Diamond materials for
semiconductor applications

NT the diamond
Will high-frequency and high-power devices benefit from
M...
Diamond applications
Applications of diamond in electronic devices
Scope of the report

NT
E

Heat spreaders for high-powe...
Semiconductor technology roadmap for
power electronic devices
Do you see the opportunity in going directly with diamond to...
Why GaN-on-Diamond for HEMTs?
•

lnGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are actively pursued for high-speed
...
Costs of diamond materials
Diamond vs other other semiconductor material
•

Despite promising diamond properties, the use ...
Diamond Material Market Value
Base scenario
The market of diamond material for electronic applications will reach 43.3 M$ ...
Diamond R&D and Technology Roadmap
History of diamond crystal and film development
Diamond technology has been developed s...
Examples of diamond heat spreader products
Spreader
type

NT
E

Device level
HPHT
SC

Poly
CVD
diamon
d

HPHT SC

-

“CVD
...
ASP of different diamond materials
•

The Average Selling Price (ASP) for a given diamond material depends on
numerous fac...
Diamond Material Market Demand
Aggressive scenario

NT
E

LE
O

E
D

EM
PP
LO
VE

Y

Diamond Material Demand – aggressive ...
Diamond wafer size is key for diamond active
device development
Wafers per crystal

The main barrier in the development of...
Single crystal growth
Comparison of HPHT and MWCVD techniques for single-crystal
diamond growth
High-Pressure High-Tempera...
Diamond wafer fabrication
Diamond wafer: State-of-the-art

Wafer type

Growth technique

NT
E

Size

Defect density

X to ...
Diamond film growth
Comparison of different growth techniques
High growth rate, needed for diamond film cost reduction, is...
Equipment makers
Overview
Application

Company

Diamond deposition
tool

Crystal grower

Company (US)

MW CVD

Company (US...
Diamond R&D
EU R&D projects related to diamond applications in electronics

NT
E

LE
O

E
D

EM
PP
LO
VE

Y

Examples of R...
Company and R&D institution profiles
Synthesis
Name

Country

Founded

Employees

Business model

Company

UK

2008

5

Pr...
Compound Semiconductors reports from YOLE
Status of the LED
Industry

Sapphire for
Display, Defense,
Consumer…

SiC Market...
Yole Activities
MEDIA

REPORTS

CONSULTING

News portal/Technology magazines/
Webcasts/Communication services

Market & te...
For More Information…
Please take a look at our websites:

www.yole.fr

NT
E

Yole Développement corporate website

www.i-...
Our Offices & Contact Information
Europe Office
• Yves Devigne, Europe Business Development Manager,
Cell: 33 6 75 80 08 2...
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Diamond Materials for Semiconductor Applications 2013 Report by Yole Developpement

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Will high-frequency and high-power devices benefit from the diamond revolution as a replacement of Si, SiC and GaN?




$43M diamond material market in 2020 will be driven mainly by passive devices

Diamond materials have been in development for more than 50 years. Besides the traditional tooling applications (drilling, cutting…), the interest in diamond continues to grow for optical and thermal applications, and for new applications in semiconductor devices such as high-power devices and high-frequency devices able to work at elevated temperatures.

In fact, diamond’s unique physical and electrical properties, which include: the highest known thermal conductivity, a wide band gap, excellent electrical insulator properties, very high breakdown voltage and very high carrier mobility, make diamond an excellent candidate for electronic devices with ultimate performance.

However, the costs of diamond, as well as the remaining technology barriers limit the diamond material market to only a few applications and some high-end devices.

The diamond applications in electronic devices, such as high-voltage power electronics, high-frequency high-power devices, and high-power optoelectronic devices (laser diodes, LEDs), are the scope of the report.

Both passive (heat spreaders) and active (diodes, transistors) diamond solutions are considered in the market quantification.

Despite the high costs of high-quality materials, a large number of players are involved in the 2013 diamond materials market and its largest segment – R&D activities. Two scenarios for 2013-2020 diamond material market growth are presented in the report. According to the base scenario, the diamond materials market for semiconductor devices will surpass $43M and will be represented mainly by heat spreaders used in high-power device thermal management.



Access to high-quality diamond material is key for diamond device development

Electronic applications, such as Schottky diodes, transistors, etc., require high-quality single-crystalline CVD diamond, which has superior characteristics such as high carrier mobility, long carrier lifetimes, high breakdown fields and high thermal conductivity.

High quality low-defect diamond wafers produced from diamond crystal made by High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) method are only a few mm in size. In comparison, the competing semiconductor materials such as SiC are already available in wafer sizes up to 150 mm. For future diamond-based active devices, it is crucial to increase the wafer size above 2-inch with the defect density 100 cm-2 and below. Different approaches to achieve free-standing wafers from thick diamond films are under development. A mosaic type method is currently approaching 2-inch wafer size, but the defect density needs to be reduced. According to our technology roadmap for single crystal diamond wafers...

More information on that report at http://www.i-mic

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Diamond Materials for Semiconductor Applications 2013 Report by Yole Developpement

  1. 1. Diamond materials for semiconductor applications NT the diamond Will high-frequency and high-power devices benefit from ME GaN…? revolution as a replacement of Si, E and PSiC P LO VE E D LE YO Dow corning © 2013 75, cours Emile ZOLA, F-69100 Villeurbanne, France Tel: +33 472 83 01 80 - Fax: +33 472 83 01 83 Web: http://www.yole.fr
  2. 2. Diamond applications Applications of diamond in electronic devices Scope of the report NT E Heat spreaders for high-power electronics, laser-diodes… High-power laser windows Electrochemical/bio chemical sensors © 2013 • 2 EM PP LO VE High-power and high-frequency devices such as Schottky diodes, transistors… LE O E D Y Cold cathode emitter UV detectors UV LEDs MEMS AFM tips Quantum applications IR windows Cutting, sawing tools Overview of diamond applications Yole Développement
  3. 3. Semiconductor technology roadmap for power electronic devices Do you see the opportunity in going directly with diamond towards ultimate applications? Device performance NT E Diamond EM PP LO VE . E SiC, GaN D LE O Y . Si Technology and cost barriers Two approaches within the semiconductor technology roadmap for power electronic devices Yole Développement © 2013 • 3
  4. 4. Why GaN-on-Diamond for HEMTs? • lnGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are actively pursued for high-speed and high-power applications. • However, their performance is limited by the thermal conductivity of the substrates on which GaN is grown (Si, sapphire, SiC). GaN material itself has very low thermal conductivity. • Thanks to using a thin layer of CVD diamond with very high thermal conductivity (8-12 W/(cm.K), the device thermal resistance can be significantly reduced, providing possibility to extract more power from the device (at given frequency and given ambient temperature). NT E Si (400 µm) YO LE E D EM PP LO VE Diamond (25µm) 12 W/(cm.K) Lower thickness 1.5 W/(cm.K) Active layers (~20 nm only!) AlGaN/AlN/GaN epi (~1 µm) Much higher thermal conductivity Better power extraction from the device Thinner diamond layer and its better thermal properties compared to silicon makes the use of GaN-on-Diamond approach very promising for high-power devices. Group4Labs, Yole Développement © 2013 • 4
  5. 5. Costs of diamond materials Diamond vs other other semiconductor material • Despite promising diamond properties, the use of diamond for real applications is still hampered by its extremely high manufacturing costs. NT E LE O E D EM PP LO VE Y Comparison of prices of different semiconductor materials Yole Développement, October 2013 © 2013 • 5
  6. 6. Diamond Material Market Value Base scenario The market of diamond material for electronic applications will reach 43.3 M$ in 2020. NT E LE O E D EM PP LO VE Y Diamond Material Market forecast 2013-2020 – base scenario Yole Développement © 2013 • 6
  7. 7. Diamond R&D and Technology Roadmap History of diamond crystal and film development Diamond technology has been developed since more than 60 years. The achievement of commercially available diamond-based devices is a long-term run! Xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx (Eversole) LE YO 1954 Xxxxx xxxx xxx (GE) 1960 E D 1981 Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx (Setaka, NRIM) 1980 1990 >60 years of development © 2013 • 7 Xxxxxx (E6) 2002 Xxxxxxxx (Argonne laboratory) 1994 2013 Xxxxxx xxxx Xxxx xxxxxx (Sumitomo Electric) E6 1970 2007 (Sumitomo Electric) 1966 1952 EM PP LO VE Xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx Patent on CVD diamond growth issued 1950 NT E 1983 1954 2000 2010
  8. 8. Examples of diamond heat spreader products Spreader type NT E Device level HPHT SC Poly CVD diamon d HPHT SC - “CVD diamon d” EM PP LO VE Product name XXXX Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 2,000 Supplier XXXX LE 1,400 YO XXXX XXXX Poly CVD diamond DC arc CVD poly Diamond HF CVD poly diamond Poly diamon d XXX™ Silicon-onDiamond (SOD) GaNonDiamo nd wafer XXXX XXXX XXX Up to 100mm wafer 1,0002,000 ~1,000 600-800 1,0001,400 XXXX E D CDT-1000 XXXX XXXX XXXX Examples of diamond heat spreader products 8 Poly diamond XXXX Size © 2013 • Poly diamond Up to 100mm wafer Material Poly CVD diamond Circuit level Yole Développement
  9. 9. ASP of different diamond materials • The Average Selling Price (ASP) for a given diamond material depends on numerous factors. • Large price variations have been therefore observed depending mainly on the grade of diamond material (mechanical, optical, electronic, electronic+…), wafer size and thickness and quantity ordered. NT E LE O E D Diamond material EM PP LO VE ASP ($/mm3) Y diamond wafer Heteroepitaxially-grown Not commercially available yet Self-standing CVD polycrystalline wafer $X.5 - $X Single-crystal wafer $XX - $X00 Comparison of 2013 Average Selling Prices for different diamond materials © 2013 • 9 Yole Développement
  10. 10. Diamond Material Market Demand Aggressive scenario NT E LE O E D EM PP LO VE Y Diamond Material Demand – aggressive scenario. The demand for R&D purposes is not included here. Yole Développement © 2013 • 10
  11. 11. Diamond wafer size is key for diamond active device development Wafers per crystal The main barrier in the development of electronic devices based on diamond wafer is a very small size of diamond wafers and a low number of wafers produced from one single diamond crystal resulting in very high costs. XX0 EM PP LO VE Silicon LE X0 YO E D NT E SiC X0 X0 X5 XX0 XX0 XX0 Comparison of silicon, SiC and diamond wafer sizes (axis not in scale) © 2013 • 11 Yole Développement XX0 Wafer size (mm)
  12. 12. Single crystal growth Comparison of HPHT and MWCVD techniques for single-crystal diamond growth High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Microwave Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW CVD) Principle Replication of natural diamond growth conditions deep within the earth, producing high temperatures and high pressures Gas-phase synthesis, which activates hydrogen and methane gas by discharging plasma to grow diamond on seed crystals Equipment Press apparatus able to generate very high pressures and temperatures MW CVD reactor No of crystals per equipment per growth run X Growth rate Few mm in X days Very small (half a mm per XX) Product High-purity and low-defect single crystal diamonds Large, single crystal diamonds Thin slabs (<X0µm) available < X0 mm ~X0mm x X0mm Up to XXmm x XXmm using mosaic method Very limited Less limited than HPHT Cost Extreme high Very high (possibility of cost reduction) Main players Gemesis, Element Six, Sumitomo Many Chinese players Indian players (for jewelry) EDP Corp., Scio Diamond Technology Corporation, IIa Technologies Main applications Jewelry Substrates for MWCVD crystal growth, abrasives, cutting and drilling tools… Industrial applications Jewelry Crystal size Scalability © 2013 • 12 Y LE O E D NT E EM PP LO VE Up to X0
  13. 13. Diamond wafer fabrication Diamond wafer: State-of-the-art Wafer type Growth technique NT E Size Defect density X to XX mm EM PP LO VE HPHT CVD Wafer (further size increase very limited) (potential for further size increase) ~10X cm-2 X to XX mm Insulating LE Mosaic wafer P+ type YO E D CVD Wafer (potential for further size increase) HPHT Wafer XX x XX mm2 XX x XX mm2 CVD N+ type Current status of diamond wafer manufacturing © 2013 • 13 Yole Développement, AIST ~10X cm-2 ~10X cm-2
  14. 14. Diamond film growth Comparison of different growth techniques High growth rate, needed for diamond film cost reduction, is usually incompatible with high film quality, thickness uniformity and deposition on large areas. NT reduction E Cost Plasma Torch X0-XX0 µm/h Growth rate ~X cm2 LE YO EM PP LO VE target E MW CVD D 0.X-X0 µm/h Ø XX0 mm HF CVD 0.X-0.X µm/h > 0.X m2 Deposition area Comparison of growth rate and deposition area for different diamond film growth techniques © 2013 • 14 Yole Développement
  15. 15. Equipment makers Overview Application Company Diamond deposition tool Crystal grower Company (US) MW CVD Company (US) MW CVD Company (US) HPHT Company (DE) MW CVD LE O Company (US) Company (UK) Company (UK) Company (FR) E D Ultrahigh pressure press (in the past) Company (JP) Company (CH) EM PP LO VE MW CVD Company (Luxembourg) Y MWCVD MW plasma (ECR) HF CVD ICP, RIE Laser equipment for precise micromachining MW CVD Company (CH) Laser equipment Company (US) MWCVD (crystal) Company (US) HF CVD, DC arc plasma jet Equipment makers and products & activities within the diamond business © 2013 • 15 Diamond processing NT E HF CVD Company (US) Diamond etching Yole Développement
  16. 16. Diamond R&D EU R&D projects related to diamond applications in electronics NT E LE O E D EM PP LO VE Y Examples of R&D projects related applications of diamond in electronics © 2013 • 16 Yole Développement
  17. 17. Company and R&D institution profiles Synthesis Name Country Founded Employees Business model Company UK 2008 5 Private company, development of diamond based devices Company UK 1947 Products NT E Comments HPHT and CVD diamond materials for mechanical, optical and electronic applications Non-diamond materials (tungsten carbide, boron nitride…) Private company owned by XXX and XXX Recently acquired XXX A fabless start-up company CVD diamond, GaN on diamond Since May 2013 operates as a subsidiary of XXX NA Development and manufacturing of diamond single crystals mainly for jewelry Cut diamonds Privately held Proprietary HPHT technology <10 Development and manufacturing of a proprietary MWCVD plasma source CVD equipment for diamond and other maetrials 2,500 E D Company USA 2003 Company USA 1996 Company DE 1997 Company CN 2011 6 (sales) + production Manufacturing of diamond materials mainly for mechanical applications Diamond abrasives and heat spreaders Formerly XXXX Company USA 2012 <10 Supplier of MWCVD systems and distribution of single crystal diamond materials MWCVD systems formerly a division of XXXX © 2013 • 17 <10 EM PP LO VE Development and manufacturing of diamond products Y LE O
  18. 18. Compound Semiconductors reports from YOLE Status of the LED Industry Sapphire for Display, Defense, Consumer… SiC Market New! New! III-V Epitaxy Substrates & Equipment Market LED Packaging LE O E D Y UV LED MARKET © 2013 • 18 NT E EM PP LO VE New! LED Front End Manufacturing Technologies Sapphire CoSim+ Sapphire for LED GaAs Wafer Market & Applications
  19. 19. Yole Activities MEDIA REPORTS CONSULTING News portal/Technology magazines/ Webcasts/Communication services Market & technology/Patent Investigation/Reverse costing Market research/Technology & Strategy/Patent Investigation/ Reverse costing NT E LE O E D EM PP LO VE www.yole.fr YOLE FINANCE M&A/ Due Diligence/ Fundraising/ Technology brokerage Y www.yolefinance.fr SISTER COMPANY Reverse engineering & costing/ Cost simulation tools © 2013 2012 © • 19 19
  20. 20. For More Information… Please take a look at our websites: www.yole.fr NT E Yole Développement corporate website www.i-micronews.com EM P PInformation Our Offices & Contact LO www.systemplus.fr VE Sister company; expert E teardown & reverse costing analysis D in LE Owww.yolefinance.com YYole business unit dedicated to financial services Separate News Portal - free online registration to our publications Follow us on © 2013 • 20
  21. 21. Our Offices & Contact Information Europe Office • Yves Devigne, Europe Business Development Manager, Cell: 33 6 75 80 08 25 - Email: devigne@yole.fr NT E • David Jourdan, Headquarter Sales Coordination & Customer Service, Tel: 33 472 83 01 90, Email: jourdan@yole.fr USA Office EM PP LO VE • Michael McLaughlin, Business Development Manager, Phone: (650) 931 2552 - Cell: (408) 839 7178 - Email: mclaughlin@yole.fr • Jeff Edwards, Sales Associate, Yole Inc., Cell: (972) 333 0986- Email: edwards@yole.fr LE O Japan Office E D • For custom research: Yutaka Katano, General Manager, Yole Japan & President, Yole K.K. Phone: (81) 362 693 457 - Cell: (81) 80 3440 6466 - Fax: (81) 362 693 448 - Email: katano@yole.fr Y • For reports business: Takashi Onozawa, Sales Asia & General Manager, Yole K.K. Email: onozawa@yole.fr Korea Office • Hailey Yang, Business Development Manager Phone : (82) 2 2010 883 - Cell: (82) 10 4097 5810 - Fax: (82) 2 2010 8899 - Email: yang@yole.fr © 2013 • 21
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