UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL EXPERIMENTAL “ FRANCISCO D E MIRANDA” ÁREA CIENCIAS D E L A EDUCACIÓN ANÁLISIS DEL DISCURSO OCTOBER 2008 LIC. YOSELIS VENTURA OLIVET
An inference is an educated guess or prediction about something unknown based on available facts and information. It is the logical connection between what you observe or know and what you do not know. The writer's purpose, style, tone, and word choice influence the type of inferences that readers make.
<ul><li>It’s the connection of what we know </li></ul><ul><li>and what we are receiving </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>English Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Elvis Presley </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Children Development </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse Analysis </li></ul>
Can you explain with your own words what EXPLICATURE and IMPLICATURE Are?
EXPLICATURE, are all the words, statements, sentences, context that are given in the text. (Including graphics, drawings, etc) IMPLICATURE, are the elements that the reader/listener should infer from that explicit information.
As Inference has to do with things we know, it is closely related to BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Which is the Knowledge, experiences and information that we acquire during all our live and store in our memory waiting to be used when needed. As English Teachers: WHY DO YOU CONSIDER YOU HAVE TO STIMULATE YOUR STUDENTS’ INFERENCE?
Ionization is one of the very important phenomena of the production of ions that occurs in certain physical processes. For example, when a high energy particle or radiation passes through a material medium (might be solid, liquid or gaseous), the atoms or molecules in the medium on the radiation-path get struck so that one or some of the electrons get knocked out of the atoms or molecules leaving behind the residual positive ions. The knocked out electrons might in turn get attached to electronegative species of atoms or molecules in the medium, thus giving rise to the appearance of negative ions. Not only the radiation passage, but the heating to high temperatures, chemical reactions as well as electrical processes etc. may also produce ionizations in a given medium READ THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH AND SAY IF YOU UNDERSTAND IT OR NOT. WHY?
WHAT IS COHERENCE? Widdowson (1984) defines COHERENCE as “The quality that depends not on the discourse itself, but on the listener/reader ability to assign meaningful interpretation to it.”
DISCOURSE MARKERS They are used to mark the explicit relations that the author establishes between the different parts of his or her discourse. <ul><li>They CAN BE: </li></ul><ul><li>A word (Since) </li></ul><ul><li>A phrase (As a result) </li></ul><ul><li>A complete sentence (This is the reason why) </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to know that they are not grammatical units, they don-t have a grammatical function. They cannot be classified as NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, ETC </li></ul>
CLASIFICATION TIME COMPARISON/SIMILARITY PURPOSE RESULT,CONSEQUENCE OR CONCLUSION ORDER ADDITION CAUSE EXPLANATION/PARAPHRASE ILLUSTRATION AGREEMENT EMPHASIS CONDITION CONTRAST ALTERNATIVE WHY SHOULD WE TEACH DISCOURSE MARKERS TO OUR STUDENTS?
PUNCTUATION MARKS THE PERIOD . THE COMMA , THE SEMICOLON ; THE COLON : THE QUESTION MARK ? THE QUOTATION MARKS ¡! THE DASH - WHY SHOULD WE TEACH PUNCTUATION MARKS TO OUR STUDENTS?
ADJACENCY So far we’ve studied those “resources” that are useful for connecting ideas. Bu there are many cases in which the connection between the sentences must be inferred contextually. There is considerable evidence to support the claim that 12 learners who begin learning as adults are unable to achieve a native-speaker competence in either grammar or pronunciation. Studies of immigrants in the United States show that if they arrive before puberty they go on to achieve much higher levels of grammar proficiency than if they arrive later.
GOOD LEADERS Good leaders are made, not born. If you have the desire and power, you can become an effectíve leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and do. These do not come naturrally, but acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skill; they are NOT resting on their laurels.