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  1. 1. Semiconductor Electronic Circuits CHO, Yong Heui
  2. 2. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor The world is changing “We’re in one of those great historical periods that occur every 200 to 300 years when people don’t understand the world anymore, when the past is not sufficient to explain the future.” -Peter Drucker EM Wave Lab
  3. 3. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor 三國志 讀書百遍 意自見 - 董遇 EM Wave Lab
  4. 4. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Three waves The First Wave (10,000 ~ 3,000 B.C.) Agricultural Revolution Stone->Bronze->Steel Tools The Second Wave(~200 yrs ago) Industrial Revolution Steel Tools The Third Wave Information Revolution Silicon Tools EM Wave Lab
  5. 5. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Semiconductor • 도체와 절연체 사이의 전기 전도성을 가진 고체 • 전기 전도성이 불순물의 종류 및 농도 , 온도 , 빛 , 전압 / 전류의 크기 및 극성 등에 의하여 쉽게 변하는 성질을 이용하여 신호 ( 정보 ) 를 처리하는 소자 ( 트랜지스터 ) 를 만드는 물질로서 사용 • 실리콘이 가장 널리 쓰이며 , 고순도의 실리콘 원소가 규칙적으로 배열되어 있는 결정 구조로서 주로 사용 EM Wave Lab
  6. 6. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Early Discovery In 1874, Ferdinand Braun, a German scientist, discovered that crystals could conduct current in one direction under certain conditions. This phenomenon is called rectification. In 1895, the Italian Gugielmo Marconi first showed a new technology invented by Nikola Tesla through radio signals. This was the beginning of wireless communication. Crystal detectors were used in radio receivers. It is able to separate the carrier wave from the part of the signal carrying the information. EM Wave Lab
  7. 7. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Vacuum tube In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming, an English physicist, devised the first practical electron tube known as the "Fleming Valve”. In the early 1910s, he ameliorated the reception of these signals by building up his research on the "Edison Effect" (dark particles smudge the inside of glass light bulbs as current flows through one direction), Fleming attached a light bulb outfitted with two electrodes to a receiving system. In it, electrons flew from the negatively charged cathode to the positively charged anode. As the current within the tube was moving from negative to positive, the weak incoming signal were rectified into detectable direct current. EM Wave Lab
  8. 8. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Audion In 1906, Lee de Forest, an American scientist, added a third electrode (called a grid) to the electron tube, which is now called a triode. This is a network of small wires around the vacuum tube cathode . Thus, the amplifying vacuum tube, the most recent ancestor of the transistor, was born. Although solid-state technology overwhelmingly dominates todays world of electronics, vacuum tubes are holding out in two small but vibrant areas. They do so for entirely different reasons. Microwave technology relies on tubes for their power- handling capability at high frequencies ["Tubes: still vital after all these years," Robert S. Symons, IEEE Spectrum, April, 1998]. The other area--the creation and reproduction of music-- is a more complicated and controversial story. EM Wave Lab
  9. 9. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor ENIAC The University of Pennsylvanias ENIAC computer, due to its incorporation of thousands of vacuum tubes (18,000 vacuum tubes), filled several large rooms and consumed enough power to light ten homes. The vacuum tubes cathode required a good amount of heat in order to boil out electrons and often burned out. Also, the actual glass tube was fragile and bulky. EM Wave Lab
  10. 10. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor First transistor 1947 1st transistor AT&T Bell Lab 1st commercially available TR Raytheon CK703, 1948 3 inventors (John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley) shared Nobel prize 1st commercially successful TR Raytheon CK722, 1953 Ge-based pnp low power TR EM Wave Lab
  11. 11. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Bipolar transistor Point contact transistor: Bardeen & Brattain Junction transistor: Shockley EM Wave Lab
  12. 12. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor First IC Integrated Circuit (IC): a large number of individual components (transistors, resistors, capacitors, etc.) fabricated side by side on a common substrate and wired together to perform a particular circuit function. 1958, Jack Kilby, Texas InstrumentA part of news release: October 19, 1961The aeronautical Systems Division, U.S. Air Force, and Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas, today demonstratedin operation a microminiature digital computer utilizing semiconductor networks. The advanced experimental equipmenthas a total volume of only 6.3 cubic inches and weighs only 10 ounces. It provides the identical electrical functions of acomputer using conventional components which is 150 times its size and 48 times its weight and which also wasdemonstrated for purposes of comparison. It uses 587 digital circuits (Solid Circuit(tm) semiconductor networks) eachformed within a minute bar of silicon material. The larger computer uses 8500 conventional components and has a volumeof 1000 cubic inches and weight of 480 ounces. Application of semiconductor networks will give equipments higherreliability than can be achieved presently from conventional components. The improvement will be realized because theintegrated structure of the networks minimizes connections and eliminates the individual packaging required forconventional components. In addition, the network is formed by relatively few process steps, allowing a high degree ofcontrol, and uses only very high purity material for its fabrication. EM Wave Lab
  13. 13. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Intel 4004 microprocessor 1971 2,300 transistors 92.6KHz PMOS 3 mm X 4 mm 15V DC EM Wave Lab
  14. 14. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Pentium IV 42 million transistors 0.18 micron 1.5 GHz Comparison to 4004: If automobile speed had increased similarly over the same period, you could now drive from San Francisco to New York in about 13 seconds. EM Wave Lab
  15. 15. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Moore’s law  Gordon Moore: a co-founder of Intel # of devices “Component counts per unit area SSI (Small scale 1 ~ 100 doubles every two years .” I C) MSI (Medium 102 ~ 103 scale I C) LSI (Large scale 103 ~ 105 I C) VLSI (Very Large 105 ~ 106 scale I C)  Feature size reduction enables ULSI (Ultra Large 106 ~ 109 the increase of complexity. scale I C) GSI (Giga scale 109 ~ integration) RLSI (Ridiculously Next to GSI Large scale I C) ? EM Wave Lab
  16. 16. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor History of IC Intel Pentium 4 processors 3.2 GHz 0.13 µm technology Transistor counts: over 54 million transistors IBM announced in June, 2001 that it has created the worlds fastest silicon-based transistor, and that it expects the new technology to drive communications chips to the astonishing speed of 100 gigahertz within two years. IBM said its approach uses a combination of silicon and germanium to make ultra-thin transistors that can speed along information far faster, while using far less power, than current technology. Company researchers said it can reach speeds of 210 GHz while using just one milliamp of electrical current. EM Wave Lab
  17. 17. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor History of IC Red blood cell: 7.5 µm Minimum feature size (design rule): 4Gb DRAM => 0.13 µm Intel Pentium IV, 3.2 GHz => 0.13 µm Bacteria: ~ 0.1 µm EM Wave Lab
  18. 18. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Gate length Present technology EM Wave Lab
  19. 19. Frequency Scaling
  20. 20. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor The smaller size Early Later generation generation ~ 2 inch 16 Mb DRAM 16 Mb DRAM 80~100 µm Early 1960s IC Paper clip and 0.18 µm lines4 TRs and several resistors 16 Mb DRAM in 64 Mb DRAM and human hair EM Wave Lab
  21. 21. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor The larger wafer 2” dia. 12” dia. 12” pizza # of Production dies cost Wafer size Wafer size EM Wave Lab
  22. 22. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Dollars Electronics market ~ $ 1.2 trillion IC sales (annual worldwide) approximately $ 345 billion (In 2003) exponential increase with time over the past 3 decades cost for electronic function exponentially decreases Personal computers 100 ~ 200 millions sold So, what does it mean to me? Yeah, there are plenty of high salary jobs !!!!  FYI: Avg. starting salary for EE graduates  $ 50,000 (Dec. 2000) Little bit shaky last two years EM Wave Lab
  23. 23. Electronic Circuits1. Semiconductor Semiconductor technology • 반도체 재료 ( 정제 및 결정 성장 ) • 반도체 공정 ( 사진 식각 , 불순물 주입 , 산화 , 금속 배선등을 통하여 원하는 반도체 소자 구조 형성 ) • 반도체 소자 ( 원하는 전기적 , 광학적 특성을 얻기 위한 기하학적 구조와 불순물 농도 분포 형성 ) • 반도체 회로 및 시스템 설계 ( 원하는 신호 및 정보 처리 기능을 구현하기 위한 회로 , 회로 블록 , 알고리듬 , 소프트웨어의 설계 ) EM Wave Lab
  24. 24. Electronic Circuits. Electronic devices Passive devices  Lumped element: R, L, C Resistor Inductor Capacitor   Distributed element: transmission line Coaxial line EM Wave Lab
  25. 25. Electronic Circuits. Electronic devices Active devices Diode FET Transistor IC EM Wave Lab
  26. 26. Electronic Circuits3. Industrial trend 전자산업의 동향 출처 : 한국의 전자부품산업 동향 , KETI EM Wave Lab
  27. 27. Electronic Circuits3. Industrial trend IT 산업의 동향 출처 : IT 기반 융합전략 , IITA EM Wave Lab
  28. 28. Electronic Circuits3. Industrial trend IT 산업의 융합 방향 출처 : IT 기반 융합전략 , IITA EM Wave Lab
  29. 29. Electronic Circuits3. Industrial trend IT 산업의 융합 방향 출처 : IT 기반 융합전략 , IITA EM Wave Lab
  30. 30. Electronic Circuits3. Industrial trend 20 대 유망 전자부품 출처 : 한국의 전자부품산업 동향 , KETI EM Wave Lab
  31. 31. Electronic Circuits3. Industrial trend 26 개 고성장 전자부품 출처 : 한국의 전자부품산업 동향 , KETI EM Wave Lab