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# Fundamentals of RF Systems

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### Fundamentals of RF Systems

1. 1. Fundamentals of RF Systems 조용희조용희
2. 2. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실2 1. Microwave systems Transmission   Information - Channel bandwidth - Base band - Inefficient wave radiation  Modulation – center frequency Time domain Frequency domain 출처 : RFDH.com
3. 3. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실3 Why’s modulation need?   Transmission efficiency - Multiplexing - Antenna length: wavelength - Wave radiation: comparison with DC Battery: DC Antenna: AC 1. Microwave systems
4. 4. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실4 Microwave transmitter (Tx)   Up-conversion: frequency ( ))cos()cos( 2 1 )cos()cos( yxyxyx −++= BBf BBLO ff ± BBLO ff ± 1. Microwave systems  출처 : RFDH.com
5. 5. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실5 Microwave receiver (Rx)   Down-conversion: frequency ( ))cos()cos( 2 1 )cos()cos( yxyxyx −++= BBfBBIF ff ±BBLO ff ± IFLO fff −= IFff = 1. Microwave systems  출처 : RFDH.com
6. 6. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실6 Microwave transceiver   Duplexer: bandpass filter or switch - Loss, tx suppression, channel selection IF: superheterodyne No IF: direct conversion 1. Microwave systems 출처 : RFDH.com
7. 7. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실7 FDMA (FDM Access) 1. Microwave systems   Resource: frequency  Guard band  Simple transceiver  Interference
8. 8. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실8 DS(Direct Sequence)-CDMA 1. Microwave systems QPSK: Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
9. 9. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실9 Fundamentals   Antenna gain: anisotropic radiation (G > 1) isotropic radiation (G = 1)  Directivity and efficiency:  Angular beamwidth: 3dB Radiation pattern [dBi]: dB isotropic 2. Antennas DG η=
10. 10. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실10 2. Antennas Dipole antenna   Simple but long structure  Low efficiency Microstrip type
11. 11. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실11 Handy phone antenna Helical antenna 2. Antennas   Complicated structure  Medium efficiency
12. 12. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실12 Antenna simulation Ansoft: Ensemble CST: MWS Ansoft: HFSS 2. Antennas
13. 13. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실13 Wave propagation }Re{ }Re{ )cos(),( )( tjzjj o ztj o o eeeV eV ztVtzV ωβφ φβω φβω − +− = = +−= 3. Tx line theory
14. 14. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실14 Distributed element   Lumped element: R, L, C   Distributed element: tx line 3. Tx line theory
15. 15. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실15 Wave solution   Traveling wave solution - Voltage: - Current: zz s eVeVzV γγ −−+ += 00)( zz s eIeIzI γγ −−+ −= 00)( )())(( )( 2 2 zVCjGLjR dz zVd s s ωω ++= ))(( CjGLjRj ωωβαγ ++=+= 3. Tx line theory
16. 16. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실16 Characteristic impedance   Important parameter in tx line: - - CjG LjR Z ω ω + + =0 − − + + == 0 0 0 0 0 I V I V Z 3. Tx line theory 0Z
17. 17. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실17 Reflection coefficient 0 0 0 11 || ZZ ZZ V V e L Loj + − ==Γ=Γ + − φ    Voltage wave continuity conditions  Current wave continuity conditions 3. Tx line theory
18. 18. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실18 Wave power ( ) ( )2 0 2 0* 1 2 Re 2 1 Γ−== + Z V VIP 3. Tx line theory
19. 19. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실19 SWR (Standing Wave Ratio)   SWR: field theory  VSWR (Voltage SWR): tx line theory ||1 ||1 min max Γ− Γ+ = = V V s Experiment 3. Tx line theory
20. 20. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실20 Smith chart  Graphical method  Essential diagram for microwave engineering  P. Smith in 1939 3. Tx line theory
21. 21. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실21 Induction of Smith chart  S-parameter: reflection coefficient  |S11| = 0: all transmission  |S11| = 1: all reflection  3. Tx line theory
22. 22. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실22 VNA (Vector Network Analyzer)  Measurement equipment  Reflection coefficients with frequency sweep  3. Tx line theory
23. 23. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실23 Scattering matrix: Two-port network  Matrix definition: matched load gain: isolation: reflection:,where 21 12 2211 2 1 2221 1211 2 1 S S SS V V SS SS V V             =      + + − −  3. Tx line theory
24. 24. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실24 Antenna impedance   Antenna impedance (not infinity) matching  No reflection, power efficiency Handy phone antenna 3. Tx line theory
25. 25. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실25 Coaxial line 3. Tx line theory  Wide bandwidth (TEM)  Characteristic impedance: 50 Ohms  Shielding  Conductor and dielectric loss  Measurement  RG (Radio Government) series Coaxial line
26. 26. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실26 Connector  BNC (Bayonet Neill Concelman) connector  SMA (SubMiniature type A) connector  Type N connector  Type K connector  APC (Amphenol Precision Connector) 3. Tx line theory
27. 27. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실27 Microstrip line 3. Tx line theory   Quasi-TEM line  Easy fabrication: etching  Substrate  Characteristic impedance
28. 28. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실28 Substrate   Relative permittivity  Thickness of a substrate: mil (inch/1000)  Thickness of a metal: oz (almost 1.4 mils)  Loss: loss tangent  Temperature 3. Tx line theory Power amplifier module
29. 29. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실29 Etching: PCB (Printed Circuit Board)   FR4, RT/duroid 5880 (6010 …)  Film  Photoresist (PR)  Toluene  Ultraviolet  Iron chloride 3. Tx line theory
30. 30. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실30 Selection of active device 4. Amplifier pHEMT amplifier with package  Gain [dB]  Bandwidth [Hz]  Stability: oscillation  Noise figure [dB]: LNA  P1dB [dBm]: PA  Characteristics of active device: bias  Bare chip
31. 31. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실31 Wire bonding for bare chip Wire bonding vs. soldering  4. Amplifier
32. 32. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실32 Bias design  Assignment of AC and DC path 4. Amplifier
33. 33. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실33 S2P file: S-parameter information  Input impedance: S11  Output impedance: S22  Gain: S21  Isolation: S12  4. Amplifier
34. 34. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실34 Impedance matching  Lumped elements (L or C)  Stub matching  Conjugate matching: maximum power transfer  Noise matching: low noise  ( )* LL ZZ → 4. Amplifier
35. 35. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실35 Block diagram of cellular phone  LNA (Low Noise Amplifier), PA (Power Amplifier), Mixer, VCO, switch  Filter, duplexer  4. Amplifier
36. 36. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실36 Digital RF system Transmitter and receiver 4. Amplifier
37. 37. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실37 LNA (Low Noise Amplifier)  Noise figure: 2 dB  Amplifier gain: 15 dB  Return loss: 15 dB  Reverse isolation: 20 dB  Impedance matching: power and noise  4. Amplifier
38. 38. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실38  SNR: signal to noise ratio  Noiseless system: NF = 1  Noisy system: NF > 1  Ground  Noise figure (NF) 4. Amplifier in out out in out in N N S S SNR SNR NF ==
39. 39. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실39 Simulation of LNA Port OUT Num=2 Port IN Num=1 C C2 C=1.0pF C C1 C=1.0pF L L3 R= L=1.0nH L L2 R= L=1.0nH TSMC_CM025RF_PMOS_RF PMOS_RF1 finger=16 width=10um length=0.24um Type=2.5Vtwin-well TSMC_CM025RF_NMOS NMOS2 Width=0.30um Length=0.24um Type=2.5V_nom L L1 R= L=1.0nH R R3 R=50Ohm R R2 R=50OhmTSMC_CM025RF_NMOS NMOS1 Width=0.30um Length=0.24um Type=2.5V_nom R R1 R=50Ohm HP ADS (Advanced Design System)   AC and DC path 4. Amplifier
40. 40. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실40 HPA (High Power Amplifier)  Output power (P1dB), power gain  Linearity (OIP3)  Efficiency (PAE)  Temperature  Power amplifier scheme 4. Amplifier
41. 41. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실41 Characteristics 5. Filter  2 port network: S parameters  Pass band and stop band  Return loss and insertion loss  Ripple and selectivity (skirt)  Pole and zero  Group delay 
42. 42. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실42 Classification  LPF (Low Pass Filter)  HPF (High Pass Filter)  BPF (Band Pass Filter)  BSF (Band Stop Filter): notch filter  Duplexer: 2 BPF  Diplexer: LPF and HPF  5. Filter
43. 43. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실43 Power divider  Division of power: scattering matrix  Lossless system - - Scattering matrix: unitary matrix  3-port networks 5-port networks             −−− −− − = ββαα βαβα αα 222 22 2 lossy 11 1 10 S  [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]** −−++ = VVVV TT 5. Filter
44. 44. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실44 T-junction power divider  Simple 3-port network  Waveguide or microstrip line  Lossless or all-port matched network  portat 021in YYYjBY ++= 5. Filter 출처 : RFDH.com
45. 45. Fundamentals of RF SystemsFundamentals of RF Systems 전자파연구실전자파연구실45 Frequency conversion   Mixer  VCO: Voltage Controlled Oscillator  PLL: Phase Locked Loop  TCXO: Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator 6. IF conversion 출처 : RFDH.com