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Nov 15 krg presentation slides wright
 

Nov 15 krg presentation slides wright

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    Nov 15 krg presentation slides wright Nov 15 krg presentation slides wright Presentation Transcript

    • The Purpose Drives the Methods: A Kinesiology Researchers' Path in Examining Girls' Barriers with Sport Participation in Urban Areas Dr. E. Missy Wright Assistant Professor, Kinesiology
    • Objectives for today… 1. Provide overview of line of research 1. 2. 2. Methodology Results 7 Helpful tips for being a student researcher
    • Background: Interest and involvement  Girls in Sports  Personal  Professional
    • What do we know…  Benefits of youth sport  Positive youth development, increased competence  Great benefit in particular for girls in sport & PA  Decreases in substance abuse and chance of pregnancy, better mental health (Staurowsky et al., 2009)
    • What do we know…  Large gender gap in youth sport participation   Boys 59% vs. Girls 41% Boys 66% vs. Girls 34% (NFHS, 2012) (NCYS, 2008)  Girls start later, dropout earlier, and overall participate at lower rates than boys (Sabo & Veliz, 2008; Vilhjalmsson & Kristjansdottir, 2003)  Girls of color and girls in low-income urban areas lowest participators (Sabo & Veliz, 2008)
    • What do we know…  Numerous PA-focused studies with girls of color (Dwyer, 2006; Grieser et al., 2006; Kimm et al., 2002; Motl et al., 2004; Taylor, W., et al., 1999)  Fewer sport-focused (Slater & Tiggemann, 2010; Stewart & Taylor, 2000; Taylor, T. et al., 1999; Wilson Sporting Good Co., 1988)  Rural  Many US communities, Australia youths’ PA is in the form of sport (Weiss, 2008)
    • Line of Research 1. 2010 – Qualitative Examination of Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban Environment
    • Line of Research 1. 2. 2010 – Qualitative Examination of Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban Environment 2011 – Urban Recreational Sport Program Directors’ Perceptions of Girls’ Sport Participation
    • Why Qualitative?  Process Research  How & Why vs. What/When/Where/Who  Knowledge of Experts  Exploratory Research  The key is to obtain “rich, thick narrative description”
    • Line of Research 1. 2. 3. 2010 – Qualitative Examination of Girls’ Sport Participation in an Urban Environment 2011 – Urban Recreational Sport Program Directors’ Perception of Girls’ Sport Participation 2013 – Gender Role Conflict and Psychosocial Concerns across Race and School Location as Influences on Adolescent Girls’ Sport Participation and Withdrawal
    • Purpose of Study #1  To examine in-depth the participation of adolescent girls in Detroit to gain a better understanding of aspects affecting their sport involvement  Area 1: Barriers and Benefits  Area 2: Social Support (role of coaches, family, peers)  Area 3: Reasons Affecting Participation
    • Method 4 semi-structured focus groups 2 HS and 2 MS aged groups  43 – 65 minutes in length  Inductive hierarchical content analysis (Côté, Salmela, Baria, & Russell, 1993)
    • Results
    • Barriers
    • 3 Groupings, 11 General Dimensions 1. Personal Challenges  Physical Health & Safety (34)  Motivation Concerns (10)  Aversion to Sport (20)  Image Concerns (14)  Cosmetic Concerns (25)  Physical Challenges (16) 2. External Barriers  Lack of Available Resources (29)  Lack of Support (6)  Negative Role of Others (20) 3. Other Demands  Time Constraints (26)  Academic Issues (18)
    • 3 Groupings, 11 General Dimensions 1. Personal Challenges  Physical Health & Safety (34)  Motivation Concerns (10)  Aversion to Sport (20)  Image Concerns (14)  Cosmetic Concerns (25)  Physical Challenges (16) 2. External Barriers  Lack of Available Resources (29)  Lack of Support (6)  Negative Role of Others (20) 3. Other Demands  Time Constraints (26)  Academic Issues (18)
    • Image/Cosmetic Concerns a lot of them, they just like you say, girly girl and don’t wanna, you know, really participate. All they care about is their hair or their nails, their makeup. All that stuff.” (Older, Non-Participant, P1)  “Like they (girls) kinda feel that it’s kinda boyish to even play a sport, even if it’s like something, cheerleading.” (Older,  “But Participant, P4)
    • Where To From Here… Follow up study  Triangulation Gate keepers  Psychosocial “Girly Girl” concerns
    • Study #2 Sport Program Directors in Urban Areas 1. Examine their perceptions of girls’ sport experiences and barriers girls face 1. 2. 3. Girly Girl Barriers PD’s face getting girls involved Strategies PD’s use
    • Study #2 Sport Program Directors in Urban Areas 1. Examine their perceptions of girls’ sport experiences and barriers girls face 1. 2. 3. Girly Girl Barriers PD’s face getting girls involved Strategies PD’s use
    • Perceived Barriers to Participation 1. Urban area barriers    3. Cost Safety Transportation Social barriers     2. Programmatic/structu ral barriers   Lack of female coaches Lack of other participating girls 4. Cultural views Role of others Social pressures Image concerns Personal barriers    Intensity/demand of sport Health/safety/injury issues Nervous/not confident
    • Perceived Barriers to Participation 1. Urban area barriers    3. Cost Safety Transportation Social barriers     2. Programmatic/structu ral barriers   Lack of female coaches Lack of other participating girls 4. Cultural views Role of others Social pressures Image concerns Personal barriers    Intensity/demand of sport Health/safety/injury issues Nervous/not confident
    • Cultural Views girls, you know I think maybe cultural-wise they’re taught not to participate in programs where they have to be physical.” PD 1b (Male)  “Some it’s culturally, stereotypically, uh, you know, some of the girls don’t feel comfortable or their parents, you know, are traditional families; they don’t feel that girls should be playing sports.” PD 4  “Whether (Male)
    • Role of Others opt not to come to practice if they can hang out with their boyfriend.”  “They’ll PD 1b (Female) the time they’re 12 and 13 they might now have to take care of a family of their own (emphasis) in a way because mom and dad, they’re either not around or they’re working three jobs and so they don’t have time to do things after school.” PD 7 (Female)  “By
    • Social Pressures our community it’s not always cool for a young lady to be playing sports.”  “In PD 3 (Male) to fit in. You know, there aren’t a lot of girls that do play, so wanting to hang out, just be more socially active, I think kinda keeps them away from committing to a sport team.” PD 2 (Male)  “Trying
    • Image Concerns if I just got my hair done no I’m not going in there to play in the gym.”  “So PD 13 (Female) I going to be teased about sweating? And not only teased but I think just the mind set; I don’t want to play softball because it’s dirty.” PD 12  “Am (Male)
    • Thoughts on Girly Girl Mentality you encountered Girly Girl mind frame in your program”  “Have  Yes = 9  No, but…  No = 1  “Any =5 differences across race/ethnicity”  Mixed findings
    • 1. Impact of Society biggest thing is like…like it’s one of things that we, we have the least control over…like I could eventually raise a whole lot of money and then I could take that money and I could start spending it on girls’ programming, but, you know that money I can’t buy the social stigma away. You know once the money’s gone, the stigma will always be there you know?” PD 10 (Female)  “The
    • 2. Impact of Media stuff that happens in the media. You know you don’t typically see um a strong female figure in the media whenever there’s some sort of advertisement. You know usually it’s a pretty girl who’s using their sexuality to get something.” PD 5 (Male)  “It’s
    • 3. Lesbian stereotype that was her main thing. “I’m not playing basketball. I’m not trying to get stereotyped.” So she looks at basketball as that…” PD 9 (Female)  “So
    • 1. Girls navigate both girly girl and athletic roles this fine line they walk between wanting to feel like they’re pretty and people seeing them that way and being an athlete.” PD 6 (Female)  “It’s
    • 2. PD’s accommodate blend of sport and girly girl don’t have to be two different people, you can simply be you wherever you’re at. You know and if you want to wear makeup when you play, then wear makeup when you play, like there’s no rule that says you can’t.” PD 6 (Female)  “You
    • Putting it together…  Many similar barriers  With PA studies  E.g. safety, cost, self-consciousness with boys (Dwyer et al., 2006; Leslie et al., 1999)  Between Girls and PD’s  E.g. safety concerns, sport intensity, role of others (Leaper & Brown, 2008; Taylor, T. et al., 1999)  Programmatic  Girls-only programming, female coaches & Taylor, 2000) (Stewart
    •  Girly Girl - “Balancing act” (Adams et al., 2006; Krane et al., 2004)  Seems critical that PD’s support this  Differences  Hair, across race sweating, “beauty cost” (Boyington et al., 2008; Dwyer et al., 1999; Taylor, W. et al., 1999)  Not “cool” or feminine, fear of muscles, butch sports (Slater & Tiggemann, 2010; Taylor, T., et al., 1999)
    • What next…
    • Quantitative study  Scale and scope
    •  Construction of Girls’ Psychosocial Concerns with Sport (PSC) instrument for use in dissertation  Differences on PSC across race and school type  If their scores predict their current sport involvement
    • Conclusion  Flexible in approach  The purpose of your research dictates what methodologies you will use  And…
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 1. Take advantage of available resources   Ask questions Get involved
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 2. Find what you're interested in  Won’t feel like “work” * Consider influence of your biases and knowledge
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 3. Get involved with a research group!
    • Benefits of a research group  Do  more with more Collaborate on projects  Accountability!  Timelines and goals  Valuable   feedback Various backgrounds/knowledge of literature Objective viewpoints
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 4. Keep a research “notebook”  Helps keep track of research ideas
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 5. Develop a method for recording/using the literature
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 6. Attend conferences and be an active attendee  Take notes  Make connections
    • Helpful tips with being a student researcher 7. Understand becoming a good researcher is a process  Put yourself “out there”  Attain feedback  Always look to improve