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Ww i part 2

Ww i part 2






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    Ww i part 2 Ww i part 2 Presentation Transcript

    • All the Alliances - A recap
      • France is allied with Russia
      • Britain has pledged to help Belgium if attacked
      • France and Britain have an alliance
      • Austria and Germany are allied
      • The Ottoman Empire is allied with Germany and Austria
    • Where is the United States in this?
      • The United States is officially neutral, but sympathetic to great Britain and France
      • Some Americans want to help Germany instead
      • Most Americans wants to stay out of the “European War”
    • So the War starts
      • The Plan was to take Paris in week and all of France in 2-3 weeks
      • Then Turn on Russia and defeat her
      • Everything depends on MOVING TROOPS RAPIDLY
      • The Germans get held up just a LITTLE…
    • There is no quick victory, that means:
      • Stagnation, no movement on the lines
      • Trench warfare
      • 4 years of brutal, bloody useless hell for the soldiers in the trenches, in the air, and at sea
    • Propaganda
      • Women became essential to the war effort far beyond any traditional roles held before.
      • Civilians themselves became targets of military operations.
      • war on the Western Front became one of "attrition”
      • The only way that either side could see to win it was to bleed the other side to death, to keep killing and killing until, with luck, you killed more of the men on the other side than they did of yours.
    • 1914
      • Germany invades Belgium.
      • Britain declares war on Germany.
      • Fighting bogs down quickly. Trenches appear on the Western Front on Sept 24
    • 1914
      • The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers
      • Russia loses the Battle of Tanneburg
      • At Christmas there is an unofficial truce, soldiers meet in No Man’s Land
      • Fighting quickly resumes
    • The Christmas Truce
    • 1915
      • Women take up men's jobs.
      • Stalemate continues on the Western Front.
      • The first gas attacks occur
      • London attacked from the air by German Zeppelins.
    • 1915
      • U-boat sinks British liner Lusitania creating a US-German diplomatic crisis
      • APRIL-Allied landing at Gallipoli
      • SEPT-After a HUGE loss of life the Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli , having gained nothing
    • The Battle of the Somme
      • Lasted 3 months
      • 60,000 people died on the first day.
      • 420,000 British, 330,000 French
      • 550,000 German killed
      • No change in the battle lines at the end
    • The Battle of Verdun
      • Lasted over a year over a two mile deep area
      • Each side took and lost the same ground over and over
      • Each side lost 500,000 men
      • In the end it changed NOTHING
    • 1917
      • United States joins the war and assists the Allies.
      • The battle of Passchendaele
      • Tank, submarine and gas warfare intensifies.
      • Royal family changes their name to Windsor to appear more British.
      • In Russia, the situation is terrible
      • The Czar badly mismanages the war, is forced to ABDICATE, taken prisoner with his family
      • The new government tries to continue the war
      • They are overthrown, Lenin and the Communists take over, promise to end Russian involvement
    • 1918
      • Germany launches the last major offensive on the Western Front.
      • Russia pulls out of the war signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Allies are NOT happy
      • Allies launch successful counter-offensives at the Marne and Amiens.
      • Armistice signed on November 11, ending the war at 11am. (11,11,11)
    • The War Outside Europe
      • Though fought mostly in Europe, Imperialism spread the war
      • Canada, New Zealand, Australia joined the Allies
      • Asia, Africa and the Middle East also saw fighting
      • Colonial troops fought as well, often with the promise of self rule after the war
      • Japan, China joined the Allies
      • Many Indian troops fought as well
      • WW1 ended the Ottoman Empire, fostered Arab nationalism
    • Changes in World Power
      • Overall Europe lost power, influence
      • The US, Japan emerged stronger
      • The Balfour Declaration promised support for a Jewish state
    • The Treaty of Versailles 1919
      • The peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany
      • Germany accepted SOLE responsibility for causing World War I (the “war guilt” clause)
    • Germany punished
      • DEBTS- Has to pay war REPARATIONS- £6,600,000,000 about 20 billion dollars
      • WEAKEN GERMANY- German Army and Navy stripped, only 100,000 men allowed
      • NATIONALISM- New countries are created in Europe- Poland, Czechoslovakia,Yugoslavia Estonia, Latvia…
      • COLLECTIVE SECURITY- the League of Nations is Created, which proves to be a waste of time
      • GERMAN AND OTTOMAN COLONIES-Germany loses all of colonies,Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
      • ‘ MANDATES’ are created by the League
      • Iraq (United Kingdom)
      • Lebanon (France)
      • Palestine , including Transjordan (United Kingdom)
      • Syria (France)
    • The League of Nations
      • The League was President Wilson’s idea
      • It had very little power to do more than TALK about problems
      • Although the League was President Wilson’s idea, the US never joined it
      • In the end it was considered a failure