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# Analysis of Hertzian Dipole

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A Hertzian dipole is a starting point of antenna theory. Since most of antennas can be understood with a Hertzian dipole, we need to thoroughly study this kind of an infinitesimal antenna that is not real in practical applications.

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### Analysis of Hertzian Dipole

1. 1. Antenna Engineering CHO, Yong Heui Analysis of Hertzian Dipole
2. 2. E and H fields 1. Field analysis Vector potential <ul><li>Vector potential approach </li></ul>
3. 3. Hertzian dipole 1. Field analysis <ul><li>Current density approximation </li></ul>
4. 4. Vector potential 1. Field analysis <ul><li>Current vs. vector potential </li></ul>
5. 5. H field 1. Field analysis 
6. 6. E field 1. Field analysis 
7. 7. Electric dipole moment 1. Field analysis  <ul><li>Current vs. electric dipole moment </li></ul>
8. 8. Far-field 1. Field analysis 
9. 9. Radiated power 1. Field analysis 
10. 10. Radiation resistance 1. Field analysis   <ul><li>Open transmission line </li></ul>
11. 11. Simple calculation 1. Field analysis  <ul><li>Far-field calculation </li></ul>
12. 12. Radiation pattern 1. Field analysis  <ul><li>Power and field pattern </li></ul><ul><li>dB scale: </li></ul><ul><li>Half-power beamwidth: </li></ul><ul><li>Main beam: </li></ul>Far-field condition : phase condition
13. 13. Antenna gain 1. Field analysis  <ul><li>Directivity: 3/2 for Hertzian dipole </li></ul><ul><li>Gain and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Isotropic radiation </li></ul><ul><li>dBi </li></ul>
14. 14. (Lorentz) Reciprocity theorem 1. Field analysis  <ul><li>The same propagation characteristics: Tx and Rx </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna measurement </li></ul>
15. 15. Antenna characteristics  <ul><li>Antenna gain: anisotropic radiation (G > 1) </li></ul><ul><li>isotropic radiation (G = 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Directivity and efficiency: </li></ul><ul><li>Angular beamwidth: 3dB </li></ul>Radiation pattern [dBi]: dB isotropic 1. Field analysis