Consist in learning from the process. Assure greater Involves different skills motivation of young and knowledge. learners. Tasks: posters, Children’s autonomy, murals, drawings, their likes are takencrafts, paintings, etc. into account. The teacher Work in guide. Not a groups. strict teacher.
Skehan (1996):“Tasks […] are activities which have meaning astheir primary focus. Success in tasks is evaluatedin terms of achievement of an outcome, andtasks generally bear some resemblance to real-life language use. So task-based instructiontakes a fairly strong view of communicativelanguage teaching.”
Nunan (1989) describes the communicative tasks “as a piece of classroom work which involves learnersin comprehending, manipulating, producing orinteracting in the target language while theirattention is primarily focused on meaning ratherthan form. The task should also have sense ofcompleteness, being able to stand alone as acommunicative act in its own right”
The focus is on the process rather than the product.Basic elements are porposeful activities and tasks that emphasizescommunication and meaning.Learners learn language by interascting communicatively andpurposefully while engaged in activities and tasks.Activities and tasks can be either:• Those that learnes might need to achieve in real life;• Those that have a pedagogical porpuse specific to the classroom.Activities and task of a task-based syllabus are sequenced accordingto difficulty.
Language is primarily a means of making meaning: TBLT emphasizes the central role of meaning in language use. Multiples models of language inform task based instruction: Advocates of task based instruction draw on structural, functional and interactional models of language. Lexical units are central in language use and language learning: vocabulary is used to include the consideration of lexical phrases, sentences, stems, prefabricated routines, and collocations, and not only words. “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition: the majority of task that are proposed within TBLT involve conversation.
Tasks provides both the input and outputprocessing necesary for language acquisition. Tasks activity and achievement are motivational. Learning difficulty can be negociated andfinetuned for particular pedagogical porpuses.
The teacher helps students to understand the theme and objectives of the task, for example, brainstorming ideas Students can be given with the class, using pictures, preparation time to think aboutmime, or personal experience to how to do the task. introduce the topic. Students can hear a recording of Students may do a pretask, for a parallel task being done (soexample, topic-based, odd-word- long as this does not give away out games. the solution to the problem).The teachers may highlight usefulwords and phrases, but would not If the task is based on a pre-teach new structures. text, students read a part of it.
The task is done by students (in pairs or groups) and gives students achance to use whatever language they already have to express themselves and say whatever they want to say. This may be in response to reading a text or hearing a recording. The teacher walks around and The emphasis is on monitors, encouraging in a spontaneous, exploratory talk and supportive way everyone’s confidence building, within theattempt at communication in the privacy of the small group. target language. The teacher helps students to Success in achieving the goals offormulate what they want to say, the tasks helps students’ but will not intervene to correct motivation. errors of form.
Planning prepares for the next If the reports are in writing, thestage, when students are asked to teacher can encourage peer- report briefly to the whole class editing and use of dictionaries. how they did the task and what the outcome was. The emphasis is on clarity, organization, and accuracy, asStudents draft and rehearse what appropriate for a public they want to say or write. presentation.The teacher goes around to advise Individual students often take this students on language, suggesting chance to ask questions about phrases and helping students to specific language items.polish and correct their language.
The teacher asks some pairs toreport briefly to the whole class soeveryone can compare findings, or begin a survey. Sometimes only one or two groups report in full; others comment and add extra points. The class may take notes.The teacher seats, comments on the content of their reports, rephrases perhaps, but gives no overt public correction.
Students listen to arecording of fluent speakers doing the same task, andcompared the way in which they did the task themselves.