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  1. 1. Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 2. VITAMINS
  3. 3. <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>- are a group of organic nutrients required in small quantities for a variety of biochemical functions, for proper metabolism, to protect health, and for normal growth and activity of the body. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Fat-Soluble Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>2. Water-Soluble Vitamins </li></ul>Types of Vitamins
  5. 5. <ul><li>1. Fat-Soluble Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for the function or structural integrity of specific body tissues and membranes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be retained in the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apolar hydrophobic compounds that can only be absorbed efficiently when there is normal fat absorption. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>2. Water-Soluble Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as catalysts and enzyme cofactors in metabolic processes and energy transfer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are not stored in the body (excreted fairly rapidly) and must be replaced each day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation (overcooking) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. FAT – SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin Physiologic Importance Deficiency Excess RDA Food source A (Retinol, β-carotene) <ul><li>Component of light-sensitive pigments in eye </li></ul><ul><li>epithelial tissue maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of gene expression and cell diffentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Night blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Xerophthalmia </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with Bitot's spots , keratomalacia, follicular hyperkeratosis </li></ul>Carotenemia; Bleeding; Hepatospleno- megaly (rare). 5,000 IU Green vegetables, dairy products, eggs, liver
  8. 8. D (Calciferol) <ul><li>initiates calcium absorption in intestine and causes bone mineralization </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes hardening of bones and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Rickets (children) </li></ul><ul><li>Osteomalacia (adults) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercal-cemia leading to metastatic calcification and renal damage (rare). </li></ul>400 IU for adults Dairy products, eggs, Fish liver oils. Synthesized by sunlight action on skin. E (Tocopherols, tocotrienols) <ul><li>Antioxidant (Protects vitamins A and C, fatty acids and red blood cell membranes from destruction due to oxidation) </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Serious neurologic dysfunction (extremely rare) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase hemolysis of red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular dystrophy </li></ul>None 15 IU (Men) 12 IU (Women) Margarine, seeds, green leafy vegetables
  9. 9. K (Phylloquinone, menaquinones) <ul><li>Blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Required for synthesis of Prothrombin ( II ) and clotting factors VII , IX and X . </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhagic disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoprothrom-binemia resulting in bleeding tendency </li></ul>Hemolytic anemia (rare) No RDA. 300-500 mcg is considered adequate <ul><li>Green leafy vegetables, liver; </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally produced by bacteria in the intestine. </li></ul>
  10. 10. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin Physiologic Importance Deficiency Excess RDA Food source B1 (Thiamine) <ul><li>catalyst in carbohydrate metabolism, nerve and heart function </li></ul><ul><li>Beriberi (wet and dry) </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke's encephalopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff's psychosis </li></ul>Transient flushing, dizziness <ul><li>0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>mg/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>calories </li></ul><ul><li>consumed </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 mg for adults </li></ul>Organ meats, pork, whole grains, legumes, cereals, yeast, egg yolk
  11. 11. * Vit. B2 deficiency B2 (Riboflavin, vitamin G) <ul><li>essential part of enzyme systems concerned with oxidation and reduction in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent of flavoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>Eye irritation, corneal vascularization, inflammation and breakdown of skin cells </li></ul><ul><li>cheilosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis </li></ul>None. <ul><li>0.55 </li></ul><ul><li>mg/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>calories </li></ul><ul><li>consumed. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 mg for adults </li></ul>Milk products, liver, eggs, grains, legumes, dark green vegetables, cereals, fruit, yeast
  12. 12. B3 (Niacin, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid) <ul><li>Oxidation-reduction reactions in cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Functional part of NAD and NADP. </li></ul><ul><li>Pellagra (skin and gastrointestinal disorders, nerve inflammation, mental disorders) </li></ul><ul><li>Flushing due to vasodilation occurs with intravenous injection (rare). </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal liver function; cramps; nausea </li></ul><ul><li>6.6 mg/1000 calories consumed. </li></ul><ul><li>18 mg (male) </li></ul><ul><li>13 mg (female) </li></ul>Liver, lean meats, poultry, fish, whole and enriched grain products, legumes
  13. 13. B5 (Pantothenic Acid) <ul><li>Energy metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates , proteins , and fats . </li></ul><ul><li>For pyruvate oxidation and biological acetylations </li></ul>Fatigue, loss of coordination None known 0.5-10.0 mg for both adults and children is adequate Milk products, liver, kidney, eggs, whole grains, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria.
  14. 14. B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine) <ul><li>Aids in amino acid metabolism, absorption; aids in red blood cell formation; helps body use fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzyme for decarboxylase and transaminase systems </li></ul><ul><li>Convulsions, irritability, kidney stones </li></ul><ul><li>Glossitis ; blepharitis; dermatitis; cheilosis ; peripheral neuropathy; sideroblastic anemia. </li></ul>Transient paresthesias <ul><li>0.2 </li></ul><ul><li>mg/100mg </li></ul><ul><li>CHON </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 mg (male) </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 mg (female) </li></ul>Whole-grain cereals, vegetables, meats
  15. 15. B12 (Cyanocobalamin) <ul><li>Nucleic acid production </li></ul><ul><li> Megaloblastic anemia (Pernicious anemia); </li></ul><ul><li>Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord; peripheral neuropathy. </li></ul>None. 3 mcg for adults Red meats, Liver, eggs, dairy products and fish
  16. 16. Biotin (Vitamin H ) <ul><li>Fat synthesis and amino acid metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the enzyme systems participating in conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (gluconeogene-sis) </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, fatigue, nausea, alopecia, dermatitis, atrophy of lingual papillae, muscle pain, paresthesias, hypercholesterolemia, and electrocardiogram abnormalities </li></ul>None known 150-300 mcg usually meets daily needs Liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, most fresh vegetables, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria.
  17. 17. C (Ascorbic Acid) <ul><li>Collagen formation in teeth, bone, and connective tissue of blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>may help in resisting infection </li></ul><ul><li>absorption of iron , calcium, folacin </li></ul><ul><li>Ascorbic acid is a great antioxidant </li></ul><ul><li>works with vitamin E as a free-radical scavenger. </li></ul><ul><li>Scurvy (breakdown of skin, blood vessels, and teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>impaired wound healing. </li></ul><ul><li>*Vitamin C deficiency- often results secondary to hyperparathy-roidism </li></ul><ul><li>None known </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal-possibly urinary calculi, gastrointestinal complaints including diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramps </li></ul><ul><li>40-60 mg </li></ul><ul><li>200 - 500 mg </li></ul><ul><li>per day </li></ul><ul><li>(most </li></ul><ul><li>beneficial) </li></ul>Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes
  18. 18. Folic Acid (Folacin) <ul><li>Nucleic acid metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Megaloblastic anemia (Pernicious anemia) </li></ul>None. 400 mcg for adults Whole-wheat foods, green vegetables, legumes, organ meats, fish, citrus fruits.
  19. 19. Other Vitamins <ul><li>Vitamin P (bioflavonoids, citrin) </li></ul><ul><li>– helps increase strength of capillaries found in the mesocarp (tasteless, spongy, white layer beneath the rind) of lemon fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin F (unsaturated fatty acids) </li></ul><ul><li>– is important in respiration of vital organs. </li></ul><ul><li>-helps maintain resilience and lubrication of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>-helps regulate blood coagulation. </li></ul><ul><li>-is essential for normal glandular activity. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Vitamin B13 (Orotic acid) </li></ul><ul><li>– is needed for the metabolism of some B-vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B15 (Pangamic acid) </li></ul><ul><li>– helps eliminate hypoxia helps promote CHON metabolism stimulates nervous and glandular system </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B17 (Laetrile) </li></ul><ul><li>– has been linked to cancer prevention </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamins </li></ul>VITAMIN MEN WOMEN A 0.7mg 0.6mg B1 1.0mg 0.8mg B2 1.3mg 1.1mg Niacin 19mg 15mg B6 1.4mg 1.2mg Pantothenic acid 5mg 5mg
  22. 22. VITAMIN MEN WOMEN Folic acid 0.2mg 0.2mg Biotin 0.03mg 0.1mg B12 0.002mg 0.002mg C 40mg 40mg D 0.01mg 0.01mg E 10mg 8mg K 0.8mg 0.06mg
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