The Ottoman Empire is allied with Germany and Austria
Where is the United States in this?
The United States is officially neutral, but sympathetic to great Britain and France
Some Americans want to help Germany instead
Most Americans wants to stay out of the “European War”
So the War starts
The Plan was to take Paris in week and all of France in 2-3 weeks
Then Turn on Russia and defeat her
Everything depends on MOVING TROOPS RAPIDLY
The Germans get held up just a LITTLE…
There is no quick victory, that means:
Stagnation, no movement on the lines
4 years of brutal, bloody useless hell for the soldiers in the trenches, in the air, and at sea
Women became essential to the war effort far beyond any traditional roles held before.
Civilians themselves became targets of military operations.
war on the Western Front became one of "attrition”
The only way that either side could see to win it was to bleed the other side to death, to keep killing and killing until, with luck, you killed more of the men on the other side than they did of yours.
Germany invades Belgium.
Britain declares war on Germany.
Fighting bogs down quickly. Trenches appear on the Western Front on Sept 24
The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers
Russia loses the Battle of Tanneburg
At Christmas there is an unofficial truce, soldiers meet in No Man’s Land
Fighting quickly resumes
The Christmas Truce
Women take up men's jobs.
Stalemate continues on the Western Front.
The first gas attacks occur
London attacked from the air by German Zeppelins.
U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania creating a US-German diplomatic crisis
APRIL-Allied landing at Gallipoli
SEPT-After a HUGE loss of life the Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli , having gained nothing
The Battle of the Somme
Lasted 3 months
60,000 people died on the first day.
420,000 British, 330,000 French
550,000 German killed
No change in the battle lines at the end
The Battle of Verdun
Lasted over a year over a two mile deep area
Each side took and lost the same ground over and over
Each side lost 500,000 men
In the end it changed NOTHING
United States joins the war and assists the Allies.
The battle of Passchendaele
Tank, submarine and gas warfare intensifies.
Royal family changes their name to Windsor to appear more British.
In Russia, the situation is terrible
The Czar badly mismanages the war, is forced to ABDICATE, taken prisoner with his family
The new government tries to continue the war
They are overthrown, Lenin and the Communists take over, promise to end Russian involvement
Germany launches the last major offensive on the Western Front.
Russia pulls out of the war signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Allies are NOT happy
Allies launch successful counter-offensives at the Marne and Amiens.
Armistice signed on November 11, ending the war at 11am. (11,11,11)
The War Outside Europe
Though fought mostly in Europe, Imperialism spread the war
Canada, New Zealand, Australia joined the Allies
Asia, Africa and the Middle East also saw fighting
Colonial troops fought as well, often with the promise of self rule after the war
Japan, China joined the Allies
Many Indian troops fought as well
WW1 ended the Ottoman Empire, fostered Arab nationalism
Changes in World Power
Overall Europe lost power, influence
The US, Japan emerged stronger
The Balfour Declaration promised support for a Jewish state
The Treaty of Versailles 1919
The peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany
Germany accepted SOLE responsibility for causing World War I (the “war guilt” clause)
DEBTS- Has to pay war REPARATIONS- £6,600,000,000 about 20 billion dollars
WEAKEN GERMANY- German Army and Navy stripped, only 100,000 men allowed
NATIONALISM- New countries are created in Europe- Poland, Czechoslovakia,Yugoslavia Estonia, Latvia…
COLLECTIVE SECURITY- the League of Nations is Created, which proves to be a waste of time
GERMAN AND OTTOMAN COLONIES-Germany loses all of colonies,Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
‘ MANDATES’ are created by the League
Iraq (United Kingdom)
Palestine , including Transjordan (United Kingdom)
The League of Nations
The League was President Wilson’s idea
It had very little power to do more than TALK about problems
Although the League was President Wilson’s idea, the US never joined it