Sherwood2

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Sherwood2

  1. 1. Conversation on a Researcher’s Evolution Jennifer J. Sherwood, Ph.D. California State University, East Bay
  2. 2. Undergraduate Studies Michigan State University
  3. 3. Decision? RD internship Graduate Studies
  4. 4. Ball State University
  5. 5. Marquette University
  6. 6. University of Vermont • Laser Trap
  7. 7. University of California San Francisco
  8. 8. Personal Training
  9. 9. Holy Names University
  10. 10. Research Questions • What are the effects of a single bout of exercise versus rest on cognition, in healthy young adults with higher versus lower fitness?
  11. 11. Exercise, 30 min.
  12. 12. Experimental Design • Two groups – Self-identified college athletes – Non athletes • Exercise or Rest – 30 min. stair climbing or resting • Memory Recall Test – 50 images – Distractor Task – Recall
  13. 13. Challenges: • • • • • • Not able to control exercise intensity Cognitive scores were low, REALLY low No assessment of motivation Appropriate cognitive test? Unable to control weather-HOT day Sports participation- indicative of fitness level?
  14. 14. Background • Aerobic exercise training is associated with improvements in attention and processing speed, executive function and memory in healthy adults. (Smith, et. al. Aerobic exercise and neurocognitive performance: a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. Psychosom Med. 2010 April ; 72(3): 239–252. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181d14633.) • But, few studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanisms behind this correlation. • Aerobic exercise training increases heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy adults (> 18 yrs. of age). (SANDERCOCK, G. R. H., P. D. BROMLEY, and D. A. BRODIE. Effects of Exercise on Heart Rate Variability: Inferences from Meta-Analysis. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 433–439, 2005.) • Research suggests that high HRV is associated with better performance on tasks involving executive function (Hansen, Johnsen & Thayer. Vagal influence on working memory and attention. International Journal of Psychophysiology 48 (2003) 263–274
  15. 15. Questions Remaining • Variation due to exercise regimen • Primarily concerned with retrospective rather than prospective studies • Few studies test the causal mechanism • Usually use a single bout of exercise • Cognitive testing within 30 minutes of exercising • Effects of acute vs. regular exercise? • Effects different from anxiety?
  16. 16. Major Study Question: How does aerobic exercise improve cognition? • Does a single bout of aerobic exercise improve cognition in both regular aerobic exercisers and sedentary controls? – This question is important in determining whether the exerciseinduced improvement in cognition is primarily mediated through improved awareness and vigilance (SNS activity) or is related to a training effect associated with long-term aerobic exercise. • Is the exercise induced improvement in cognitive function dependent on changes in HRV? – This question is designed as an initial step in resolving HOW exercise improves cognition. Tests assumptions of the neurovisceral hypothesis. • Is the exercise induced improvement in cognitive function dependent on changes in mood? – Aerobic exercise training is associated with an exercise induced increase in dopamine and post-exercise dopamine levels are higher in regular exercisers versus controls.
  17. 17. Research Questions • What are the effects of a single bout of exercise versus rest on cognition, autonomic function, stress and anxiety in healthy young adults? • What are the effects of a single bout of exercise versus rest on cognition, autonomic function, stress and anxiety in healthy young adults with high cardiovascular fitness compared to those with low cardiovascular fitness?
  18. 18. Heart Rate Variability controlled by ANS
  19. 19. Measuring Heart Rate Variability (HRV) http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/heart-rate-variabilityanalysis-how-to-improve-your-training-performance-40837
  20. 20. Show the relationship of hypothalamus (part of the proposed CAN) in controlling activity in the ANS (e.g. HRV)
  21. 21. Experimental Design: • Two groups • Participants visit lab 3x with 1 wk. between visits 2, & 3 • First visit: – VO2 max testing • Second visit (no exercise 24 hrs. before testing): – Mood, anxiety, stress and physical activity questionnaire/surveys – ECG (for HRV) – Cognitive test • Third visit (at least 2 hrs. post pre-determined exercise bout) – Mood, anxiety, stress and physical activity questionnaire/survey – ECG (for HRV) – Cognitive test
  22. 22. Participant Values for High & Low-Fit Groups
  23. 23. Cognitive Values for the High and Low-Fit Groups after 30 min. of Rest or Exercise
  24. 24. Heart Rate Variability or the High and Low-Fit Groups after 30 min. of Rest or Exercise

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