The Purpose
Drives the
Methods: A
Kinesiology
Researchers' Path
in Examining Girls'
Barriers with Sport
Participation in
U...
Objectives for today…
1.

Provide overview of line of research
1.
2.

2.

Methodology
Results

7 Helpful tips for being a ...
Background: Interest and involvement
 Girls

in Sports

 Personal
 Professional
What do we know…
 Benefits

of youth sport

 Positive

youth development, increased
competence

 Great

benefit in part...
What do we know…
 Large

gender gap in youth sport
participation



Boys 59% vs. Girls 41%
Boys 66% vs. Girls 34%

(NFH...
What do we know…
 Numerous

PA-focused studies with girls

of color (Dwyer, 2006; Grieser et al., 2006; Kimm et al.,
2002...
Line of Research
1.

2010 – Qualitative Examination of
Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban
Environment
Line of Research
1.

2.

2010 – Qualitative Examination of
Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban
Environment
2011 – Urban...
Why Qualitative?
 Process

Research
 How & Why vs. What/When/Where/Who
 Knowledge of Experts
 Exploratory Research
 T...
Line of Research
1.

2.

3.

2010 – Qualitative Examination of
Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban
Environment
2011 – U...
Purpose of Study #1
 To

examine in-depth the participation
of adolescent girls in Detroit to gain a
better understanding...
Method
4

semi-structured focus groups

2

HS and 2 MS aged groups
 43 – 65 minutes in length
 Inductive

hierarchical...
Results
Barriers
3 Groupings, 11 General Dimensions
1. Personal
Challenges
 Physical

Health &
Safety (34)
 Motivation Concerns
(10)
 Av...
3 Groupings, 11 General Dimensions
1. Personal
Challenges
 Physical

Health &
Safety (34)
 Motivation Concerns
(10)
 Av...
Image/Cosmetic Concerns
a lot of them, they just like you say,
girly girl and don’t wanna, you know,
really participate. A...
Where To From Here…
Follow

up study

 Triangulation
Gate

keepers

 Psychosocial
“Girly

Girl”

concerns
Study #2 Sport Program Directors
in Urban Areas
1.

Examine their perceptions of
girls’ sport experiences and
barriers gir...
Study #2 Sport Program Directors
in Urban Areas
1.

Examine their perceptions of
girls’ sport experiences and
barriers gir...
Perceived Barriers to Participation
1.

Urban area barriers





3.

Cost
Safety
Transportation

Social barriers



...
Perceived Barriers to Participation
1.

Urban area barriers





3.

Cost
Safety
Transportation

Social barriers



...
Cultural Views
girls, you know I think maybe
cultural-wise they’re taught not to
participate in programs where they have
t...
Role of Others
opt not to come to practice if
they can hang out with their boyfriend.”

 “They’ll

PD 1b (Female)

the ti...
Social Pressures
our community it’s not always cool
for a young lady to be playing sports.”

 “In

PD 3 (Male)

to fit in...
Image Concerns
if I just got my hair done no I’m
not going in there to play in the gym.”

 “So

PD 13 (Female)

I going t...
Thoughts on Girly Girl Mentality
you encountered Girly Girl
mind frame in your program”

 “Have

 Yes = 9
 No, but…
 N...
1. Impact of Society
biggest thing is like…like it’s one of things that
we, we have the least control over…like I could
ev...
2. Impact of Media
stuff that happens in the media. You know
you don’t typically see um a strong female
figure in the medi...
3. Lesbian stereotype
that was her main thing. “I’m not playing
basketball. I’m not trying to get stereotyped.” So
she loo...
1. Girls navigate both girly girl and
athletic roles
this fine line they walk between wanting to
feel like they’re pretty ...
2. PD’s accommodate blend of sport and
girly girl
don’t have to be two different people, you
can simply be you wherever yo...
Putting it together…
 Many

similar barriers

 With

PA studies
 E.g. safety, cost, self-consciousness with
boys (Dwyer...
 Girly

Girl - “Balancing act”

(Adams et al., 2006; Krane et

al., 2004)

 Seems

critical that PD’s support this

 Di...
What next…
Quantitative study
 Scale

and scope
 Construction

of Girls’ Psychosocial
Concerns with Sport (PSC) instrument
for use in dissertation
 Differences on PSC a...
Conclusion
 Flexible

in approach
 The purpose of your research dictates
what methodologies you will use
 And…
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
1. Take advantage of available resources



Ask questions
Get involved
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
2. Find what you're interested in
 Won’t feel like “work”
* Consider influen...
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
3. Get involved with a research group!
Benefits of a research group
 Do


more with more

Collaborate on projects

 Accountability!


Timelines and goals

 ...
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
4. Keep a research “notebook”
 Helps keep track of research ideas
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
5. Develop a method for recording/using
the literature
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
6. Attend conferences and be an active
attendee
 Take notes
 Make connectio...
Helpful tips with being a
student researcher
7. Understand becoming a good
researcher is a process
 Put yourself “out the...
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  1. 1. The Purpose Drives the Methods: A Kinesiology Researchers' Path in Examining Girls' Barriers with Sport Participation in Urban Areas Dr. E. Missy Wright Assistant Professor, Kinesiology
  2. 2. Objectives for today… 1. Provide overview of line of research 1. 2. 2. Methodology Results 7 Helpful tips for being a student researcher
  3. 3. Background: Interest and involvement  Girls in Sports  Personal  Professional
  4. 4. What do we know…  Benefits of youth sport  Positive youth development, increased competence  Great benefit in particular for girls in sport & PA  Decreases in substance abuse and chance of pregnancy, better mental health (Staurowsky et al., 2009)
  5. 5. What do we know…  Large gender gap in youth sport participation   Boys 59% vs. Girls 41% Boys 66% vs. Girls 34% (NFHS, 2012) (NCYS, 2008)  Girls start later, dropout earlier, and overall participate at lower rates than boys (Sabo & Veliz, 2008; Vilhjalmsson & Kristjansdottir, 2003)  Girls of color and girls in low-income urban areas lowest participators (Sabo & Veliz, 2008)
  6. 6. What do we know…  Numerous PA-focused studies with girls of color (Dwyer, 2006; Grieser et al., 2006; Kimm et al., 2002; Motl et al., 2004; Taylor, W., et al., 1999)  Fewer sport-focused (Slater & Tiggemann, 2010; Stewart & Taylor, 2000; Taylor, T. et al., 1999; Wilson Sporting Good Co., 1988)  Rural  Many US communities, Australia youths’ PA is in the form of sport (Weiss, 2008)
  7. 7. Line of Research 1. 2010 – Qualitative Examination of Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban Environment
  8. 8. Line of Research 1. 2. 2010 – Qualitative Examination of Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban Environment 2011 – Urban Recreational Sport Program Directors’ Perceptions of Girls’ Sport Participation
  9. 9. Why Qualitative?  Process Research  How & Why vs. What/When/Where/Who  Knowledge of Experts  Exploratory Research  The key is to obtain “rich, thick narrative description”
  10. 10. Line of Research 1. 2. 3. 2010 – Qualitative Examination of Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban Environment 2011 – Urban Recreational Sport Program Directors’ Perception of Girls’ Sport Participation 2013 – Gender Role Conflict and Psychosocial Concerns across Race and School Location as Influences on Adolescent Girls’ Sport Participation and Withdrawal
  11. 11. Purpose of Study #1  To examine in-depth the participation of adolescent girls in Detroit to gain a better understanding of aspects affecting their sport involvement  Area 1: Barriers and Benefits  Area 2: Social Support (role of coaches, family, peers)  Area 3: Reasons Affecting Participation
  12. 12. Method 4 semi-structured focus groups 2 HS and 2 MS aged groups  43 – 65 minutes in length  Inductive hierarchical content analysis (Côté, Salmela, Baria, & Russell, 1993)
  13. 13. Results
  14. 14. Barriers
  15. 15. 3 Groupings, 11 General Dimensions 1. Personal Challenges  Physical Health & Safety (34)  Motivation Concerns (10)  Aversion to Sport (20)  Image Concerns (14)  Cosmetic Concerns (25)  Physical Challenges (16) 2. External Barriers  Lack of Available Resources (29)  Lack of Support (6)  Negative Role of Others (20) 3. Other Demands  Time Constraints (26)  Academic Issues (18)
  16. 16. 3 Groupings, 11 General Dimensions 1. Personal Challenges  Physical Health & Safety (34)  Motivation Concerns (10)  Aversion to Sport (20)  Image Concerns (14)  Cosmetic Concerns (25)  Physical Challenges (16) 2. External Barriers  Lack of Available Resources (29)  Lack of Support (6)  Negative Role of Others (20) 3. Other Demands  Time Constraints (26)  Academic Issues (18)
  17. 17. Image/Cosmetic Concerns a lot of them, they just like you say, girly girl and don’t wanna, you know, really participate. All they care about is their hair or their nails, their makeup. All that stuff.” (Older, Non-Participant, P1)  “Like they (girls) kinda feel that it’s kinda boyish to even play a sport, even if it’s like something, cheerleading.” (Older,  “But Participant, P4)
  18. 18. Where To From Here… Follow up study  Triangulation Gate keepers  Psychosocial “Girly Girl” concerns
  19. 19. Study #2 Sport Program Directors in Urban Areas 1. Examine their perceptions of girls’ sport experiences and barriers girls face 1. 2. 3. Girly Girl Barriers PD’s face getting girls involved Strategies PD’s use
  20. 20. Study #2 Sport Program Directors in Urban Areas 1. Examine their perceptions of girls’ sport experiences and barriers girls face 1. 2. 3. Girly Girl Barriers PD’s face getting girls involved Strategies PD’s use
  21. 21. Perceived Barriers to Participation 1. Urban area barriers    3. Cost Safety Transportation Social barriers     2. Programmatic/structu ral barriers   Lack of female coaches Lack of other participating girls 4. Cultural views Role of others Social pressures Image concerns Personal barriers    Intensity/demand of sport Health/safety/injury issues Nervous/not confident
  22. 22. Perceived Barriers to Participation 1. Urban area barriers    3. Cost Safety Transportation Social barriers     2. Programmatic/structu ral barriers   Lack of female coaches Lack of other participating girls 4. Cultural views Role of others Social pressures Image concerns Personal barriers    Intensity/demand of sport Health/safety/injury issues Nervous/not confident
  23. 23. Cultural Views girls, you know I think maybe cultural-wise they’re taught not to participate in programs where they have to be physical.” PD 1b (Male)  “Some it’s culturally, stereotypically, uh, you know, some of the girls don’t feel comfortable or their parents, you know, are traditional families; they don’t feel that girls should be playing sports.” PD 4  “Whether (Male)
  24. 24. Role of Others opt not to come to practice if they can hang out with their boyfriend.”  “They’ll PD 1b (Female) the time they’re 12 and 13 they might now have to take care of a family of their own (emphasis) in a way because mom and dad, they’re either not around or they’re working three jobs and so they don’t have time to do things after school.” PD 7 (Female)  “By
  25. 25. Social Pressures our community it’s not always cool for a young lady to be playing sports.”  “In PD 3 (Male) to fit in. You know, there aren’t a lot of girls that do play, so wanting to hang out, just be more socially active, I think kinda keeps them away from committing to a sport team.” PD 2 (Male)  “Trying
  26. 26. Image Concerns if I just got my hair done no I’m not going in there to play in the gym.”  “So PD 13 (Female) I going to be teased about sweating? And not only teased but I think just the mind set; I don’t want to play softball because it’s dirty.” PD 12  “Am (Male)
  27. 27. Thoughts on Girly Girl Mentality you encountered Girly Girl mind frame in your program”  “Have  Yes = 9  No, but…  No = 1  “Any =5 differences across race/ethnicity”  Mixed findings
  28. 28. 1. Impact of Society biggest thing is like…like it’s one of things that we, we have the least control over…like I could eventually raise a whole lot of money and then I could take that money and I could start spending it on girls’ programming, but, you know that money I can’t buy the social stigma away. You know once the money’s gone, the stigma will always be there you know?” PD 10 (Female)  “The
  29. 29. 2. Impact of Media stuff that happens in the media. You know you don’t typically see um a strong female figure in the media whenever there’s some sort of advertisement. You know usually it’s a pretty girl who’s using their sexuality to get something.” PD 5 (Male)  “It’s
  30. 30. 3. Lesbian stereotype that was her main thing. “I’m not playing basketball. I’m not trying to get stereotyped.” So she looks at basketball as that…” PD 9 (Female)  “So
  31. 31. 1. Girls navigate both girly girl and athletic roles this fine line they walk between wanting to feel like they’re pretty and people seeing them that way and being an athlete.” PD 6 (Female)  “It’s
  32. 32. 2. PD’s accommodate blend of sport and girly girl don’t have to be two different people, you can simply be you wherever you’re at. You know and if you want to wear makeup when you play, then wear makeup when you play, like there’s no rule that says you can’t.” PD 6 (Female)  “You
  33. 33. Putting it together…  Many similar barriers  With PA studies  E.g. safety, cost, self-consciousness with boys (Dwyer et al., 2006; Leslie et al., 1999)  Between Girls and PD’s  E.g. safety concerns, sport intensity, role of others (Leaper & Brown, 2008; Taylor, T. et al., 1999)  Programmatic  Girls-only programming, female coaches & Taylor, 2000) (Stewart
  34. 34.  Girly Girl - “Balancing act” (Adams et al., 2006; Krane et al., 2004)  Seems critical that PD’s support this  Differences  Hair, across race sweating, “beauty cost” (Boyington et al., 2008; Dwyer et al., 1999; Taylor, W. et al., 1999)  Not “cool” or feminine, fear of muscles, butch sports (Slater & Tiggemann, 2010; Taylor, T., et al., 1999)
  35. 35. What next…
  36. 36. Quantitative study  Scale and scope
  37. 37.  Construction of Girls’ Psychosocial Concerns with Sport (PSC) instrument for use in dissertation  Differences on PSC across race and school type  If their scores predict their current sport involvement
  38. 38. Conclusion  Flexible in approach  The purpose of your research dictates what methodologies you will use  And…
  39. 39. Helpful tips with being a student researcher
  40. 40. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 1. Take advantage of available resources   Ask questions Get involved
  41. 41. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 2. Find what you're interested in  Won’t feel like “work” * Consider influence of your biases and knowledge
  42. 42. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 3. Get involved with a research group!
  43. 43. Benefits of a research group  Do  more with more Collaborate on projects  Accountability!  Timelines and goals  Valuable   feedback Various backgrounds/knowledge of literature Objective viewpoints
  44. 44. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 4. Keep a research “notebook”  Helps keep track of research ideas
  45. 45. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 5. Develop a method for recording/using the literature
  46. 46. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 6. Attend conferences and be an active attendee  Take notes  Make connections
  47. 47. Helpful tips with being a student researcher 7. Understand becoming a good researcher is a process  Put yourself “out there”  Attain feedback  Always look to improve
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