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75 cours Emile Zola, F-69001 Lyon-Villeurbanne, France
T...
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About the Author of the Report
Pars MUKISH - Senior Anal...
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Objectives of the Report
• To better understand process ...
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Company Index
ACC Silicon, Accretech, Advanced Dicing Te...
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Table of Content (1/5)
• Objectives of the Report P8
• C...
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Table of Content (2/5)
• Light Extraction Techniques P84...
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Table of Content (3/5)
• LED Substrates (2/2) P89
– GaN ...
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Table of Content (4/5)
• LED Epitaxy (2/2) P154
– Nanowi...
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Table of Content (5/5)
• Plasma Etching and Deposition (...
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Overview of Key Constituents of LED Die
1. For details ...
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Mirrors
Resonant Cavity LEDs - Technology
• Mirrors can...
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Front End Cost Aspects
1W Packaged LED Cost Analysis
• ...
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GaN LED Chip Design
Trend - Increase of Flip Chip Techn...
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Light Extraction Techniques
Novel Chip Geometries
• Stu...
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Focus on GaN and Si Substrates
• GaN-on-Si LEDs aims at...
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Sapphire Substrates (CSS and PSS)
Market Forecast and T...
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GaN-on-Si LEDs
Si vs. Sapphire - LED Die Cost Simulatio...
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GaN-on-GaN LEDs
Applications - Overview
• GaN-on-GaN LE...
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GaN LED Epitaxy
Cost of Ownership - Drivers
The cost of...
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Toward Larger Diameter Wafers
Incentive - Focus on Manu...
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Nanowire LEDs
Introduction
Nanowires (also called nanor...
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Lithography
Example of a Vertical LED
For a vertical LE...
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Plasma Etching
Illustrations
Patterned Sapphire Substra...
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TCL and Metal Deposition Equipment
Examples
SNTEK:
InVa...
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LED Front-End Manufacturing Trends 2014 Report by Yole Developpement

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A comprehensive survey of LED Front-End manufacturing, covering main process steps and technological trends


SUBSTRATES ARE SHAPING THE LED FRONT-END INDUSTRY

LED substrate is one of the key topics impacting the LED Front-End industry in the following ways:
Increased demand for larger size sapphire wafers with big players (such as LG, Sharp or Osram) moving to 6” wafers and Taiwanese players moving to 4” wafers.
Increased demand for PSS that has now become mainstream in the industry (87% share as of Q1-2014), even if some questions remain concerning key patent holders’ strategies.
Development of GaN-on-Si and GaN-on-GaN LEDs with both technologies having begun mass production in some companies (such as Soraa for GaN, or Toshiba for Si). However, market penetration of these alternative substrates will be secondary to future improvements in terms of performance and cost. Otherwise, GaN-on-Si and GaN-on-GaN LEDs will not be able to fully compete with sapphire-based LEDs.


The impact of the sapphire industry on the LED industry is likely to become bigger in the future because of the recent partnership between GTAT and Apple (Q4-2013) to set up a large sapphire manufacturing plant ($1 billion). The plant, having a rough capacity of 2 times the current qualified sapphire capacity, could totally modify the structure and evolution of the sapphire and LED industries in the next few years.
The report presents all recent technological trends of LED Front-End manufacturing, detailing evolutions at substrate, epitaxy, lithography, plasma etching and deposition, PVD and testing levels.


INCREASED COMPETITION WILL ACCELERATE NEW LED MOCVD REACTOR DEVELOPMENT

LED epitaxy has also been of central interest to the LED Front-End industry that has seen the entry of several new players in the MOCVD reactor market since 2011 / 2012. Even if increased competition has not really affected the market’s top leaders (Aixtron, Veeco and Taiyo Nippon Sanso), it has forced them to accelerate development of the next generation of MOCVD tools to lever market entry barriers. This generation of MOCVD reactors should focus on Cost of Ownership, see the emergence of enhanced designs, with new heating systems, new gas-flow designs, and increased automation (…).
Regarding lithography, plasma etching and deposition, PVD and testing, mostly incremental evolutions have occurred (such as improvement of throughput, and ASP decrease…) reflecting a saturation in technological development.
The report presents a detailed analysis of LED epitaxy, highlighting main trends at process, technology and equipment levels...

More information on that report at http://www.i-micronews.com/reports/LED-Front-End-Manufacturing-Trends-report/14/433/

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LED Front-End Manufacturing Trends 2014 Report by Yole Developpement

  1. 1. Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. © 2014 1 75 cours Emile Zola, F-69001 Lyon-Villeurbanne, France Tel : +33 472 83 01 80 - Fax : +33 472 83 01 83 Web: http://www.yole.fr LED FRONT-END MANUFACTURING TRENDS A Comprehensive Survey of LED Front-End Manufacturing, Covering Main Process and Technological Trends SAMPLE VERSION
  2. 2. © 2014 2 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. About the Author of the Report Pars MUKISH - Senior Analyst Pars MUKISH holds a Master of Materials Science & Polymers and a Master of Innovation & Technology Management (EM Lyon - France). He works at Yole Développement as a Senior Market and Technology Analyst in the fields of LED, Lighting Technologies, Compound Semiconductors and OLED to carry out technical, economic and marketing analysis. Previously, he has worked as Marketing and Techno-Economic Analyst for several years at the CEA. Pars MUKISH is also author / co-author of the following reports: • LED Packaging • Status of the LED Industry • LED in Road and Street Lighting • OLED for Lighting • UV LED Technology and Application Trends • LED Front End Equipment Market
  3. 3. © 2014 3 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Objectives of the Report • To better understand process flow and technological trends in LED front-end manufacturing. • To better understand the importance of cost reduction in LED front-end manufacturing. • To evaluate emerging substrates / technologies (GaN-on-GaN LEDs and GaN-on-Si LEDs).
  4. 4. © 2014 4 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Company Index ACC Silicon, Accretech, Advanced Dicing Technology, Advanced System Technology (AST), Advatool Semiconductor, Aixtron, ALSI, Altatech (Soitec), AM Technology, AMEC, AND Corporation, Applied Materials, APT, Arima, ASM Pacific Technology, ASML, Astri, Aurotek, Autec, Azzurro, Bayer, Beijing Yuji, Bergquist, Bridgelux, Bruker, Canon, Cascade Microtech, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC), Chroma, Corial, Cree, Crystal Applied Technology (SAS), Crystal Optech, Crystalwise, Dai Nippon Kaken (DNK), Dai Nippon Screen Mfg, Daitron, Delphi Laser, Denka, Disco, Dow Corning, Dow Electronic Materials, Dynatex, Edison Opto, Epiluxy, Epistar, Eplustek, ESI, Eulitha, EV Group (EVG), Evatec, Everlight Electronics, Fittech, Formosa Epitaxy (Forepi), Four N4, Fraunhofer IZM, FSE Corporation (Fulintec), Galaxia, GE, GloAB, Hans Laser, Hansol Technics, Hauman, Heliodel, Hitachi Cable, Huga, Hybond, Iljin Display, IMEC, Intematix, InVacuo, Ismeca, JCT, JPSA, JT Corp, Jusung Engineering, K&S, KLA Tencor, Lattice Power, Laurier, Laytech, LG Innotek, Lightscape, Lightwave Photonic, Litec, Loomis, Luminus Devices, LWB, Maxis Co, Merk/Litec, Mitsubishi, Mitsubishi Diamond Industrial, Molecular Imprint, Momentive, Monocrystal, MPI, Nanoco, Nanometrics, Nanosys, Nichia, Nihon Gartner, Nikon, NN Crystal, North Microelectronics, Novellus, NTT, Nusil, Obducat, Oerlikon Systems, OP System, Optest, Opto Supply Ltd, Orbotech, Osram, Oxfrod Instrument Plasma Technology, Palomar Technology, Panasonic, Philips Lumileds, Phosphortech, Plasma-Therm, Procrystal, Proway, Puji Optical, QD Vision, QMC, Quatek, Rigidtek, Rose Street Lab, Rubicon, Rudolph, Samco, Samsung, Sanken, Semileds, Seoul Semiconductors, Sharp, Shibuya, Sino American Silicon (SAS), Sino Kristals Optoelectronics, Sino Nitride, Sky Technology, SNTEK, SPTS, Stararc, Sumitomo Chemical, Suss Microtech, Synova, Tainics, Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tamarack, Tecdia, Technology & Science Enabler (TSE), Tekcore, Temescal, TeraXtal, Toyoda Gosei, Transluscent, TSMC, Ultratech, Ulvac, Uni Via Technology, Ushio, Varian, Veeco, Verticle, Wacker, Waferworks, Wellypower, Wentworth Laboratories, Withlight, YCChem, Ying Lyu, Zeon Chemical (…).
  5. 5. © 2014 5 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Table of Content (1/5) • Objectives of the Report P8 • Company Index & Glossary P9 • Executive Summary P11 • LED Market Trends P30 – History of LED Industry – Packaged LED Revenue Forecast by Application – LED Adoption Rate - 2013 vs. 2020 – Recent Trends – Packaged LED Price Trends – LED Die Surface Forecast by Application – GaN Reactor Capacity - Geographic Trends – LED Reactors • Geographic Trends & Impact on Global Demand • GaN Reactor Capacity vs. Demand • Key Constituents of LED Die P42 – Synthesis – Overview – Mirrors • Overview • Resonant Cavity LEDs – Introduction – Status – Technology – Pads, Electrodes and Contacts • Overview • Transparent Contact layers - ITO and Alternatives • Deposition Process • Trends – Dielectric Layers • Introduction • Passivation • Trends • LED Die Manufacturing P61 – Synthesis – LED Manufacturing Yield • Overview • Focus on Binning Yields • Cost Aspects – Cost Structure of Lighting Products – The Path to Cost Reduction – 1W Packaged LED Cost Analysis • Overview • Consumables and Labor • Equipment Cost – GaN LED Chip Design • Simple MESA • Flip Chip (FC) • Vertical Thin Film (VTF) • Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) • Vertical Thin Film with Vias (VTFV) • Trend - Increase of Flip Chip Technology – LED Manufacturing Process Overview – Front-End Manufacturing Process Flow • Example - MESA Structure • Example - VTF Structure • Other Steps
  6. 6. © 2014 6 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Table of Content (2/5) • Light Extraction Techniques P84 – LED Chip Patterning – Substrate Patterning or Die Shaping – Novel Chip Geometries • LED Substrates (1/2) P89 – Introduction – Sapphire-based LED - Breakdown by Epitaxial Material (2008-2020) – Focus on GaN and Si Substrates – Penetration Rate by Substrate Type – Sapphire Substrate • Wafer ASP – Introduction – Trends – Long Term Expectations • Diameter Trends – Overview – Transition to Larger Size Wafer – 8” or not 8”? • Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) – Benefits – Use – Examples – Pattern Types – Manufacturing Process – Key Players – Adoption Trends – Price Trends • Market Forecast and Trends – Si Substrate • Introduction • Benefits • Challenges – Overview – Focus on TEC Mismatch • Chip Design • How to Grow LED structures on Si? • Potential Impact of using Si for LED Manufacturing • Conditions for Success • Performance and Commercial Status – Overview (1/2) – Toshiba TL1F1 Teardown • Binning Yields • CMOS Compatibility – Overview – Gold Contamination – Dedicated LED Equipment • Si vs. Sapphire - LED Die Cost Simulations • Overview of Potential Cost Reduction Claims • Market Players • Recent Comments • Reality or Fiction? • Scenarios of Evolution
  7. 7. © 2014 7 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Table of Content (3/5) • LED Substrates (2/2) P89 – GaN Substrate • Introduction - Droop Effect • Benefits – Device Performance – Manufacturing – Vertical Structure • Challenges – Substrate Availability and Cost – Thermal Management • Applications Overview • GaN vs. Sapphire - LED Die Cost Simulations • Status • LED Epitaxy (1/2) P154 – Synthesis – GaN LED Epitaxy • Introduction to MOCVD • MOCVD Reactor System Overview • GaN LED Structures • GaN LED Epitaxy Challenges – Overview – Focus on Wafer Curvature • Packaged LED Cost Structure • Cost of Ownership – Drivers – Cost Reduction Opportunities • Focus on Binning Yields – GaN LED Epitaxy • Focus on In Situ Metrology – Overview – Correlation with LED Parameters – Wafer Curvature • Focus on LED Epitaxy Cycle Time – Downtime and Cleaning – Hybrid Reactors • Focus on Batch Size • Focus on Growth Rate • Focus on Precursor Efficiency • Toward Larger Diameter Wafers – Incentive – Overview – Focus on MOCVD Throughput – Focus on Manufacturing Cost • Next Generation MOCVD Reactor – MetalOrganic (MO) Precursors • Introduction • TMG – Overview – ASP – Alternative - TEG • TMI – Overview – ASP – Challenge • Purity Aspects
  8. 8. © 2014 8 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Table of Content (4/5) • LED Epitaxy (2/2) P154 – Nanowire LEDs • Introduction • Main Players – Overview – Company Profile - Aledia – Company Profile - glō – Company Profile - Nanocrystal – Company Profile - Ecosparck • Conclusion • Lithography P212 – Synthesis – LED Chip Manufacturing • Main LED Lithography Steps • Other LED Lithography Steps • Example of a Vertical LED • Requirements and Challenges – Overview – Focus on Mask Alignment / Overlay • Lithography Techniques for LED – Contact / Proximity (Aligners) – Projection - Steppers – Projection - Full Field – Comparison • Focus on Wafer Bowing • Focus on Mask and Photoresist • Legacy Lithography Tools for LED Manufacturing • Dedicated Lithography Tools for LED Manufacturing – PSS Manufacturing • Overview of Lithography for PSS • Nano-Imprint Lithography (NIL) • Hard Stamps vs. Soft Stamps • Displacement Talbot Lithography (DTL) • Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH) • Current Status • Plasma Etching and Deposition (1/2) P242 – Synthesis – Overview of Etching Techniques – Plasma Etching • Overview • Illustrations – Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) • Overview • Inductively Coupled Plasma-RIE (ICP-RIE) – LED Etching Requirements – LED Etching Specificities – Dielectric Layer Deposition • Overview • Requirements • LED Manufacturing • Alternative Technologies for Passivation – Process Control and Metrology • Tool-Based • Plasma Metrology • Optical Measurement • Conclusion
  9. 9. © 2014 9 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Table of Content (5/5) • Plasma Etching and Deposition (2/2) P242 – Reactor Cleaning • Etching Tools • Deposition Tools (PECVD) – Examples of Etching and PECVD Equipment for LED Manufacturing – Other Plasma Processes in LED Manufacturing - Surface Cleaning • Physical Vapor Deposition for TCL and Metals P268 – Synthesis – Transparent Contact Layer • Overview • Critical Parameters • Deposition Technologies – Metal Deposition • Overview • MESA and Flip Chip Structure • Vertical Thin Film Structures – TCL and Metal Deposition Equipment • Automation • Main Suppliers • LED-Dedicated System Suppliers • Examples • Testing and Binning P284 – Synthesis – Introduction – Overview of LED Testing and Sorting/Binning – Example of Testing Workflow in LED Manufacturing – Measurement Challenges – Wafer Level and Die Testing – Optical Inspection and Probing – Sorting & Binning – Equipment, Capex and Throughput – Examples • Optical and Visual Inspection • Wafer, Die Testers and Sorters – Software • Conclusion P299 • About Yole Développement and LED Activity P303
  10. 10. © 2014 10 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Overview of Key Constituents of LED Die 1. For details of the epitaxial structure, please refer to the chapter “LED Epitaxy” of the report. Package Substrate (Ceramic, metal, MCPCB…) n-GaN p-GaN MQW Substrate Mirror Metal pads are where electrical charges are injected into the structure. They are connected via wires of stud bumping to the electrodes or connectors on the package substrate. Electrodes or transparent contacts distribute and spread the electrical carriers into the structure. On some structures, insulation layers (not present here) provide appropriate electrical isolation between the different elements The light is generated in the Multi- Quantum Well (MQW) where the electrons and holes are injected through the p-doped and n-doped GaN layers1. A mirror reflects the light emitted in the direction of the substrates. A diffusion barrier is used on some structures to prevent diffusion of the Ag mirror into the eutectic AuSn , or diffusion and reaction of Al with N atoms when using Ti/Al contacts on n-side (not necessary here). The top layer can be textured to improve light extraction (photonic crystal of roughening). The surface of the substrate can be textured to improve light extraction. Passivation layers limit parasitic surface currents and degradation of the die.
  11. 11. © 2014 11 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Mirrors Resonant Cavity LEDs - Technology • Mirrors can be of 3 types: – Metal. – Metal / Dielectric layers combination (Hybrids). – Full dielectric layers (Distributed Bragg Reflectors). • Main criteria of choice are: – Substrate material used. – Wavelength range targeted (bin). – LED chip geometry developed (and associated angular range). – LED packaging technique used. Metal / Dielectric - Hybrids Full Dielectric - DBRs Typical Number of Layers 6 - 20 15 - 70 Typical Thickness (µm) 0.5 - 2 1 - 6 Comments • Increase reflectance in a limited wavelength region is possible by adding some dielectric layers. • Highest reflectance over wide wavelength range. • Can be designed with transparency window for alignment laser of dicing tool. • Very accurate thickness monitoring required. Reflectance of a Sapphire-based LED with DBR and Silver mirror in package Source: Evatec
  12. 12. © 2014 12 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Front End Cost Aspects 1W Packaged LED Cost Analysis • Front-end manufacturing represents 48% of the cost of the 1W packaged LED analyzed in this example. • At 33% of the total Front-End cost, epitaxial layers (grown by MOCVD) represents the single largest cost reduction opportunity. • However, substrates (in this case sapphire + a carrier wafer on which the epiwafer is subsequently bonded to) also represent a significant fraction (25%).
  13. 13. © 2014 13 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. GaN LED Chip Design Trend - Increase of Flip Chip Technology • As flip chip technology gradually matures, LED manufacturers are actively developing this technology as it gives several advantages. – Larger light-emitting area and highest luminosity. – Better heat dissipation. – Adjustable dimensions. – No wire-bonding. • Whereas such design was mostly in hand of big LED manufacturers (Cree, Lumileds…), in 2013, Taiwanese manufacturers have also started to develop this technology. • Additionally, and following the increased use of middle power LEDs for General lighting applications, flip chip technology should also make its way into the middle power LED market in 2014. – Recently (Q4-2013), Lumileds has announced its plans to introduce flip-chip technology into the middle power LED market as such type of device has drawn most attention from the market in 2013. – Indeed, middle power LEDs (following the 2011 / 2012 overcapacity) have become mainstream in interior lighting applications. Flip Chip (FC) technology as the new battleground with Taiwanese companies racing to start production and some companies planning to develop FC LED for middle power market.
  14. 14. © 2014 14 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Light Extraction Techniques Novel Chip Geometries • Studies have been realized by the Semiconductor Lighting and Display Laboratory of The University of Hong Kong, which examined the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with different geometries: • These studies have concluded that square LEDs have distinctively lower extraction efficiencies than any other shape. – Considering the fact that LED chips in the market are invariably diced into squares or rectangles, device designers should give thought to redesigning the chip. Novel chip geometries, such as triangular and hexagonal devices, can deliver massive increases in light extraction by cutting optical confinement in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Shape Light Extraction Efficiency Square 12.98% Pentagon 15.09% Triangle 15.07% Heptagon 14.54% Octagon 14.43% Hexagon 14.39% Circle 13.98% Light Extraction Efficiencies of LED Chips with Different Geometries Source: Semiconductor Lighting and Display Laboratory Laser-Micromachined LED Chips with Different Geometries Source: Semiconductor Lighting and Display Laboratory Triangle Chip manufactured by Soraa Source: Soraa Hexagonal Chip manufactured by Verticle Source: Verticle
  15. 15. © 2014 15 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Focus on GaN and Si Substrates • GaN-on-Si LEDs aims at improving solid-state lighting Cost of Ownership (COO) by reducing the component manufacturing cost. – The success of GaN-on-Si LEDs will depend on development of associated LEDs performance (which should at least be equal to GaN-on-Sapphire LEDs) and development of manufacturing techniques (allowing to capitalize on depreciated CMOS fab). • GaN-on-GaN LEDs purports to reduce COO by improving the quantity of light per die area, and therefore allow cost reduction at the system level through reduction of the number of packages. – The success of GaN-on-GaN LEDs will depend on the availability of 2” and 4” GaN substrates in large volumes and at a lower cost than currently available. COST = $ LUMEN Manufacturing Efficiency • Higher equipment throughput and yields • Economy of scale LED Performance • Higher efficiency (lumen/W) • More light per chip (driving current) GaN-on-Si LEDs → Reduce component cost GaN-on-GaN LEDs → Improve performance by reducing the number of packages per System
  16. 16. © 2014 16 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Sapphire Substrates (CSS and PSS) Market Forecast and Trends (1/2)
  17. 17. © 2014 17 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. GaN-on-Si LEDs Si vs. Sapphire - LED Die Cost Simulations • In this simulation, GaN-on-Si LED chip structures were compared to the closest available Sapphire-based structure → Vertical LED with substrate removal by laser lift off. • However other sapphire structure exist that are cheaper to manufacture. For example PSS-based LED now offer very competitive manufacturing cost and performance close to state of the art vertical LEDs. The simulations show a potential cost reduction of -XX to XX% at the die level vs. a 4” sapphire vertical LED: Notes: • Front End = Epitaxy + Si carrier preparation + Wafer processing + Bonding + Epi substrate removal. • Back End 0 = Probe test + Scribing  Include yield costs (cumulated cost of all the rejected die).
  18. 18. © 2014 18 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. GaN-on-GaN LEDs Applications - Overview • GaN-on-GaN LEDs are not for all applications: – The benefit of GaN based LED is only realized at high current density (for very high luminous flux). – Because droop is still present, GaN LED will often trade flux for efficiency. • Initial penetration will start with applications requiring very high flux over small surfaces and were precise beam shaping is critical. • GaN based LED will not be favored in applications requiring a more diffuse light pattern or when energy efficiency is the main driver for LED adoption. Potential for applications requiring very high flux over small surfaces and precise beam shaping Not appropriate in applications requiring a diffuse light pattern or when energy efficiency is paramount
  19. 19. © 2014 19 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. GaN LED Epitaxy Cost of Ownership - Drivers The cost of ownership of a MOCVD system is driven by multiple factors: YIELDS Uniform gas flow:  binning yields Uniform substrate temperature:  binning yields Process control, in situ metrology THROUGHPUT Number and size of wafer per batch Layer deposition speed Equipment uptime (maintenance, cleaning, etc.) Loading, unloading time, Automation Reactor and wafer temperature ramp up and cooling Operating and depreciation costs Upfront equipment cost Precursor utilization efficiency Energy Costs Labor cost System Footprint
  20. 20. © 2014 20 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Toward Larger Diameter Wafers Incentive - Focus on Manufacturing Cost (3/3) • This indicates that the transition to 6” can be beneficial for LED makers with strong experience and “world class” manufacturing practices. Source: Philips Lumileds (June 2013) Last 2 Quarters of 3” Manufacturing (mix) 150mm Manufacturing Only
  21. 21. © 2014 21 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Nanowire LEDs Introduction Nanowires (also called nanorods, nanocolumns…) = 100 to 500nm diameter GaN wires. Each nanowire acts as an individual LED. Blue, green and red GaN based LED can be realized. Source: Glo
  22. 22. © 2014 22 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Lithography Example of a Vertical LED For a vertical LED, 6 lithography steps are generally required. Metal Layer p-GaN n-GaN MQW Metal Layer Conductive Substrate Backside Electrode Step 6: n-Pad Metal Contact Resolution = XXum Step 5: Passivation XX Resolution > 5µm Step 3: n-GaN XX Resolution > 5µm Step 4: Isolation Hardmask for Dry Etch Resolution > XXµm Step 1: Current Blocking XX Resolution = 5µm Step 2: p-Pad Ohmic Contact Resolution = XXµm
  23. 23. © 2014 23 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Plasma Etching Illustrations Patterned Sapphire Substrate Source: Corial Photonic Crystal Source: SUSS MicroTec GaN MESA Source: Plasma-Therm LED Die streets Source: Plasma-Therm
  24. 24. © 2014 24 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. TCL and Metal Deposition Equipment Examples SNTEK: InVacuo: • e-beam evaporation for deposition of metal or ITO layers • Dome wafer holder (Lift-off or planetary type) • Capacity → 186 x 2” for ITO and 100 x 2” for Metal • Source → e-beam ( 4 ~ 6 pocket 40cc) • ITO deposition Temperature → 300℃ on wafer • Mark IV E-beam evaporation system for deposition of metal and ITO layers • Hemispherical wafer holder → 42 x 2” for single planetary / 108 x 2” and 24 x 4” for three planetary
  25. 25. Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. © 2014 25 75 cours Emile Zola, F-69001 Lyon-Villeurbanne, France Tel : +33 472 83 01 80 - Fax : +33 472 83 01 83 Web: http://www.yole.fr Yole Développement and LED Activity
  26. 26. © 2014 26 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Yole Développement Field of Research Activity • Yole Développement is a market research and strategy consulting company founded in 1998. • We are involved in the following areas: • Our research is performed by in-house personnel conducting open-ended discussions based on interviews. – 30 full time analysts with technical and marketing degrees. – Primary research including over 3,500 interviews per year. Photovoltaic Microfluidic & Medical Technologies MEMS & Image Sensors Wafer & Substrates Power Electronics LED, OLED and Laser Diode Advanced Packaging
  27. 27. © 2014 27 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Yole Développement 4 Business Models Custom Analysis: • Largest part of Yole Développement’s activities. • Covered by NDA agreement. • A few days to several months of work, depending on objectives. Published Reports: • An average of 40 reports published every year. • Available individually or through annual subscription program. • Market and technology reports, patent analysis, reverse engineering / costing reports and reverse costing tools. i-Micronews Media: • Magazines and webcasts on 3D, MEMS, Compound Semiconductors, Power electronics, LED and imaging. • Communication services providing access to our network including +45,000 subscribers to be visible and diffuse information on your company and products. Yole Finance Services: • M&A (buying and selling) / Due diligence / Fundraising / Technology brokerage. Custom Analysis Breadth of the Analysis DepthoftheAnalysis Standard Reports Workshops Q&A Services Research products - Content comparison
  28. 28. © 2014 28 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. LED Activity Yole is Active All Over the LED Value Chain We are active all over the value chain! And we interview industrial / R&D players from each level! Substrate Front-end Level 0 - Epitaxy • Nucleation layer • N-type layer • Active layers (MQW) • P-type layer SiC / Sapphire / Silicon / Bulk GaN / Composite substrate LED epi-wafer Mesa LED structure Flip Chip LED structure Vertical LED structure LED dies-on-waferLED dies Back-End level 1 - Packaging • Die Attach & Interconnections • Phosphors • Encapsulation & optics • Testing & Binning Packaged LEDs Front-end Level 1 - Device Making • Inspection • Masking / Lithography • Etching • Metallization / Contacts / Mirrors Back-End Level 0 - Packaging • Substrate separation & Bonding • Die singulation • Testing & Binning LED systems and applications
  29. 29. © 2014 29 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. LED Activity About Yole’s LED Analyst Team Dr. Philippe ROUSSEL - Business Unit Manager Philippe ROUSSEL holds a Ph-D in Integrated Electronics Systems from the National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon (INSA - France). He joined Yole Développement in 1998 and is Business Unit Manager of the Compound Semiconductors, Photovoltaic, LED and Power Electronics department. Dr. Eric VIREY - Senior Analyst Eric VIREY holds a Ph-D in Optoelectronics from the National Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble (INPG - France). In the last 12 years, he has held various R&D, engineering, manufacturing and marketing positions with Saint-Gobain. Most recently, he was Market Manager at Saint-Gobain Crystals, in charge of Sapphire and Optoelectronic products. Pars MUKISH - Senior Analyst Pars MUKISH holds a master degree in Materials Science & Polymers and a master degree in Innovation & Technology Management (EM Lyon - France). He works at Yole Développement as Market and Technology Analyst in the fields of LED and Lighting Technologies to carry out technical, economic and marketing analysis. Previously, he has worked as Marketing and Techno-Economic Analyst for several years at the CEA.
  30. 30. ORDER FORM LED Front-End Manufacturing Trends SHIPPING CONTACT First Name: Email: Last Name: Phone: PAYMENT BY CREDIT CARD Visa Mastercard Amex Name of the Card Holder: Credit Card Number: Card Verification Value (3 digits except AMEX: 4 digits): Expiration date: BY BANK TRANSFER BANK INFO: HSBC, 1 place de la Bourse, F-69002 Lyon, France, Bank code: 30056, Branch code : 00170 Account No: 0170 200 1565  87, SWIFT or BIC code: CCFRFRPP, IBAN: FR76 3005 6001 7001 7020 0156 587 RETURN ORDER BY • FAX: +33 (0)472 83 01 83 • MAIL: YOLE DÉVELOPPEMENT, Le Quartz, 75 Cours Emile Zola, 69100 Villeurbanne/Lyon - France SALES CONTACTS • North America: Jeff Edwards - edwards@yole.fr • Asia: Takashi Onozawa - onozawa@yole.fr • Europe RoW: Jean-Christophe Eloy - eloy@yole.fr • Korea: Hailey Yang - yang@yole.fr • General: info@yole.fr (1) Our Terms and Conditions of Sale are available at www.yole.fr/Terms_and_Conditions_of_Sale.aspx The present document is valid 24 months after its publishing date: April 28th , 2014 / ABOUT YOLE DEVELOPPEMENT BILL TO Name (Mr/Ms/Dr/Pr): Job Title: Company: Address: City: State: Postcode/Zip: Country*: *VAT ID Number for EU members: Tel: Email: Date: PRODUCT ORDER Please enter my order for above named report : One user license*: Euro 3,990 Multi user license: Euro 5,990 For price in dollars, please use the day’s exchange rate. All reports are delivered electronically at payment reception. For French customers, add 20% for VAT I hereby accept Yole Développement’s Terms and Conditions of Sale(1) Signature: *One user license means only one person at the company can use the report. Please be aware that our publication will be watermarked on each page with the name of the recipient and of the organization (the name mentioned on the PO). This watermark will also mention that the report sharing is not allowed. Founded in 1998, Yole Développement has grown to become a group of companies providing marketing, technology and strategy consulting, media in addition to corporate finance services. With a strong focus on emerging applications using silicon and/or micro manufacturing (technology or process), Yole Développement group has expanded to include more than 50 associates worldwide covering MEMS, Compound Semiconductors, LED, Image Sensors, Optoelectronics, Microfluidics Medical, Photovoltaics, Advanced Packaging, Manufacturing, Nanomaterials and Power Electronics. The group supports industrial companies, investors and RD organizations worldwide to help them understand markets and follow technology trends to develop their business. MEDIA EVENTS • i-Micronews.com, online disruptive technologies website • @Micronews, weekly e-newsletter • Technology Magazines dedicated to MEMS, Advanced Packaging, LED and Power Electronics • Communication webcasts services • Events: Yole Seminars, Market Briefings… More information on www.i-micronews.com CONTACTS For more information about : • Consulting Services: Jean-Christophe Eloy (eloy@yole.fr) • Financial Services: Géraldine Andrieux-Gustin (andrieux@yole.fr) • Report Business: David Jourdan (jourdan@yole.fr) • Corporate Communication: Sandrine Leroy (leroy@yole.fr) CONSULTING • Market data research, marketing analysis • Technology analysis • Reverse engineering costing services • Strategy consulting • Patent analysis More information on www.yole.fr REPORTS • Collection of technology market reports • Manufacturing cost simulation tools • Component reverse engineering costing analysis • Patent investigation More information on www.i-micronews.com/reports FINANCIAL SERVICES • Mergers Acquisitions • Due diligence • Fundraising • Coaching of emerging companies • IP portfolio management optimization More information on www.yolefinance.com
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