Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects• “In a departmentalized school, responsibility for improving reading comprehension of instructional materials should be shared by teachers of all subjects, particularly teachers of history-social science and science.” – Reading/Language Arts Framework, pp. 175, 192.
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTSSTANDARDS AND LITERACY INHISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES,SCIENCE AND TECHNICALSUBJECTS
Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects• Three main sections – A comprehensive K-5 section (includes standards for foundational skills) – English language/arts – Literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects
What‟s New?• Increased commitment to technology• Value of group dynamics (speaking before listening)• Standards for writing in the disciplines• Explicit attention to informational texts (beyond textbooks and not just in English classes)
Reading Standards• Reading standards are in two components: – Literature – Informational text• And also in two literacy components (6-12): – Literacy in History/Social Studies – Literacy in Science/Technical Subjects
Let‟s Take a Look• Read the Anchor Standards for Reading K-5 (p. 10) and in the Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects section (p. 60).• What do you notice?
Let‟s Take a Look• Read the Anchor Standards for Writing K-5 (p. 18) and in the Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects section (p. 63).• What do you notice?
Reading Standards• Literature and Informational Text K-12• Literacy Standards (grades 6-12) ONLY Informational Text
Key Ideas and DetailsGrade 7 Grades 9-10Cite several pieces of Cite strong and thoroughtextual evidence to support textual evidence to supportanalysis of what the text analysis of what the textsays explicitly as well as says explicitly as well asinferences drawn from the inferences drawn from thetext (7. RL & I.1) text. (9-10. RL&I.1)Grade 8 Grades 11-12Cite the textual evidence Cite strong and thoroughthat most strongly textual evidence to supportsupports an analysis of analysis of what the textwhat the text says says explicitly as well asexplicitly as well as inferences drawn from theinferences drawn from the text, including determiningtext. (8RL&I.1) where the text leaves matters uncertain. (11-12.
Writing Standards: Text Types and Purposes• Students (in all grades) focus on three types of writing: – Arguments – Informative/explanatory texts – Narratives
Writing Standards: Production & Distribution of Writing• Overall development and organization—emphasis on clarity• The writing processes of planning and revision• Use of technology for production and publication both of individual and, for the first time, group writing projects
Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects• A focus on discipline-specific vocabulary• An acknowledgement of unique text structures found in informational text• The expectation that students will read and write in non-ELA classrooms• The expectation that students will develop information/technical writing skills, and• A focus on critical analysis and evidence
A Foundational Premise• “Meeting the demands of the Literacy Standards requires substantially expanding the literacy requirements in history/social studies as well as in science and technical subjects. The adoption of the Literacy Standards in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects therefore requires several significant shifts in these curricula.” – Source: Publishers‟ Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades 3-12
Curricular Implications• Part of “content knowledge” becomes: – understanding disciplinary genres; – understanding disciplinary language conventions; and – understanding disciplinary language.• Cross-disciplinary discussions about literacy development.• Students at the center.
Curricular Implications• Less dependence on textbooks.• Using text complexity as a way to spiral students‟ intellectual growth.• Broader understanding of “text” and wider use of multiple text genres.• Increased use of multiple texts within an instructional sequence.• Writing, reading, reading writing!
Curricular Applications• Literacy everywhere• Real world applications• Project-based learning• Cross-disciplinary collaborations
IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDAGOGY
Pedagogies• Speaking and Listening• Teaching for Transfer• Writing to Learn• Reading to Write• Student-centered Learning• Hands-on Learning
DISCIPLINARY LITERACYAN INTRODUCTION
“Content Literacy: A Definition and Implications” (Michael C. McKenna and Richard D. Robinson)• The ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline• Includes 3 principle cognitive components: – General literacy skills – Content-specific literacy skills – Prior knowledge of content
“Imagining a New Kind of Self: AcademicLanguage, Identity, and Content Area Learning” (Jeff Wilhelm)“We need to think of teaching…asinducting students into new ways ofbeing, apprenticing them into new rolesand identities, acculturating them intonew „communities of practice‟ (i.e.groups of people who do realdisciplinary work).”
“Imagining a New Kind of Self: AcademicLanguage, Identity, and Content Area Learning” (Jeff Wilhelm) • In any discipline, the learner‟s doing and thinking is expected to gradually approximate that of the experts.”
Interim Benchmark Assessments• These are formative assessments – Repository of tools available to teachers to support quick adjustment and differentiated instruction – Help define student performance along the CCSS learning progressions
Interim Benchmark Assessments• Allow for finer grain of measurement (e.g., end of unit)• Inform teachers if students on track to be proficient on summative assessments• Multiple opportunities for students to participate• Scale scores help inform growth model
Summative Assessment• Measure full range of CCCSS• Computer Adaptive Testing for precision• Timely results• Engage Institutions of Higher Education to ensure achievement standards reflect college and career readiness
Performance Tasks• To assess aspects of CCCSS difficult or impossible to assess traditionally;• “They will involve student-initiated planning, management of information and ideas, interaction with other materials and/or people, and production of an extended response such as an oral presentation, exhibit, product development, or an extended written piece.”
Performance Tasks• One in reading• One in writing• Two in mathematics• Roughly half of the performance tasks for grades 9-11 will assess ELA or math within the context of science or social studies.
A Performance Task for ELA Using Science Content
End-of-Year Summative Assessments• Final 12 weeks of school year