Re-ingegnerizzare
   Ingegneria

  CDIO Skills

    Claudio G. Casati

   Agosto 2009 (Rev. Ott09)
Executive Summary
 Secondo CDIO, conoscenze Techniche e capacità di analisi ,
 abilità e caratteristiche Professionali e P...
Citazione
Questa presentazione è un assemblaggio di materiali tratti da:
     CDIO “Ready to Engineer” at graduation, ASME...
Contenuti
  Metodologia
     CDIO Standard
     Livelli di Competenze
     Integrazione interdisciplinare
     CDIO Syllab...
Capacità richieste a un laureato in
Ingegneria

“   Capacità di ideare/ Conceive – progettare/
    Design – implementare/ ...
Learning by use
Learning by doing




  Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research Center for Science,
    ...
Necessità
Desired Attributes of an   Underlying Need
Engineering Graduate       Educate students who:
   Understanding of
...
The Challenge -
Transform The Culture

    CURRENT                              DESIRED
•   Engineering Science           ...
Evolution of Engineering Education

• Prior to the 1950s, education was based on practice,
  taught by distinguished forme...
Development of Engineering Education

                  Pre-
     Personal,    1950s:
 Interpersonal    Practice
         ...
Goals of CDIO

•   To educate students to master a deeper
    working knowledge of the technical
    fundamentals

•   To ...
Vision
CDIO envision an education that stresses the
fundamentals, set in the context of Conceiving –
Designing – Implement...
Pedagogic Logic
 Most engineers are “concrete operational learners” -
 Manipulate objects to understand abstractions
 Stud...
CDIO Standard 2001
 CDIO has adopted 12 Standards as guiding
 principles for program reform and evaluation.

 The 12 CDIO ...
Approccio CDIO – Principali Caratteristiche
    Risultati dell’apprendimento - CDIO is based on outcomes, more
    than on...
CDIO STANDARD
1   CDIO as Context
2   CDIO Syllabus Outcomes
3   Integrated Curriculum
4   Introduction to Engineering
5  ...
Learning Outcomes
 Towards Learning Outcomes:
     learning outcomes, or end qualifications, or
     academic competences ...
Program Outcomes for Aeronautics
and Astronautics at MIT
1.0            1. Demonstrate a capacity to use the principles of...
Program Outcomes for Aeronautics
and Astronautics at MIT
3.0        1. Lead and work in teams.
Inter-     2. Communicate e...
Competenze/Livelli/Profilo
  Competenza = Integrazione di Conoscenze, Capacità &
  Attitudini caratterizzate da un Dominio...
Livelli di Competenze/
Bloom’s taxonomy

                 Expert

                    Proficient

                        ...
Bloom’s Taxonomy

Old Bloom          New Bloom
  Knowledge         Remember
  Comprehension     Understand
  Application  ...
Integrazione
A CDIO curriculum is designed with mutually supporting
disciplinary courses, with an explicit plan to integra...
Integrazione (es. 1/3)
SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION
               Introductory                    Mathematics
   Year 1        ...
Integrazione (es. 2/3)
SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION
                  Introductory                  Mathematics
    Year 1      ...
Integrazione (es. 3/3)
SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION
                  Introductory                  Mathematics
    Year 1      ...
CDIO Syllabus 2001
1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES
3. INTERPERSONAL ...
CDIO SYLLABUS – THE SET OF SKILLS
1     TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
1.1     Knowledge of underlying sciences
1.2     Core engineer...
CDIO Syllabus - Personal and
professional skills & attributes
1.   ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING - Capacità di...
CDIO Syllabus - Interpersonal skills:
teamwork & communication
1. TEAMWORK - Capacità di formare gruppi di lavoro efficien...
CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing,
implementing & operating systems in the
enterprise and societal context
1. EXTERNAL...
CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing,
implementing & operating systems in the
enterprise and societal context
4. DESIGNIN...
Embedded Competences
Communication in engineering means being able to
► use the technical concepts comfortably,
► discuss ...
Hands-on practice - 20th century
                                    1950_Caulfield Technical
       1985_Mechanical      ...
Hands-on practice - CDIO




   Early in the CDIO curriculum, students are exposed to the
 engineering experience and give...
CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim
Aeronautical Learning Laboratory




                               36
CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim
Aeronautical Learning Laboratory




                               37
After the course the participant is
expected to be able to …
 work in a project setting in a way that effectively utilises...
The new College of Engineering
   PBL (Project-based Learning) experiences make up 40% of the
   curriculum
   By graduati...
Implementation Process
CDIO Implementation Process
         1a. Validation with stakeholders
         1b. Benchmarking of existing courses


    ...
New methods of teaching and
learning (Standards 7 and 8)
 Standard 7 — Integrated Learning Experiences that lead to the
 a...
Project-based Learning (PBL or PjBL)
PBL provides complex tasks based on challenging questions or
problems that involve th...
PBL Characteristics
 Reliance on problems to drive the curriculum - The
 problems do not test skills; they assist in the
 ...
PBL – Good Project … Good Question
GOOD PROJECT                                   GOOD QUESTION
  Student-centered        ...
Appendice

CDIO 12 Standards 2001

  CDIO Syllabus 2001
CDIO 12 Standard (1 di 5)
1. The Context. This is the adoption of the principle that product,
   process and system lifecy...
CDIO 12 Standard (2 di 5)
4. Introduction to Engineering. An introductory course is offered
   that provides students with...
CDIO 12 Standard (3 di 5)
7. Integrated Learning experience. This provides the pedagogical
   environment that fosters lea...
CDIO 12 Standard (4 di 5)
9.  Enhancing of Faculty Skills Competence. Many engineering
    professors tend to be experts i...
CDIO 12 Standard (5 di 5)

11.   Learning Assessment. This is the measure of the extent to
      which each student achiev...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 1/7)
1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING
   1. KNOWLEDGE OF UNDERLYING SCIENCES
      1. Ma...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 2/7)
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES
   1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLE...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 3/7)
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES
   4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES
  ...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 4/7)
3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION
   1. TEAMWORK
      1. Forming Effec...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 5/7)
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOC...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 6/7)
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOC...
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 7/7)
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOC...
An Invitation
 The book:
 Crawley et al. (2007) Rethinking Engineering
 Education: The CDIO Approach, Springer Verlag.
 IS...
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CDIO Skills: Reingegnerizzare Ingegneria

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Secondo CDIO, conoscenze Techniche e capacità di analisi , abilità e caratteristiche Professionali e Personali , capacità Interpersonali (teamwork & comunicazione) costituiscono le fondamenta sulle quali costruire le conoscenze, abilità e caratteristiche ingegneristiche necessarie alle attività di ideazione, progettazione, realizzazione e gestione operativa di prodotti e sistemi, nell'impresa e nel contesto sociale.
L’ambiente di apprendimento Technology-Enhanced deve essere basato su: Integrazione disciplinare (Integrated Course Block); Project-based learning; Learning by thinking-doing-use;
Realizzazione di progetti, per il mondo reale, sperimentando le varie fasi del ciclo di vita di un prodotto/sistema dalla ideazione alla gestione operativa.

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CDIO Skills: Reingegnerizzare Ingegneria

  1. 1. Re-ingegnerizzare Ingegneria CDIO Skills Claudio G. Casati Agosto 2009 (Rev. Ott09)
  2. 2. Executive Summary Secondo CDIO, conoscenze Techniche e capacità di analisi , abilità e caratteristiche Professionali e Personali , capacità Interpersonali (teamwork & comunicazione) costituiscono le fondamenta sulle quali costruire le conoscenze, abilità e caratteristiche ingegneristiche necessarie alle attività di ideazione, progettazione, realizzazione e gestione operativa di prodotti e sistemi nell'impresa e nel contesto sociale. L’ambiente di apprendimento Technology-Enhanced deve essere basato su: Integrazione disciplinare (Integrated Course Block) Project-based learning Learning by thinking-doing-use Realizzazione di progetti, per il mondo reale, sperimentando le varie fasi del ciclo di vita di un prodotto/sistema dalla ideazione alla gestione operativa. 2
  3. 3. Citazione Questa presentazione è un assemblaggio di materiali tratti da: CDIO “Ready to Engineer” at graduation, ASME 2009 Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research Center for Science, Technology & Education Policy, Zhejiang University,China, 2009 Progetto DIAlumni, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Politecnico di Milano, 2009 CDIO - Integrating engineering competencies in engineering education, Kristina Edström, KTH, October 21, 2008 Convegno “Le imprese cercano, gli ingegneri ci sono? Domanda e offerta a confronto nel panorama europeo” Assolombarda e Politecnico di Milano, 24 gennaio 2008 SP1: System Requirements and Teamwork, Unified Engineering Spring 2004, Charles P Coleman, MIT The CDIO Syllabus, A Statement of Goals for Undergraduate Engineering Education, Edward F. Crawley, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, 2001 3
  4. 4. Contenuti Metodologia CDIO Standard Livelli di Competenze Integrazione interdisciplinare CDIO Syllabus CDIO implementation process Project-based Learning (PBL) Appendice CDIO 12 Standards CDIO Syllabus 4
  5. 5. Capacità richieste a un laureato in Ingegneria “ Capacità di ideare/ Conceive – progettare/ Design – implementare/ Implement – operare/ Operate complessi sistemi ingegneristici a valore-aggiunto, in moderni ambienti basati-su-team. ” Avendo sviluppato, nel corso degli studi, blocchi di conoscenze, competenze e attitudini - tecniche, professionali, personali, interpersonali - in un contesto imprenditoriale e sociale, mediante un apprendimento by-thinking, by-doing, by-use, in un contesto imprenditoriale e sociale. 5
  6. 6. Learning by use Learning by doing Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research Center for Science, Technology & Education Policy, Zhejiang University,China 6
  7. 7. Necessità Desired Attributes of an Underlying Need Engineering Graduate Educate students who: Understanding of fundamentals Understand how to Understanding of conceive - design – design & manufacturing implement - operate process Complex value-added Possess a multi- engineering systems disciplinary system perspective In a modern team- based engineering Good communication skills environment High ethical standards, etc. 7
  8. 8. The Challenge - Transform The Culture CURRENT DESIRED • Engineering Science • Engineering • R&D Context • Product Context • Reductionist • Integrative • Individual • Team ... but still based on a rigorous treatment of engineering fundamentals
  9. 9. Evolution of Engineering Education • Prior to the 1950s, education was based on practice, taught by distinguished former practitioners • 1950s saw the introduction of engineering science, and hiring of a cadre of young engineering scientists • 1960s was the golden era of a balance between the old practitioners and the young engineering scientists • In the 1980s, the engineering scientists aged — they replaced the practitioners with younger scientists, and the trend towards a scientific based education intensified • In the 1990s, industry recognized a growing gap between the skills of graduating students and those needed for engineering practice 9
  10. 10. Development of Engineering Education Pre- Personal, 1950s: Interpersonal Practice 2000s: and System CDIO Building 1960s: Skills Science & Practice 1980s: Science Disciplinary Knowledge Engineers need both dimensions, and Engineering Schools need to develop education that delivers both 10
  11. 11. Goals of CDIO • To educate students to master a deeper working knowledge of the technical fundamentals • To educate engineers to lead in the creation and operation of new products and systems • To educate future researchers to understand the importance and strategic value of their work 11
  12. 12. Vision CDIO envision an education that stresses the fundamentals, set in the context of Conceiving – Designing – Implementing – Operating systems and products: A curriculum organised around mutually supporting disciplines, but with CDIO activities highly interwoven Rich with student design-build projects Featuring active and experiential learning Set in both the classroom and a modern learning laboratory/workspace Constantly improved through robust assessment/evaluation process.
  13. 13. Pedagogic Logic Most engineers are “concrete operational learners” - Manipulate objects to understand abstractions Students arrive at university lacking personal experience - Lack foundation for “formal operational thought” Must provide authentic activities to allow mapping of new knowledge - alternative is rote or “pattern matching” Using CDIO as authentic activity achieves two goals -- • Provides activities to learn fundamentals • Provides education in the creation and operation of systems 13
  14. 14. CDIO Standard 2001 CDIO has adopted 12 Standards as guiding principles for program reform and evaluation. The 12 CDIO Standards address program philosophy, curriculum development, design-build experiences and workspaces, new methods of teaching and learning, faculty/academic development, and assessment and evaluation. 14
  15. 15. Approccio CDIO – Principali Caratteristiche Risultati dell’apprendimento - CDIO is based on outcomes, more than on contents, for producing the next generation of engineering leaders. Integrazione disciplinare - CDIO stresses engineering fundamentals set in the context of Conceiving, Designing, Implementing & Operating products, processes and systems Integrazione competenze trasversali personali e interpersonali Esperienze pratiche e spazi di lavoro Nuovi metodi di insegnamento e apprendimento Sistemi di misura dei risultati dell’apprendimento e di valutazione del percorso formativo Organized around mutually supporting technical disciplines a CDIO curriculum is richly interwoven with personal and interpersonal skills, product, process, and system building skills, student design-implement experiences, engineering problems requiring fundamental approach. 15
  16. 16. CDIO STANDARD 1 CDIO as Context 2 CDIO Syllabus Outcomes 3 Integrated Curriculum 4 Introduction to Engineering 5 Design-Build Experiences 6 CDIO Workspaces 7 Integrated Learning Experiences 8 Active Learning 9 Enhancement of Faculty CDIO Skills 10 Enhancement of Faculty Teaching Skills 11 CDIO Skills Assessment 12 CDIO Program Evaluation 16
  17. 17. Learning Outcomes Towards Learning Outcomes: learning outcomes, or end qualifications, or academic competences are the key to future program development, quality assurance, and accreditation in higher education in Europe this is not a trivial but a major reorientation in the field (product versus process) If learning outcomes are key it is necessary: to measure what comes out of the system in terms of learning outcomes: students’ competences at the end of bachelor and master (output) to evaluate and optimize the study program in terms of its contribution to the development of the desired learning outcomes (input) 17
  18. 18. Program Outcomes for Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT 1.0 1. Demonstrate a capacity to use the principles of the Technical underlying sciences of mathematics, physics, Skills chemistry, and biology. 2. Apply the principles of core engineering fundamentals. 3. Demonstrate deep working knowledge of professional engineering. 2.0 1. Analyze and solve engineering problems. Personal 2. Conduct inquiry and experimentation in engineering and problems. Professional 3. Think holistically and systemically. 4. Master personal skills that contribute to successful Skills engineering practice: initiative, flexibility, creativity, curiosity, and time management. 5. Master professional skills that contribute to successful engineering practice: professional ethics, integrity, currency in the field, career planning. 18
  19. 19. Program Outcomes for Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT 3.0 1. Lead and work in teams. Inter- 2. Communicate effectively in writing, in electronic personal form, in graphic media, and in oral presentations. Skills 3. Communicate effectively in foreign languages. 4.0 1. Appreciate different enterprise cultures and work CDIO successfully in organizations. System 2. Conceive engineering systems including setting requirements, defining functions, modeling, and Skills managing projects. 3. Design complex systems. 4. Implement hardware and software processes and manage implementation procedures. 5. Operate complex systems and processes and manage operations. 19
  20. 20. Competenze/Livelli/Profilo Competenza = Integrazione di Conoscenze, Capacità & Attitudini caratterizzate da un Dominio, Metodi e Contesto Livello di competenza: definito da descrittori. Profilo: gruppo di competenze di un programma di formazione o di una persona 20
  21. 21. Livelli di Competenze/ Bloom’s taxonomy Expert Proficient Competent Competenza Advanced Beginner Novice 21
  22. 22. Bloom’s Taxonomy Old Bloom New Bloom Knowledge Remember Comprehension Understand Application Apply Analysis Analyze Synthesis Evaluate Evaluation Create 22
  23. 23. Integrazione A CDIO curriculum is designed with mutually supporting disciplinary courses, with an explicit plan to integrate personal, interpersonal, and product, process, and system building skills. (CDIO Standard 3 -- Integrated Curriculum). 23
  24. 24. Integrazione (es. 1/3) SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION Introductory Mathematics Year 1 Physics course I Numerical Mechanics I Mathematics II Methods Mechanics II Solid Product Year 2 Mechanics development Thermo- Mathematics Fluid Sound and dynamics III mechanics Vibrations Signal Year 3 Control Theory Electrical Eng. Statistics analysis Personal & Oral Written Project Interpersonal Teamwork communication communication management Skills 24
  25. 25. Integrazione (es. 2/3) SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION Introductory Mathematics Year 1 Physics course I Mathematics Numerical Mechanics I II Methods Mechanics II Solid Product Year 2 Mechanics development Thermo- Mathematics Fluid Sound and dynamics III mechanics Vibrations Electrical Signal Year 3 Control Theory Statistics Eng. analysis Personal & Oral Written Project Interpersonal Teamwork communication communication management Skills 25
  26. 26. Integrazione (es. 3/3) SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION Introductory Mathematics Year 1 Physics course I Mathematics Numerical Mechanics I II Methods Mechanics II Solid Product Year 2 Mechanics development Thermo- Mathematics Fluid Sound and dynamics III mechanics Vibrations Electrical Signal Year 3 Control Theory Statistics Eng. analysis Personal & Oral Written Project Interpersonal Teamwork communication communication management Skills 26
  27. 27. CDIO Syllabus 2001 1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING 2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES 3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING AND OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 2. PERSONAL & 3. INTERPERSONAL 1. TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL SKILLS: KNOWLEDGE SKILLS & TEAMWORK & AND REASONING ATTRIBUTES COMMUNICATION 27
  28. 28. CDIO SYLLABUS – THE SET OF SKILLS 1 TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE 1.1 Knowledge of underlying sciences 1.2 Core engineering fundamental knowledge 1.3 Advanced engineering fundamental knowledge 2 PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS 2.1 Engineering Reasoning and Problem Solving 2.2 Experimentation and Knowledge Discovery 2.3 System Thinking 2.4 Personal Skills and Attributes 2.5 Professional Skills and Attitudes 3 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS 3.1 Teamwork and Leadership 3.2 Communication 3.3 Communication in Foreign Languages 4 PRODUCT AND SYSTEM BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 4.1 External and Societal Context 4.2 Enterprise and Business Context 4.3 Conceiving 4.4 Designing 4.5 Implementing 4.6 Operating 28
  29. 29. CDIO Syllabus - Personal and professional skills & attributes 1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING - Capacità di identificare e formulare correttamente un problema, di modellarlo ed affrontarlo qualitativamente, di studiare l’effetto delle incertezze, di definire una soluzione e le relative raccomandazioni per il suo utilizzo 2. EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY - Formulazione di ipotesi, ricerca tra bibliografia scritta ed elettronica, analisi di validità mediante sperimentazione 3. SYSTEM THINKING - Capacità di valutare le soluzioni in modo integrato, di gestire le situazioni non standard e l’interazione tra sistemi, scegliere le priorità, eseguire un’analisi di trade-off tra le soluzioni 4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES - Capacità di iniziativa ed assunzione dei rischi, perseveranza e flessibilità, capacità di pensare in modo critico e creativo, curiosità e visione a lungo termine, capacità di gestire il tempo e le risorse 5. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES - Etica professionale, integrità e responsabilità, capacità di pianificare la propria carriera, capacità di mantenersi aggiornati 29
  30. 30. CDIO Syllabus - Interpersonal skills: teamwork & communication 1. TEAMWORK - Capacità di formare gruppi di lavoro efficienti, di gestirne le operazioni e l’evoluzione, di assumere la leadership 2. COMMUNICATION – Capacita’ comunicative tra cui strategia e struttura della comunicazione, comunicazione scritta, elettronica o multimediale, presentazione orale e comunicazione inter-personale 3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES 30
  31. 31. CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing, implementing & operating systems in the enterprise and societal context 1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT - Ruolo e responsabilità degli ingegneri, impatto dell’ingegneria nella societa’, regolamentazione, contesto storico e culturale, sviluppo di una prospettiva globale 2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT - Capacità di comprendere diversi culture imprenditoriali, strategia d’impresa, obiettivi e pianificazione, capacità di lavoro in strutture organizzate 3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS - Capacità di definire gli obiettivi e i requisiti, capacità di definire una configurazione di prodotto, di modellarla a livello sistemistico per garantire che gli obiettivi siano rispettati, capacità di sviluppo e pianificazione di progetti 4. … 31
  32. 32. CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing, implementing & operating systems in the enterprise and societal context 4. DESIGNING - Capacità progettuali, mediante opportune fasi ed approcci, utilizzo della conoscenza durante il progetto, capacità di gestire progetti mono e multidisciplinari, capacità di gestire progetti aventi multi-obiettivi 5. IMPLEMENTING - Capacità di progettare ed implementare i diversi processi di un progetto, dal punto di vista hardware e software, capacità di gestire l’integrazione, la verifica, la validazione, la certificazione e la gestione 6. OPERATING - Capacità di progettare e ottimizzare attività operative, addestramento, gestione e sviluppo 32
  33. 33. Embedded Competences Communication in engineering means being able to ► use the technical concepts comfortably, ► discuss a problem at different levels, ► determine what is relevant to the situation, ► argue for or against conceptual ideas and solutions, ► develop ideas through discussion and collaborative sketching, ► explain the technical matters for different audiences, ► show confidence in expressing yourself within the field ... Communication skills as contextualized competences are embedded in, and inseparable from, students’ application of technical knowledge. The same kind of reasoning can be made for teamwork, ethics (etc...) as well. This is about students becoming engineers! 33
  34. 34. Hands-on practice - 20th century 1950_Caulfield Technical 1985_Mechanical School engineering students Engineering student Mr Dennis Stathos working on ...... 1984_Half scale prototype design for remotely piloted plane and tracking system, designed by Mr Don Scutt of Mechanical Engineering (right) and Dr Ian Kirkwood of Mathematics 34
  35. 35. Hands-on practice - CDIO Early in the CDIO curriculum, students are exposed to the engineering experience and given opportunities to build things. 35
  36. 36. CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim Aeronautical Learning Laboratory 36
  37. 37. CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim Aeronautical Learning Laboratory 37
  38. 38. After the course the participant is expected to be able to … work in a project setting in a way that effectively utilises the knowledge and efforts of the group members explain mechanisms behind progress and difficulties in such a setting communicate engineering: orally, in writing and graphically analyse technical problems from a holistic point of view handle technical problems which are incompletely stated and subjects to multiple constraints develop strategies for systematic choice and use of available engineering methods and tools make estimations and appreciate their value and limitations pursue own ideas and realise them practically make decisions based on acquired knowledge assess quality of own work and work by others They enter as students and leave the course as engineers! 38
  39. 39. The new College of Engineering PBL (Project-based Learning) experiences make up 40% of the curriculum By graduation, every student has had a minimum of 10 team project experiences The curricular “triangle” include engineering, business, liberal arts Corporate sponsors support 12-14 projects per year, in which students engage in a significant engineering project under realistic constraints for an actual client. On average, each summer more than 40% of students go internships and about 30% engage in research More than 50% of the courses bridge two or more disciplinary areas such as maths, engineering, science and design Every student starts and runs a business during their years at College of Engineering Source: Franklin W.Olin College of Engineering 39
  40. 40. Implementation Process
  41. 41. CDIO Implementation Process 1a. Validation with stakeholders 1b. Benchmarking of existing courses 2. Mapping of CDIO competences to existing and new courses 3. Course development 4. Fine-tune coordination 41
  42. 42. New methods of teaching and learning (Standards 7 and 8) Standard 7 — Integrated Learning Experiences that lead to the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge, as well as personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills. Standard 8 — Teaching and learning based on active experiential learning methods Active learning methods engage students directly in thinking and problem solving activities. There is less emphasis on passive transmission of information, and more on engaging students in manipulating, applying, analyzing, and evaluating ideas. Active learning in lecture-based courses can include such methods as partner and small-group discussions, demonstrations, debates, concept questions, and feedback from students about what they are learning. Active learning is considered experiential when students take on roles that simulate professional engineering practice, for example, design-build projects, simulations, and case studies. 42
  43. 43. Project-based Learning (PBL or PjBL) PBL provides complex tasks based on challenging questions or problems that involve the students' problem solving, decision making, investigative skills, and reflection. PBL allows students to work in groups or by themselves and allows them to come up with ideas and realistic solutions or presentations. PBL includes teacher facilitation, but not direction. Students take a problem and apply it to a real life situation with these projects. PBL is focused on questions that drive students to encounter the central concepts and principles of a subject hands-on. PBL encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning and to develop a broad set of generic skills and attributes, along with relevant content knowledge. The expectation is that PBL would better prepare students for their work placements and professional employment. 43
  44. 44. PBL Characteristics Reliance on problems to drive the curriculum - The problems do not test skills; they assist in the development of skills. Problems are similar to the ones encountered in real world. The problems are ill-structured - There is not meant to be one solution, and as new information is gathered, perception of the problem, and thus the solution, changes. Students solve the problems - Teachers are the coaches and facilitators. Students are only given guidelines for how to approach problems - There is no one formula for student approaches to the problem. Assessment: Authentic, performance based By: W. J. Stepien and S. A. Gallagher 44
  45. 45. PBL – Good Project … Good Question GOOD PROJECT GOOD QUESTION Student-centered Big questions Collaborative open-ended Good essential question those that require research Involving experts and the and reflection community those that are not obvious or Standards-based easily answered Opens the door to more those that lead to more questions questions Interdisciplinary Includes a quality product Creative, engaging, and fun Thoughtful rubrics, including reflection Fonte: Introduction to Project-Based Learning, Sara Armstrong, Ph.D. ISTE 2009 45
  46. 46. Appendice CDIO 12 Standards 2001 CDIO Syllabus 2001
  47. 47. CDIO 12 Standard (1 di 5) 1. The Context. This is the adoption of the principle that product, process and system lifecycle development and deployment (Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating) are the context for engineering education. 2. Learning Outcomes. The learning outcomes detail what students should know and be able to do at the conclusion of their engineeringprogram. Specific, detailed learning outcomes are codified for personal and interpersonal skills, product, process and system building skills, and disciplinary knowledge that are consistent with the university’s program goals and validated by program stakeholders. 3. Integrated Curriculum. The curriculum is designed with mutually supporting disciplinary courses that include an explicit plan to integrate personal and interpersonal skills and product, process and system building skills. These skills should not be considered an addition to an already full curriculum but an integral part of it. 4. … 47
  48. 48. CDIO 12 Standard (2 di 5) 4. Introduction to Engineering. An introductory course is offered that provides students with the framework to understand engineering practice in product, process and system building and the personal and interpersonal skills they will need. Students usually select engineering because they want to build things, and introductory courses can capitalize on this interest. 5. Design Implement Experience. The curriculum includes two or more design‐implement experiences, including one at a basic level and one at an advanced level. The objective is to promote early successes in engineering practice. 6. Engineering Workspaces. Engineering workspaces and laboratories provide the physical environment to support and encourage hands‐on learning of product, process, system and social building skills concurrently with learning disciplinary knowledge. These workspaces are separate from traditional classrooms and lecture halls. 7. … 48
  49. 49. CDIO 12 Standard (3 di 5) 7. Integrated Learning experience. This provides the pedagogical environment that fosters learning of disciplinary knowledge simultaneously (interwoven) with personal, product, process and social skills. Students learn to recognize engineering faculty as role models of professional engineers who instruct them in not only disciplinary knowledge but also the other skills listed above. 8. Active Learning. This is teaching and learning based on active experiential learning methods that engage students directly in thinking and problem solving activities. It involves ‘project based learning’. There is less emphasis on passive transmission of information in a classical lecture hall and more emphasis on engaging students in manipulating, applying, analyzing and evaluating ideas. As Dr. Vest said, “We need to move from the sage on the stage to the guide on the side”. 9. … 49
  50. 50. CDIO 12 Standard (4 di 5) 9. Enhancing of Faculty Skills Competence. Many engineering professors tend to be experts in the research and knowledge base of their respective disciplines but have only limited, if any, experience in the practice of engineering in business and industrial settings. Therefore the CDIO program provides support and training for faculty to improve their competence in personal and interpersonal skills and process, product and system building skills. 10. Enhancing of Faculty Teaching Competence. The CDIO program also provides support for faculty to improve their competence in integrated learning experiences, in using active experiential learning methods and in assessing student learning. 11. … 50
  51. 51. CDIO 12 Standard (5 di 5) 11. Learning Assessment. This is the measure of the extent to which each student achieves specified learning outcomes. 12. Program Evaluation. This process evaluates the university program against these twelve standards and provides feedback to students, faculty and other stakeholders for the purpose of continuous improvement. It is a judgment of the overall value of the program based on evidence of the program’s progress toward achieving its goals. 51
  52. 52. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 1/7) 1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING 1. KNOWLEDGE OF UNDERLYING SCIENCES 1. Mathematics (including statistics) 2. Physics 3. Chemistry 4. Biology 2. CORE ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE 3. ADVANCED ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE CDIO Syllabus complete: CDIO Syllabus complete: http://www.cdio.org/tools/syllabuscomplete.htm http://www.cdio.org/tools/syllabuscomplete.htm 52
  53. 53. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 2/7) 2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES 1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING 1. Problem Identification and Formulation 2. Modeling 3. Estimation and Qualitative Analysis 4. Analysis With Uncertainty 5. Solution and Recommendation 2. EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY 1. Hypothesis Formulation 2. Survey of Print and Electronic Literature 3. Experimental Inquiry 4. Hypothesis Test, and Defense 3. SYSTEM THINKING 1. Thinking Holistically 2. Emergence and Interactions in Systems 3. Prioritization and Focus 4. Tradeoffs, Judgment and Balance in Resolution 53
  54. 54. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 3/7) 2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES 4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES 1. Initiative and Willingness to Take Risks 2. Perseverance and Flexibility 3. Creative Thinking 4. Critical Thinking 5. Awareness of One’s Personal Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes 6. Curiosity and Lifelong Learning 7. Time and Resource Management 5. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES 1. Professional Ethics, Integrity, Responsibility and Accountability 2. Professional Behavior 3. Proactively Planning for One’s Career 4. Staying Current on World of Engineer 54
  55. 55. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 4/7) 3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION 1. TEAMWORK 1. Forming Effective Teams 2. Team Operation 3. Team Growth and Evolution 4. Leadership 5. Technical Teaming 2. COMMUNICATION 1. Communication Strategy 2. Communication Structure 3. Written Communication 4. Electronic/ Multimedia Communication 5. Graphical Communication 6. Oral Presentation and Interpersonal Communication 3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES 1. English 2. Languages of Regional Industrial Nations 3. Other Languages 55
  56. 56. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 5/7) 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 1. Roles and Responsibility of Engineers 2. The Impact of Engineering on Society 3. Society’s Regulation of Engineering 4. The Historical and Cultural Context 5. Contemporary Issues and Values 6. Developing a Global Perspective 2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT 1. Appreciating Different Enterprise Cultures 2. Enterprise Strategy, Goals and Planning 3. Technical Entrepreneurship 4. Working Successfully in Organizations 56
  57. 57. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 6/7) 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS 1. Setting System Goals and Requirements 2. Defining Function, Concept and Architecture 3. Modeling of System and Ensuring Goals Can Be Met 4. Development Project Management 4. DESIGNING 1. The Design Process 2. The Design Process Phasing and Approaches 3. Utilization of Knowledge in Design 4. Disciplinary Design 5. Multidisciplinary Design 6. Multi-objective Design 57
  58. 58. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 7/7) 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 5. IMPLEMENTING 1. Designing the Implementation Process 2. Hardware Manufacturing Process 3. Software Implementing Process 4. Hardware Software Integration 5. Test, Verification, Validation and Certification 6. Implementation Management 6. OPERATING 1. Designing and Optimizing Operations 2. Training and Operations 3. Supporting the System Lifecycle 4. System Improvement and Evolution 5. Disposal and Life-End Issues 6. Operations Management 58
  59. 59. An Invitation The book: Crawley et al. (2007) Rethinking Engineering Education: The CDIO Approach, Springer Verlag. ISBN 0387382879 The International CDIO Conference Proceedings The site www.cdio.org 59

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