, cracked or not properly mounted.■ The hold-down mechanism does not function.f) UnderbodyCheck the structural members of the body, particularly theside rails and profiled-sheet cross members.N.B.: Monocoque bodies have profiled-sheet cross mem-bers instead of the conventional side rails.■ A structural member is missing, cracked, broken,bent, perforated by rust, not securely mounted or notassembled in accordance with the manufacturer’sstandards.Section3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDeviceFRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 31
Check the following components:a) Side rails of sliding bogieb) Locking and hold-down deviceActivate the devicec) Stoppers■ A side rail is cracked, broken or seized up.■ A side rail is in imminent danger of breaking.■ There is a crack of 37 mm (1 1/2 in) or more in thevertical part of the side rail (web) or a crack of25 mm (1 in) or more in the horizontal lower partof the side rail (flange).■ There is a crack beginning in the horizontal lowerpart of the side rail and extending into the verticalpart.■ The locking and hold-down device is missing, out oforder, damaged, cracked, broken or seized up.■ More than 25% of the locking pins in the slidingbogie are missing or not engaged.■ A stopper is missing, cracked or broken.FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 32PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT3.4 SLIDING BOGIELocking pinStopperSide railof trailer Guide railSide railof sliding bogie Locking devicehandleSection3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDevice
Visually inspect the mounting and condition of the king pin,measure its wear with an appropriate tool and check theangle using a square that is longer than 40 cm (16 in) onone side.■ The king pin and upper coupler are not at a rightangle respectively in all directions.■ The king pin has been repaired by means of welding.■ The king pin is worn such that the diameter in a givenspot is reduced by more than 3.2 mm (1/8 in).■ The king pin is cracked, not securely mounted, orwarped to the point of adversely affecting thecoupling.FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 33PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT3.6 KING PIN3.5 UPPER COUPLERVisually inspect the mounting of the upper coupler or plateand measure the curve of the upper coupler using astraight rod at least one metre long and a slide caliper.■ The upper coupler is curved downwards more than6.4 mm (1/4 in), or more than 1.6 mm (1/16 in)upwards within a radius of 483 mm (19 in) measuredfrom the king pin.■ The upper coupler is corroded to the point of weak-ening its resistance or the solidity of its mounting tothe vehicle.■ The upper coupler is cracked, not securely mounted,or warped to the point of adversely affecting thecoupling.Max 1.6 mm (1/16")Max 6.4 mm (1/4")Straight rodSection3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDevice
If the upper coupler and king pin are mounted ona turntable platform, visually inspect the safety, workingorder and vertical play of the mounting usinga micrometer.■ The platform is not securely mounted, the bearingsare seized up or there is a vertical play of more than6.4 mm (1/4 in).Visually inspect the following components:a) SupportsGeneral Information■ A component of the coupling device is not firmlyattached to the towing vehicle, is cracked, broken,bent, missing, worn or so poorly adjusted that itmight break or rupture.■ More than 20% of the fasteners on the couplingdevice are missing or ineffective.In the case of a tractor coupled witha semi-trailer:■ The king pin is not properly engaged.■ There is movement between a fastener of the cou-pling device and the frame of the tractor or semi-trailer.■ The horizontal play between the king pin and thejaws exceeds 12.8 mm (1/2 in).■ A support is broken, cracked, bent, has been repairedby means of welding or is not firmly attached to thevehicle, or a bolt is loose, missing or of a class lowerthan SAE Class 8 (or 10.9 mm).FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 34PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT3.7 TURNTABLE PLATFORM3.8 FIFTH WHEELAttachement bracketon trailerTurntable platformSection3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDevice
b) Jaws and locking deviceFor tractors not coupled with a semi-trailer, the jawsand locking device are checked using a tool attachedto a king pin.For a combination of road vehicles, the play betweenthe jaws and the king pin is measured as follows:◆ Apply the trailer brake;◆ Back the trailer up;◆ Put a mark on both parts of the coupling device;◆ Drive the tractor forward and applythe service brake;◆ Measure the space between the two marks.c) Jaw tow pinsd) Coupling platee) Pins of coupling plate■ In the case of a combination of vehicles or using anappropriate tool, the horizontal play between the jawand kingpin exceeds 6.4 mm (1/4 in).■ The jaw or locking device is seized up, not prop-erly adjusted, cracked, broken or has beenrepaired by means of welding.■ A tow pin is loose.■ The plate is cracked, broken, bent or has beenrepaired by means of welding.■ There is a crack, weld or break in a part of the cou-pling plate that bears a load or is subject to ten-sion or shear stress.■ The horizontal play between the pins exceeds 9.5 mm(3/8 in).FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 35PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDevice
FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 36PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT3.9 OTHER COUPLING DEVICESVisually inspect the following components:a) SupportsGeneral Information:■ The coupling device is not securely mounted or acomponent is cracked, broken, bent, missing, seizedup or so worn that it hampers the smooth operation.■ A cast or forged part shows signs of welded repairs.■ More than 20% of the fasteners on a componentof the coupling device are missing or ineffective.■ A component of the coupling device is not secure-ly mounted, is cracked, broken, bent, missing,worn or so poorly adjusted that it might ruptureor fall off.■ There is a crack, weld or break in the part of thecoupling device that bears a load or is subject totension or shear stress.■ A support is not securely mounted. A bolt is loose,missing or a lower class than Class 8 or the size deter-mined by the manufacturer for tow trailers with a grossvehicle weight rating of 4,500 kg or more.Section3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDeviceUppercouplerFasteninghardwarePinMountingangleSupportsStraight rodJawsSide railLockingdeviceStoppersPart of upper couplersupporting load(inside dotted line)Sliding fifth wheelStationary fifth wheelf) Slide supports and stoppers in sliding king pins■ A front or rear stopper is missing or not firmlyattached.■ A sliding support is cracked or worn.■ The side, vertical or lengthwise movement of the slid-ing support is greater than 6.4 mm (1/4 in) in lockedposition.■ More than 25% of the locking pins on either sideof the king pin are missing or not working.■ The lengthwise play in the locking mechanisms ofthe slides exceeds 9.5 mm (3/8 in).
FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 37Locking device Mounting plateCross memberMounting plateLocking deviceDollyDraw bar eyeDraw barPintle hookPintle hookDrawbarSection3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDeviceb) Locking devicec) Pintle hook and eye of drawbard) Drawbare) Safety fasteners and coupling components(steel cables, chains, hooks, coupling sleeves,shackles, etc.)■ The locking device is inadequate, poorly suited, seizedup, worn, has too much play, does not engage or isnot equipped with a double safety catch.■ The pintle hook or eye of the drawbar is cracked, bro-ken, has been repaired by means of welding, orshows sign of wear in excess of 4.8 mm (3/16 in) atthe point of contact with the other component.■ Where the hook has an air-play compensating device,there is an air leak in the system.■ The wear on the pintle hook or eye at their pointof contact exceeds 9.5 mm (3/8 in).■ The drawbar is bent, broken or cracked, or one of itsparts is missing, not firmly attached or so worn that itno longer has the required mechanical resistance.■ A safety fastener or coupling component is missing,worn, abraded, cracked, broken, loose, corroded ornot securely fastened.
FRAME, UNDERBODY AND COUPLING DEVICESECTION 3 38Section3Frame,UnderbodyandCouplingDevice
Visually and manually inspect the suspension system tomake sure it is in good condition and proper workingorder. If necessary, partially lift the vehicle by the frame soas to release the tension on the springs and check the fol-lowing components.■ A component is missing, warped, damaged, inade-quate, not securely fastened or has been repaired bymeans of welding when it could have been replaced.■ A component for mounting or positioning the axle orwheel to the road vehicle is cracked, broken, not firm-ly attached, out of place, warped, missing or welded.■ the level that existed when the vehicle was manufac-tured.■ An axle is warped, has welded repairs, is not properlyaligned or is not centred.■ The suspension allows a tire to touch the body orframe under normal conditions of use.■ A component for mounting or positioning the axleor wheel to the vehicle is missing, not securelyattached, broken, damaged in a way that affectsthe parallelism of the wheels or that lets the axleor wheel move out of its normal position.■ An axle or equalizing beam is cracked or broken.SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 39PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTGENERAL INFORMATIONSection 4 SuspensionSection4Suspension
SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 40PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection4Suspensiona) Springs— Leaf spring— Coil spring— Torsion bar springN.B.: Requirements apply regardless of the num-ber of master spring leafs.N.B.: “Master spring leaf” means any leaf in a leafassembly of which one end touches or extendsbeyond:— The contact surface of the leaf support or equal-izing beam (see diagram below).— The spring eye (see diagram below).Below are some examples of master spring leafs.■ A spring leaf is broken, missing, cracked, not firmlyattached, out of alignment, or has a welded repair.■ A coil spring is broken, not firmly attached, or spacerhas been installed between the spirals.■ A spring is so subsided that one side of the vehicle ismore than 50 mm (2 in) lower than the other side orthere is contact with a rubber bumper.■ A torsion bar is not securely attached or has beenrepaired by means of welding.■ A torsion bar is in poor working order.■ A torsion bar is broken or cracked.■ A coil spring or torsion bar is so cracked or brokenthat the vehicle is completely sagged.■ A leaf or coil spring is so out of place that it touch-es a rotating part.■ A master leaf or 25% or more of the leaf springsof the assembly are broken or missing.Spring boltBracketBushingMaster spring leafFrame orbodyRear axleLeaf clipsCenter boltU-bolt clampBracketSpring shackleSpring pad
SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 41Front springshackle bracketShock absorberFront I-beam axleFront spring bracketShackleLeaf clipU-bolt clampFront of vehicleFront spring suspensionTorque rodWalking beamSaddleSpring suspension and equalizing beamTorsion bar spring Coil springsSection4SuspensionLowersuspension armTorsion bar springBracket CoilspringPadRetainerPad
SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 43PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTe) Leaf support and bracketsN.B.: Wear plates may be installed.■ A component supporting a leaf spring is not securelyfastened, has a welded repair, or is cracked, broken,missing or worn more than 3.2 mm (1/8 in) for a vehi-cle with a net weight of less than 5,500 kg and morethan 6.4 mm (1/4 in) for any other vehicle.■ A bracket is not securely installed, is cracked or bro-ken, or a cast or forged part bolted in place has beenrepaired by means of welding.b) Clips■ A clip is not properly installed.c) U-bolt clamp■ A U-bolt clamp is cracked, not properly installed orhas been repaired by means of welding.d) Centre bolt■ A centre bolt is missing or broken.f) Shackles, bushing and axisA pry bar may be required to check the amount ofplay between the bushing and axis. ■ A shackle is not securely installed, is warped orcracked.■ The bushing is missing or severely damaged (the flex-ible material from which the bushing is made hasseveral deep cuts that could hamper its performance).■ The play between the bushing and the axis exceeds2 mm (3/32 in) where the diameter of the axis is24 mm (1 in)or less, or 3.2 (1/8 in) where the diame-ter is over 24 mm (1 in).Section4Suspensiong) Suspension arm■ The suspension arm is warped, damaged, cracked,perforated by corrosion, not securely mounted or hasbeen repaired by means of welding.
h) Stabilizer bar and stabilizer bar link kit■ The stabilizer bar or stabilizer bar link kit is missing,warped, cracked, broken, not securely installed, orhas been repaired by means of welding.■ A pad is missing or damaged to the point that there istoo much play in the stabilizer bar.SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 44PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSwaybarUpper armLower armSection4Suspensioni) MacPherson struts◆ Lift the vehicle until there is no weight on the sus-pension system.◆ Place your hands on the top and bottom of thetire and swing it back and forth (see section 2.7,page 26, for horizontal play).◆ Check the horizontal play at the outside circum-ference of the tire.■ The strut is damaged or shows wear exceeding themanufacturer’s standards.■ The horizontal play is 5 mm (7/32 in) or more.■ A strut or one of its brackets is cracked or broken.■ A strut fastener has too much play.Maximum toleranceMaximumtoleranceHorizontal play Vertical playj) Travel stopper■ The travel stopper is missing, not securely fastened orseriously damaged.k) Equalizing beamN.B.: Welded repairs to cast or forged equalizingbeams or saddles are prohibited.The amount of play in the centre bushing of the equal-izing beam can be checked by turning the wheelssharply or by observing whether turning the wheelsleaves tire marks on the frame.■ The play in the centre bushing of the equalizing beamexceeds 6.4 mm (1/4 in) or results in over 8 cm(3.2 in) side movement of an axle or contact betweenthe tire and frame during turning.■ The equalizing beam is warped, damaged, not secure-ly mounted or has been repaired by means ofwelding.
SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 45PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTl) Shock absorberVisually and manually inspect the shock absorbers,supports, bolts and rubber pads. For vehicles whosegross vehicle weight rating is less than 4,500 kg, checkthe efficiency of the shock absorbers by pushing downand quickly releasing each corner of the vehicle andobserving the spring.■ A shock absorber is missing, poorly installed, cracked,broken, damaged or not functioning.■ A shock absorber has a major leak.■ A corner of the vehicle springs up and down morethan twice.■ A support is cracked, broken or not firmly attached.Section4Suspensionn) Torque rodCheck the play in the torque rod by placing a pry barunder each extremity and then pressing down.N.B.: Welding of a torque rod is allowed whererequired to adjust the length of a replacement beamsupplied in two pieces.■ The torque rod is not securely mounted, is damaged,cracked, broken or has been repaired by means ofwelding.■ The bearing, ring or sleeve is damaged or showssignificant play in the axle.m) Air spring and air supply systemIn vehicles with air suspension systems, check the airspring and air supply system.■ An air spring leaks, is not securely mounted on thestructure or is so cut or cracked that the cord isexposed.■ A line, valve or connection has an air leak.■ Air is supplied to the system before the air pressure inthe braking circuit reaches 450 kPa (65 psi)■ The air pressure adjustment valve is inadequate.■ There is an air leak in the suspension system thatcannot be offset by the compressor when theengine is idling.
SUSPENSIONSECTION 4 46PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection4Suspension
N.B: Where a heavy vehicle was manufactured with servicebrakes on the front axle, the brakes must be present andadequate.N.B.: Every truck tractor manufactured after May 7 , 1993must be equipped with service brakes on the front axle.N.B.: The internal components of the service brakes can beinspected through the inspection holes provided for thispurpose.■ The brake pedal is not non-slip, not firmly attached,not properly aligned or is crimped.■ There is no braking or there is a significant reduc-tion in the braking capacity due to the absence orinadequate operation of a component of the brak-ing system:– On one wheel or a dual wheel assemblyin the case of a road vehicle with oneor two axles;or– On two single wheels or two dual wheelassemblies in the case of a vehicle withthree axles or more.■ There is no braking on a wheel of the single steer-ing axle where the manufacturer equipped thataxle with a braking system.■ One of the components of the braking system isnot securely mounted, is missing, seized up, dam-aged, deteriorated or worn in a way that consid-erably reduces the good working order of thebrakes.Inspect the parking brake according to the following pro-cedure:◆ Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface;◆ Set and release the parking brake to make sure thecables and linkages work properly;◆ Fully set the parking brake while the engine is idling;◆ Place the gearshift lever in the “Drive” position in thecase of an automatic transmission or, in the case of amanual transmission, in the highest gear that willallow a normal forward start;◆ Gently attempt to drive the vehicle forward.BRAKESSECTION 5 47PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection 5 BrakesGENERAL INFORMATION5.1 PARKING BRAKESection5Brakes
5.2.1Fluid power circuitVisually inspect the following components:a) Rigid or flexible tubingGeneral Information■ When the service brake is engaged, brake fluidleaks (other than weeping) along the system.■ Tubing is cut, crushed, crimped, welded, worn, notsecurely attached, excessively corroded, so crackedthat the rib is exposed, does not comply with the man-ufacturer’s standards for its application, or showssigns of weeping.■ A flexible tube bulges when under pressure.BRAKESSECTION 5 48PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTb) Mechanism■ The application mechanism does not maintain theparking brake in the desired position.■ The mechanism becomes stuck or does not function.c) Brake linings(if they are separate from the service brake linings inthe case of trucks and buses equipped with hydraulicbrakes).■ The linings have come unbound from their support,are broken, contaminated by oil or grease, crackedmore deeply than half the remaining thickness, notsecurely attached to the support, worn in an extreme-ly uneven way or are less than 1.6 mm (1/16 in) thickat the thinnest point excluding the bevelled part.d) Brake system warning light (where applicable)■ The warning light does not come on.5.2 HYDRAULIC BRAKING SYSTEMe) Cables (where applicable)■ A cable is frayed, seized up, missing, broken, not con-nected or not securely attached.Section5Brakesa) Working order■ The brake does not prevent the vehicle from moving.■ The brake cannot be fully engaged or disengaged.
d) Brake system warning lightTurn the ignition switch to the “ON” position withthe engine turned off, or to the “START” positionand check to see if the light comes on.Start the engine and depress the brake pedalwith approximately 550 Newton (125 lb) of force,or 265 Newton (60 lb) in the case of hydraulicpower brakes, and check to see if the light comeson.N.B.: Make sure the parking brake is disengagedif it shares the same warning light.■ The light does not come on when the ignition switchis turned to the “ON” position when the engine is off,or to the “START” position.■ The light stays on once the engine has started.■ The light comes on when the brake pedal is depressedwith a heavy force.BRAKESSECTION 5 49PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection5Brakesc) Master cylinder◆ Visually inspect the master cylinder and itsfasteners and fittings.◆ Check the fluid level.■ The master cylinder is not securely mounted, showssigns of seepage, or the cover is missing or loose, thebrake fluid level is below the level specified by themanufacturer or, where no level is specified, is over10 mm (3/8 in) below the edge of the filler opening.■ The level of the brake fluid in the master cylinderis lower than one quarter of the normal full level.Brake fluid levelat 10 mm (3/8 in.)or level specifiedby the manufacturerb) Fittings■ A fitting is welded, extremely corroded, does not com-ply with the manufacturer’s standards for its applica-tion, or shows signs of weeping.5.2.2 Hydraulic brake pedalCheck the travel of the brake pedal according to thefollowing procedure:◆ start the engine;◆ measure the distance between the brake pedaland the floor wall;◆ depress the pedal with approximately550 Newton (125 lb) of force, or 265 Newton(60 lb) in the case of hydraulic power brakes;◆ measure the remaining distance between thepedal and floor.■ The surface of the brake pedal is not non-slip.■ The pedal drops when force is applied.■ The travel of the pedal exceeds 65% of the total pos-sible travel.■ The pedal has to be depressed several times inorder to pressurize the circuit.■ The brake pedal reaches the floor in less than 10seconds.■ The travel of the pedal exceeds 80% of the totalpossible travel.Remainingdistance
BRAKESSECTION 5 50PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTa) Vacuum brake boosterPerform a manual inspection of the followingcomponents:— Vacuum-operated rigid and flexible tubing.— Power reserve and warning light or buzzer:• Start the engine;• Wait until the vacuum is established;• Turn the engine off;• Depress the brake pedal three times.— PumpDepress the brake pedal so as to removeany vacuum. If the system also uses vacuumfrom the engine, disconnect this source. Revthe engine to around 1200 rpm.— Compressor belt— Reservoir— Pressure gauge— Filter■ A tube is cut, crushed, crimped, cracked, broken, wornor not attached properly.■ There is not enough power in reserve for three assist-ed service brake applications.■ Where the warning buzzer functions, there is notenough power in reserve for one assisted servicebrake application.■ The pump is unable to provide or maintain a mini-mum vacuum of 4.5 kPa (18 psi).■ The pump is not securely mounted.■ The reservoir is missing, damaged, not securelymounted, or leaks.■ The pressure gauge is in poor working order.■ The filter is so clogged that performance of the brakesystem is reduced.5.2.3 Power brake(Hydraulic braking system)Turn the engine off, depress the brake pedal severaltimes to eliminate pressure in the accumulator andthen depress it again with approximately 90 Newton(20 lb) of force. Start the engine and check the move-ment of the pedal.■ The compressor belt is cut, extremely worn or loose.■ The belt has a cut that will likely lead to a break-down.■ The pedal does not drop slightly.■ The power brake is of no help to the driver whenthe brakes are applied with the engine off.■ The power brake does not work.Section5Brakes
BRAKESSECTION 5 51PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTb) Hydraulic power brake— Electric pump— Belt— Reservoir■ The reservoir of the pump is not securely mounted orshows visible signs of leakage, or the fluid level isbelow the level recommended by the manufacturer.■ The pump is not securely mounted or leaks.■ The pump (electric) does not function when theengine is turned off.c) Pneumatic power brakeSee Section 5.5 for inspection procedure.5.2.4 Brake cylinders and calipers(Hydraulic braking system)Visually inspect the above components.■ A cylinder shows signs of weeping, or the piston isseized up.■ A caliper is seized up or shows signs of weeping.Section5Brakes
Start the engine and check the brake system warn-ing light.N.B.: In certain types of heavy vehicle, the vehiclemust drive at a speed of over 10 km/h for the warn-ing light to go off.■ The brake system warning light does not go on duringthe built-in test cycle, or it remains lit.BRAKESSECTION 5 52PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTFluid level indicatorAccumulatorElectric pumpMaster cylinderIn addition to the common components of all braking sys-tems (fasteners, drums, linings, etc.), check the electro-magnets and wiring.■ An electromagnet is missing, out of order or not solid-ly attached.■ An electric cable, plug or coupling is missing, short-cir-cuited, broken, frayed, corroded, damaged or notsecurely attached to the appropriate fastener or con-nection.■ The electric brake circuit is not independent of anoth-er circuit.■ The circuit is grounded on the hitch.Electric brakeIntensity control(electrical brake)Electromagnet5.3 ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM5.4 ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKING SYSTEMSection5Brakes
Visually inspect the following components:a) Rigid and flexible tubingb) Couplings or glad handsc) Air reservoirs— Mounting brackets and straps— Drain cocks (automatic or manual)d) Air compressor and mounting bracketN.B.: the engine should be turned off— Belts— Air filter— Pressure gauge— Pulley■ A tube is cut, crushed, crimped, welded, worn, notattached properly, extremely corroded, so crackedthat the cord is exposed, does not comply with themanufacturer’s standards for its application, or showssigns of leakage.■ A flexible tube bulges when under pressure.■ A coupling or glad hand is damaged, cracked, corrod-ed, not securely attached, leaking, or the gasket isdamaged.■ A coupling does not comply with the manufactur-er’s standards for its application.■ The reservoir is not securely mounted, is cracked,extremely corroded, welded (excluding welds done bythe manufacturer) or shows visible signs of leakage.■ A mounting bracket is cracked, broken or missing.■ A replacement part (e.g. chain) is not suited to thepurpose.■ A drain cock is missing, not installed properly or notworking.■ The air filter is missing or clogged to the point ofrestricting air passage.■ The pressure gauge is missing or out of order, or mal-functions.■ The air compressor is not securely mounted.■ The belt has a cut, is extremely worn or is loose (max-imum pressure cannot be maintained).■ The driving belt of the air compressor has a cutthat will very likely lead to a breakdown.■ The pulley is cracked or broken.BRAKESSECTION 5 53PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT5.5 AIR BRAKING SYSTEM AND COMPONENTSSection5Brakes
b) Pressure regulatorCheck the following while the engine is running:◆ Pressure at which compressor is stoppedNote the reading on the pressure gauge whenthe regulator cuts the pressure.◆ Pressure at which compressor startsPlace chocks under the wheels and disengagethe parking brake. Quickly depress the servicebrakes several times to reduce the air pressureand take the reading on the pressure gaugewhen the regulator starts the compressor.■ The air pressure is not between 805 and 945 Kpa (115and 135 psi) when the regulator stops the compres-sor.■ The air pressure is below 550 kPa (80 psi) when theregulator starts the compressor.BRAKESSECTION 5 54PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTc) Low-pressure warning light or buzzerReduce the air pressure in the system to below 380kPa (55 psi) and check to see if the warning light orbuzzer goes on or sounds. ■ The low-pressure warning light or buzzer is missing ordoes not activate when the air pressure in the systemis less than 380 kPa (55 psi).d) Air pressure◆ Check the air pressure while applyingthe service brakeWith the air pressure at its maximum, the park-ing brake disengaged and the engine turned off,depress the service brake as far as possible forone minute and then read the pressure loss onthe pressure gauge.■ The air pressure loss after the service brake has beenapplied for one minute exceeds:■ single-unit road vehicle: 20 kPa (3 psi)■ 2 vehicles: 28 kPa (4 psi)■ 3 vehicles: 35 kPa (5 psi).■ The air pressure loss after the service brake hasbeen applied for one minute exceeds:■ single-unit road vehicle: 40 kPa (6 psi)■ 2 vehicles: 48 kPa (7 psi)■ 3 vehicles: 62 kPa (9 psi).a) Compressor performanceReduce the air pressure to below 350 kPa (50 psi). Revthe engine to 1200 rpm and note how long it takes toraise the pressure to 350-620 kPa (50-90 psi).■ It takes longer than 3 minutes.■ The compressor is unable to reach or maintain aminimum pressure of 620 kPa (90 psi) when theengine is idling and the service brake is fullyapplied.5.6 WORKING ORDER OF AIR BRAKING SYSTEMSection5Brakes
f) Check valve of air brake reservoirsWith the air pressure at its maximum, open the draincock of the supply reservoir. The check valve shouldclose and retain air in the service reservoirs.■ The valve is missing or does not close.g) Relay valvesRelease the spring brakes, apply the service brakesand check the brake chambers supplied by the relayvalve. Release the brakes.■ When the brakes are released, the holes in the relayvalve do not let air out quickly.■ The relay valve is not securely installed.BRAKESSECTION 5 55PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTh) Protection valve of truck tractors◆ Disconnect the air hoses from the semi-trailer◆ Raise the air pressure to at least 700 kPa (100psi)◆ Turn the engine off, press the trailer air supplyvalve button and check for the expulsion of com-pressed air from the air hose.■ The protection valve of the truck tractor does notmaintain a minimum air pressure of 140 kPa (20 psi)in the system.■ The protection valve of the truck tractor is notworking.e) Pressure loss through service brake activationWith the air pressure at its maximum, the parkingbrake disengaged and the engine turned off, fullyapply the service brake for one minute and then readthe pressure loss on the pressure gauge after a singleapplication.■ The pressure loss exceeds 130 kPa (19 psi), or 20% inthe case of a combination of vehicles.Section5Brakes
b) Brake chamber push rod(S-cam brakes)Make a mark on the push rod when the brakes aredisengaged. Apply the brakes so that the air pressurein the brake chamber is around 620 kPa (90 psi) andmeasure the stroke of the push rod.■ The stroke of the push rods on a single axle variesmore than 6.5 mm (1/4 in).■ The stroke of the push rod exceeds the maximumspecified in the table on the following page.■ The stroke of the push rod of a brake chamber ina vehicle with one or two axles, or of two brakechambers in a vehicle with three axles or more,exceeds the maximum adjustment value providedby the manufacturer by 6.5 mm or more.BRAKESSECTION 5 56PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTMark the push rod hereBrakes disengagedBrakes engagedAdjustmentof brake cama) Brake camshaftPlace chocks under the wheels, release the spring andservice brakes and, using a micrometer, measure theplay between the bushings and brake camshaft.■ The radial stroke between the camshaft and its bush-ings exceeds 2.1 mm (3/32 in).5.7 WORKING ORDER OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF AIR BRAKING SYSTEMSection5BrakesPISTON STYLE BRAKE CHAMBER (LONG STROKE)SIZE OUTSIDE DIAMETER MAXIMUM TRAVEL BEFORE READJUSTMENT30 (DD3)2 165 mm (6 1/2 in) 64 mm (2 1/2 in)LONG STROKESIZE OUTSIDE DIAMETER MAXIMUM TRAVEL BEFORE READJUSTMENT16 162 mm (6 3/8 in) 51 mm (2 in)20 172 mm (6 25/32 in) 51 mm (2 in)24 183 mm (7 7/32 in) 51 mm (2 in)241 183 mm (7 7/32 in) 64 mm (2 1/2 in)30 205 mm (8 3/32 in) 64 mm (2 1/2 in)STANDARD STROKESIZE OUTSIDE DIAMETER MAXIMUM TRAVEL BEFORE READJUSTMENT6 115 mm (4 1/2 in) 32 mm (1 1/4 in)9 133 mm (5 1/4 in) 35 mm (1 3/8 in)12 144 mm (5 11/16 in) 35 mm (1 3/8 in)16 162 mm (6 3/8 in) 45 mm (1 3/4 in)20 172 mm (6 25/32 in) 45 mm (1 3/4 in)24 183 mm (7 7/32 in) 45 mm (1 3/4 in)30 205 mm (8 3/32 in) 51 mm (2 in)36 228 mm (9 in) 57 mm (2 1/4 in)1. Size 24, having a maximum travel of 3 inches2. DD3 is found on some intercity buses/coachesNote: Features of brake chambers with long stroke push rod travel are shown on page 58.CLAMP TYPE CHAMBERS
BRAKESSECTION 5 57PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTThickness gageDust shieldDrum LiningInspection look outBrake shoeReference markon liningc) Adjustment of wedge brakesUsing a feeler gauge, measure the displacement of thebrake linings with around 620 kPa (90 psi) of air pres-sure applied to the brakes. Raise and spin the wheel. ■ The lining moves more than 1.6 mm (1/16 in).Section5Brakesd) Brake chambersIn accordance with TMC (The Maintenance CouncilRP-635) recommendations, all brake chambersequipped with long stroke (LS) push rods should beidentified as follows:The air intakes where flexible tubes are connected tothe brake chamber are located in a square section andraised approximately 1/2 in.A trapezoidal tag (standard SAE J1817) is attached tothe chamber support clip, or the identification isinscribed by the manufacturer in the centre or on theend of the brake chamber.■ The brake chambers installed on a single axle are notthe same size or type.■ The brake chambers installed on a single steeringaxle are not the same size or type.■ A brake chamber is not securely mounted.■ A component or related part is missing, damaged,cracked, broken, extremely corroded, worn or of acapacity or quality below that prescribed by the man-ufacturer.
BRAKESSECTION 5 58Dual-purpose chamber(parking andemergency brakes)Flanged chamberTapezoidal tagSingle, long-stroke chamberIdentificationinscribedin the metalThe air intakes where flexible tubes are connectedto the brake chamber are located in a square sectionand raised approximately 1/2 in.Identificationinscribedin the metalTag attachedto the brake chambersupport clipDual, long-stroke chamberThe air intakes where flexible tubes are connectedto the brake chamber are located in a square sectionand raised approximately 1/2 in.Section5Brakes
e) Slack adjusters (manual or automatic)■ The slack adjuster is damaged, worn, seized up or notfunctioning, or the position of the push rods on theadjusters differs.■ The slack adjusters installed on a single axle are notthe same size or type.■ The slack adjuster is not securely attached or not func-tioning, or is missing, seized up, damaged or so wornas to affect the good working order of the brake.■ A semi-trailer measuring between 15.5 and 16.2 m inlength is not equipped with self-adjusting brake leversoperating on each wheel.■ A heavy vehicle built after May 31, 1996 is notequipped with self-adjusting brake levers operatingon each wheel.■ The slack adjusters installed on a single steeringaxle are not the same size or type.BRAKESSECTION 5 59PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTManual slack adjusterAutomatic slack adjusterSection5BrakesN.B.: Semi-trailers measuring between 15.5 and16.2 m in length and all heavy vehicles built after May31, 1996 must be equipped with self-adjusting brakelevers operating on each wheel.5.8 DISK BRAKESHYDRAULIC OR AIR BRAKING SYSTEMa) DiscsCheck the condition of the surface of the discsthrough the holes and of the inside. ■ The friction surface is rusted or contaminated by oil orgrease.■ A crack reaches the outer edge of the friction sur-face or any other part of the disc (excluding super-ficial cracks caused by heat).
BRAKESSECTION 5 60PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTb) CalipersPlace the wheel so that the caliper is easily accessibleand then check the fastener and condition of thecaliper from the inside.■ The caliper is seized up, cracked, broken, not secure-ly or properly installed or leaks.c) Brake linings (pads)Perform a visual inspection.N.B.: Brake linings must be measured at the thinnestpoint, excluding the bevelled part.■ Riveted brake pads are less than 4.8 mm (3/16 in)thick on the steering axle or 1 mm above the rivets.■ Riveted brake pads are less than 8 mm (5/16 in) thickon the other axles or 1 mm above the rivets.■ Bonded brake linings are less than 1.6 mm (1/16 in)thick.■ The linings have come unbound from or are notsecurely attached to their support or are broken, con-taminated by oil or grease, or cracked more deeplythan half the remaining thickness.■ The wear indicator touches the disc.■ When the brakes are applied, a support or rivet ofthe brake lining touches the friction surface of thedrum or disc.Section5Brakesd) Working order◆ Have someone gently depress the brake pedal.◆ Check the application and release of the servicebrake on each wheel.■ There is no rotation resistance on a wheel when theservice brake pedal is applied.■ The wheel does not turn freely when the brake isreleased.■ There is no braking or there is a significant reduc-tion in the braking capacity on one wheel or awheel assembly in the case of a road vehicle withtwo axles or, in the case of a vehicle with threeaxles or more, on two single wheels or two wheelassemblies, due to the absence or inadequateoperation of a component of the braking system.■ There is no braking on a wheel of the single steer-ing axle where the manufacturer equipped thataxle with a braking system.
HYDRAULIC OR AIR BRAKING SYSTEMa) Brake linings and shoesPerform a visual inspection without removing the dustshield or throwing the brakes out of adjustment.N.B.: Brake linings must be measured at the thinnestpoint, excluding the bevelled part.■ Bolted linings are less than 8 mm (5/16 in) or 1 mmabove the fittings.■ Riveted brake pads are less than 4.8 mm (3/16 in)thick on the steering axle or 1 mm above the rivets.■ Riveted brake pads are less than 8 mm (5/16 in) thickon the other axles or 1 mm above the rivets.■ Bonded brake linings are less than 1.6 mm (1/16 in)thick.■ The linings have come unbound from or are notsecurely attached to their support or are broken, con-taminated by oil or grease or cracked more deeplythan half the remaining thickness.■ A shoe is missing or worn at the fastening point.■ When the brakes are applied, a support or rivet ofthe brake lining touches the friction surface of thedrum or disc.BRAKESSECTION 5 61PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT5.9 DRUM BRAKESSection5Brakes
BRAKESSECTION 5 62b) DrumsCheck the condition of the brake drums.■ A brake drum shows signs of overheating on the fric-tion surface.■ The friction surface is uneven, rusted or contaminatedby oil or grease.■ A crack other than a superficial crack caused byheat is present and reaches the outer edge of thefriction surface of the drum.c) Working order◆ Lift the wheel off the ground and spin it.◆ Check the application and release of the servicebrake on each wheel by having someone gentlydepress the brake pedal.■ There is no rotation resistance on a wheel when theservice-brake pedal is applied.■ The wheel does not turn freely when the brake isreleased.■ There is no braking or there is a significant reduc-tion in the braking capacity on one wheel or awheel assembly in the case of a road vehicle withtwo axles or, in the case of a vehicle with threeaxles or more, on two single wheels or two wheelassemblies, due to the absence or inadequateoperation of a component of the braking system.■ There is no braking on a wheel of the single steer-ing axle where the manufacturer equipped thataxle with a braking system.Section5Brakes
FUEL AND ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMSSECTION 6 63Visually inspect the following components: General Information:■ In the case of a gasoline or diesel engine, there isweeping along the fuel system.■ There is a fuel leak other than weeping along the fuelsupply system.PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection 6 Fuel and Engine Control Systems6.1 FUEL SYSTEMa) Fuel tank(gasoline, diesel, propane or natural gas engines) ■ The filler hose is leaking or not securely installed.■ The tank is weeping, cracked or not securelymounted.■ A retaining strap is missing, cracked, cut or loose, ordoes not comply with the manufacturer’s standards(e.g. chain).■ A bracket or support holding the tank is cracked, bro-ken or not firmly attached, or a bolt is loose or miss-ing.■ The filler cap is not hermetic.■ The tank leaks, excluding weeping.■ The tank is so poorly mounted that it could breakloose.■ In the case of a gasoline or diesel engine, the tankdoes not have a filler cap.Section6FuelandEngineControlSystems
c) Fuel gauge■ The fuel gauge is missing or does not function.■ The fuel gauge is not visible from the driver’s seat(except in LPG systems).FUEL AND ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMSSECTION 6 64PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTd) Sticker■ The sticker does not comply with the regulations, ismissing or is not valid.Section6FuelandEngineControlSystemsb) Rigid or flexible fuel line and fittingsN.B.: For the required clearance between a fuel lineand a component of the exhaust system, see section 7(“Installation”).■ A line is cut, crushed, crimped, extremely corroded, socracked or worn that the cord is exposed, not fastenedat the designated locations or tight enough to preventthe lines from vibrating or rubbing against adjacentparts.■ A line, fitting or clamp is not adequate for the pur-pose.■ In the case of a gasoline or diesel engine, fuel is weep-ing through a fitting.■ In the case of a pressurized fuel system, (compressednatural gas or propane gas), the fuel line or fitting isnot of the approved type.
FUEL AND ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMSSECTION 6 65PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTThe engine control system should be inspected when thevehicle is stationary, with the engine running and thegearshift lever in “N” (Neutral). Make sure the vehicle isproperly parked. Gently press and then gradually releasethe accelerator pedal to make sure it is not seized up.Visually inspect the following components:General Information:■ The engine does not accelerate or does not idlequickly.■ The engine does not idle when the acceleratorpedal is released.6.2 ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMa) Accelerator pedal■ The accelerator pedal is missing, bent out of shape orloose.■ The pedal support is damaged or loose.b) Accelerator linkage and springsCheck the accelerator linkage and springs with theengine turned off. Push the accelerator pedal downfully to check thet its movement is free and that itreturns when released.■ The linkage is worn, seized up, damaged, not secure-ly mounted or so poorly adjusted that the acceleratorpedal does not function properly.■ A spring is missing, broken, worn or inadequate.■ A defect in the engine support prevents the accelera-tor linkage from functioning properly.c) Shutdown system for diesel enginesActivate the shutdown system while the engine isidling. ■ The engine does not shut down when it is idling andthe shutdown system is activated.Section6FuelandEngineControlSystems
FUEL AND ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMSSECTION 6 66Section6FuelandEngineControlSystems
Check the exhaust system with the engine running, payingspecial attention to gas leaks. If the inspection is being per-formed indoors, make sure the area is properly ventilated.General Information:■ Flammable material is leaking on a component of theexhaust system.■ Exhaust gases from a gasoline or gaseous fuelengine are leaking:— underneath the passenger compartmentwhere there are holes in the floor; or— in the engine compartment.EXHAUST SYSTEMSECTION 7 67PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection 7 Exhaust SystemEXHAUST SYSTEMa) Muffler and resonatorN.B.: Disregard holes made by the manufacturer torelease condensation.■ The muffler or resonator is missing or not securelymounted to its anchorage.■ There is a gas leak in the muffler or resonator.■ There is an inadequate or a temporary repair in themuffler or resonator.Section7FuelandEngineControlSystemsb) Exhaust pipeN.B.: Disregard holes made by the manufacturer torelease condensation.■ The pipe is leaking.■ There is an inadequate or a temporary repair in theexhaust pipe.■ The exhaust pipe crosses the passenger compartment.■ The outlet of the exhaust pipe is located within thespace occupied by the passengers or luggage.■ The outlet of the exhaust pipe is located under or infront of a side window that opens.■ The end of the exhaust pipe extends more than 15 cm(6 in) horizontally from the road vehicle. In the case ofa school bus, the exhaust pipe may not extend morethan 2 cm (1 in) from the bumper.■ Gas is leaking through a coupling.■ A pipe is missing or not securely or properly installed.
c) Brackets and clamps■ A fastener is missing, cracked, broken, inadequate ornot firmly attached to its anchorage.d) Heat shieldN.B.: Required where a component of the exhaust sys-tem is located near a cab door and persons using thedoor risk being burned.■ The heat shield is missing, inadequate or not secure-ly mounted.EXHAUST SYSTEMSECTION 7 68PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTHeat shielde) Installation■ A component of the exhaust system, excluding brack-ets or clamps, is closer than 50 mm (2 in) from a partmade of combustible materials, an electric wire, a fuelor brake line or the fuel tank and is not protected byan appropriate heat shield. Note that pressurized fuellines of the CNG and LPG types must be at least 150mm (6 in) from the above components unless theyare protected by an appropriate heat shield.Section7FuelandEngineControlSystems
Visually inspect the following components: General Information:■ The windshield or a window is not made of safetyglass and does not bear the appropriate information,i.e. AS 1 in the case of the windshield and AS 2 in thecase of other windows (see Appendix 3 for excep-tions).■ A window is missing, incorrectly installed or has asharp edge.■ Mirror-like material has been affixed to or sprayed ona window of the vehicle.a) Windshield The windshield is:■ Missing.■ Tarnished, cloudy or broken in a way that reduces thedriver’s vision of the road or road signs.■ An object or sticker that could reduce visibility is hungin or affixed to the windshield.■ The windshield has cracks or missing flakes more than12 mm (1/2 in) in diameter that meet on the area cov-ered by the wipers, excluding the area under theinside mirror and a strip of 75 mm (3 in) in the upperand lower parts of the windshield.■ There is a loss of transparency in the area of the wind-shield covered by the wipers that exceeds 10% of thetotal surface of the windshield.■ Material that darkens glass has been affixed to orsprayed on the windshield (a strip no more than 150mm (6 in) in width is permitted in the upper part ofthe windshield).■ The windshield is so damaged that the driver’svision of the road and road signs is considerablyreduced.EXHAUST SYSTEMSECTION 8 69PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection 8 Windows and Rearview Mirrors8.1 WINDOWSArea coveredby windshieldwipersSection8WindowsandRearviewMirrors
Section8WindowsandRearviewMirrorsb) Side windows and rear windowN.B.: The rear window may be blocked if the vehicle isequipped with an outside rearview mirror on the pas-senger side.■ A side window on either side of the driver’s compart-ment is tarnished, cloudy, cracked, broken or blockedin a way that reduces the driver’s vision of the road orroad signs.■ The side window on the left side of the driver’s com-partment cannot be easily opened to allow the driverto signal his manoeuvres with his arm.■ The rear window is tarnished, cloudy, cracked, brokenor blocked in a way that reduces the driver’s vision ofthe road.In the case of a school bus:■ A side window located immediately behind the dri-ver’s compartment is tarnished, cloudy, cracked, bro-ken or blocked in a way that reduces the driver’svision of the road or road signs;In the case of a school buswith a total weight, once loaded, of over 4,536 kg:■ A side window located immediately behind the dri-ver’s compartment is tarnished, cloudy, cracked, bro-ken or blocked in a way that reduces the driver’svision of the road or road signs;■ One of the first two windows on either side of theschool bus is not made of double insulating glass(thermopane, quality AS 2).EXHAUST SYSTEMSECTION 8 70PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTMake sure the rearview mirrors are present and check theircondition and viewing angle.Manually inspect the rearview mirror to make sure it issolidly attached and the adjustment mechanism is working.N.B.: In accordance with the Highway Safety Code, everymotor vehicle must be equipped with at least two rearviewmirrors: one solidly attached to the interior of the vehicleat the centre of the upper part of the windshield, and theother, to the exterior of the vehicle on the left side. Whenthe interior rearview mirror cannot be used, anotherrearview mirror must be attached to the exterior of thevehicle on the right side.N.B.: In heavy vehicles, the line of sight in rearview mirrorsis blocked by the screws holding the mirrors in place.N.B.: Buses used to transport schoolchildren must beequipped with at least one convex rearview mirrorattached to the exterior of the front of the bus. Buses builtafter July 1, 1997 must have at least one convex rearviewmirror on each side.■ A rearview mirror is missing.■ The frame of a rearview mirror is not securelyattached to the vehicle.■ The rearview mirror has a sharp edge or is broken,cracked or tarnished.■ The silvering of a mirror is unbound on more than10% of the periphery of the reflecting surface (the sil-vering must not be unbound in any way in the case ofa school bus).■ A rearview mirror is not adjustable and does notremain in the desired position.8.2 REARVIEW MIRROR
Make sure the sun visor on the driver’s side is present, effi-cient and not damaged. ■ The sun visor on the driver’s side is missing.■ It is not effective.■ It does not remain in the desired position.Inspect the windshield wipers to make sure they workproperly and are not damaged by placing the functionlever in each of the operating positions after activating thewasher lever and making sure the wipers will not damagethe vehicle.■ The windshield washer fluid does not spray or thespray is not adjusted properly or is inadequate.■ A wiper blade is missing, worn, poorly adjusted ordamaged in a way that renders it ineffective.■ A wiper blade does not make even contact with thewindshield.■ The wiper blades do not sweep the area specified bythe manufacturer.■ A wiper arm is missing, worn, damaged or not secure-ly attached.■ The wiper blades sweep at a frequency of less than 20strokes per minute at low speed and less than 45strokes per minute at top speed.■ The difference between the two operating speeds isless than 15 strokes per minute.■ The windshield wiper on the driver’s side is inop-erative or missing.ACCESSORIESSECTION 9 71PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection 9 Accessories9.1 SUN VISOR9.2 HORN9.3 WINDSHIELD WIPERS AND WASHER FLUIDMake sure the horn is solidly attached and working prop-erly, and its control is easy to reach. It may be electric orair-powered.■ The horn is not firmly attached.■ Its control is not easy to reach, identifiable or firmlyattached.■ The horn does not sound or is not audible at a dis-tance of around 60 m (200 ft).Section9Accessories
Check each of the functions of the heater and defrost sys-tem, making sure the temperature and circulation of air ateach of the defroster outlets complies with the manufac-turer’s standards. An auxiliary fan may be used.If part of the heating-liquid piping is visible, check to makesure it is not damaged.■ The ventilation is not working.■ The amount of air blown onto the windshield whereintended by the manufacturer or onto the side win-dows (if the vehicle has outlets for that purpose) isinsufficient, or there is no heat.■ Heating-liquid piping that crosses inside the cab is cut,cracked or leaks.For vehicles with an automatic transmission, see if theengine will start with the gearshift lever in any positionother than “P” (Park) or “N” (Neutral).■ The engine starts with the gearshift lever in a positionother than “P” (Park) or “N” (Neutral).Check these accessories only if you have reason to believethat they are defective, in which case a road test will berequired.■ The speedometer or odometer does not function.ACCESSORIESSECTION 9 72PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT9.4 HEATER SYSTEM AND DEFROSTER9.5 ENGINE START OUT OF GEAR9.6 SPEEDOMETER AND ODOMETER9.7 INDICATOR LIGHTS OR GAUGES IN SCHOOL BUSESN.B.: PERFORM THIS INSPECTIONWITH THE BRAKE PEDAL DEPRESSEDIf part of the original equipment, the following indicatorsshould be checked to make sure they are present and workproperly:— engine coolant temperature gauge— oil pressure light— voltmeter— fuel gauge— vacuum or air pressure gauge of the brake system.■ An indicator light or gauge is missing or does notfunction.Section9Accessories
Operate the stop sign to make sure it extends and retractsand remains in the desired position.N.B.: In certain vehicles, the engine may have to be runningin order to perform this inspection.■ The panel is missing or does not extend or retractwhen activated.■ The panel does not remain in the desired position.To inspect the clutch control, put the gearshift lever in “N”(Neutral), start the engine, fully engage the clutch and tryand change gears.N.B.: As far as possible, the clutch control should bechecked in a clear area outdoors and with the parkingbrake fully set.■ The clutch pedal is not non-slip.■ A component is missing or worn in a way that pre-vents it from working properly.■ The clutch does not interrupt the transmission ofengine torque to the gearbox shaft.Make sure this equipment is present, securely attached,within easy reach and in proper working order. ■ The first-aid kit is missing, not securely attached orhard to reach.■ The chemical fire extinguisher is missing, not securelyattached, hard to reach or damaged.■ The extinguisher is not equipped with a pressuregauge, or the gauge indicates “refill” or “zero”.ACCESSORIESSECTION 9 73PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECT9.8 RETRACTABLE STOP SIGN ON SCHOOL BUSES9.9 CLUTCH CONTROL9.10 FIRST-AID KIT AND CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHER IN SCHOOL BUSES9.11 CROSSING CONTROL ARM ON SCHOOL BUSESSection9Accessories9.12 DRIVE SHAFTVisually and manually inspect the following components:— Universal joints— Centre bearing and its support (two-piece driveshaft)— Shaft guard (where part of the original equip-ment, mandatory in school buses with frontengine)■ The drive shaft is warped or bent.■ A universal joint is loose or not firmly attached.■ The centre bearing is worn or not securely mounted,or its rubber support is damaged.■ The shaft guard is missing, damaged or not firmlyattached.Make sure the arm is functioning properly.■ The arm does not extend at a right angle to the bus.■ The arm extends in less than 2 seconds.
a) Depth of treadUsing a depth gauge, or by performing a visualinspection, measure the minimum depth of the treadin a main groove or tread design (not at the wear indi-cator) on all tires.Vehicles whose gross vehicule weight rating (GVWR)is 4,500 kg or more:■ The depth of the tread is less than 3.2 mm (4/32 in)on a front tire.■ The depth of the tread is less than 1.6 mm (2/32 in)on a rear tire.All other vehicles:■ The depth of the tread is less than 1.6 mm (2/32 in)on any tire.■ A wear indicator touches the road.■ A single tire or dual tires in the same wheelassembly has or have two adjacent grooves lessthan 0.8 mm (1/32 in) in depth, or less than 1.6mm (2/32 in) for a front tire of a vehicule whosegross vehicule weight rating (GRVR) is 4,500 kg ormore.TIRES AND WHEELSSECTION 10 75PARTS AND PROCEDURES DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTSection 10 Tires and Wheels10.1 TIRESRimSection10TiresandWheels