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strategy nintendo innovation
destructive innovation
mother's view


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  • 1. NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 Team 4 Kim sssssss / Park Sssssssss / Lim ssssss / Yi sssssssss
  • 2. Contents  Intro  Video Game Industry  Nintendo Strategy : Disruptive Strategy  Problem Definition  Recommendation  Reference BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 3. 01 NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY Intro BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 +
  • 4. No. 1 Employees per net income company $160 million (Times,2008) (No2. Goldman Sachs $120 million) Nintendo Founded Starting Game Console Business Businesses Microsoft SONY 1889. 9. 23 1975. 4. 4 1946. 5. 7 1970 2001 1994 Manufacture and sale of home leisure equipment Entertainment Business, Business Solutions, Office Division, Online Service Division Televisions, Digital imaging, Audio/Video, PCs, Semiconductors, etc. BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 5. Company Introduction / Intro 1977 1994 Game Business Started SONY PS1 2004 2005 Nintendo DS MS XBOX 360 BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 2000 SONY PS2 2006 SONY PS3 Nintendo Wii
  • 6. Company Introduction / Intro 1977 1994 Game Business Started SONY PS1 2004 2005 Nintendo DS MS XBOX 360 BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 2000 SONY PS2 2006 SONY PS3 Nintendo Wii
  • 7. Company Introduction / Intro Units: in thousands Worldwide Monthly Sales 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Xbox360 Nintendo Wii PS2 BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 PS3 Jun/08 May/08 Apr/08 Mar/08 Feb/08 Jan/08 Dec/07 Nov/07 Oct/07 Sep/07 Aug/07 Jul/07 Jun/07 May/07 Apr/07 Mar/07 Feb/07 Jan/07 Dec/06 Nov/06 Oct/06 Sep/06 0
  • 8. Past Competition Rule of Market From Early 2000s,  Mainly focus on young males  Higher Definition of Video Graphic and Sound  Complex Game System and Challenging Difficulty Clear Winner was Sony with PS2  MS got in, chasing the Sony  Nintendo, with low hardware specification failed BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 9. 02 NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY Video Game Industry BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 +
  • 10. Industry Overview / Video Game Industry History Industry Overview 83 Famiecom 89 GameBoy 90 Super Famiecom 94 Playstation 95 Nintendo VirtualBoy 96 Nintendo 64 02 MS Xbox 04 Nintendo DS, PSP 06 Wii 65 % of households in US have video game console The Hardware Market Situation 2008 2007 Ninte ndo 55% Sony 30% Sony 35% 40% MS 10% Ninten do 59% Total Unit Sales : 81,740M MS 11% Total Unit Sales : 101,480M BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 11. Before Wii Key Success Factor BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 12. How they make money? Major Software Unit Sales In Millions Revenue from Console Sales 60 50 Revenue from Software Third-Party S/W 10-15% of Price ($6-$9) Block-buster Titles Sony / MS 40 In-house S/W Take all the Revenue Develop Cost of S/W Profitable for Casual Nintendo Japan 30 Others 20 America 10 0 Sony PS3 Sony PSP MS XBox Nin' Wii Nin' DS Sony and MS get 10-15% of the Sales Revenue Develop a New product lines ->Unit Sales * Price($30~50) * Rate (10-15%) BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 13. Key Success Factor / Video Game Industry War of Killer Software Example of Power of Software, Contents “Software make Hardware sale” Make consumers to purchase the console Killer Software Super Mario (Nintendo) Final Fantasy 7 (Sony) Nintendogs, Brain Age Pokemon But, Hardware make difference in the Software Performance Flashy graphics Volume of Hardware Golden Age of PS2 & Sony PS2 had 4times better Performance compare to the past BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 Title number PS2 4400 Nintendo64 210 GameCube 280
  • 14. Blockbuster and Casual Games Casual Games Factors Blockbusters Relatively Low Development Cost Very High Usually $12M - $20M Complexity Difficult Challenging Mainly focus on easy and comfortable features Quality Higher Graphic, Sound, Story Not very loyal but very broad bases Main Customers In-house development Tightly-controlled Main Method Wii, DS Adoptors Easy Mainly Young Males with high loyalty Third-party Development X-Box, PS3
  • 15. Key Success Factor / Video Game Industry Red Queen Effect ‘Coevolution’ Competitive Evolution Develop Industry Develop together Powerful competitor make game industry grow Form Red Ocean BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 16. Key Success Factor / Video Game Industry Age 1 Children less than 12 Make 45% of the profits Age 10~12 Video game Main consumers Make largest revenue 17% of US population 2 Targeting 18~35 Game Mania Video Gaming is isolated from the wider economic cycle by having a cycle of its own. Every few years a new crop of consoles is launched, spurring a wave of sales as gamers upgrade Video game industry Recession BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 years old
  • 17. Key Success Factor / Video Game Industry Cheap?! Offers a relatively cheap form of entertainment PS2 Example : Higher price than other console But lower than other DVD player Cheaper than Computer (1980) Cheaper than DVD player (PS2) Marketing Promotion No matter how marketing do Game contents are most important If they do marketing without contents They’ll lose ‘trust’ from customers ‘The Name of the Game is Games” Use Marketing Mix to attract specific age Design Package External design of console BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 41% rely on WOM
  • 18. 03 NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY Nintendo Strategy : Disruptive Strategy BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 +
  • 19. Disruptive Strategy / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Disruptive Strategy Disruptive Strategy is a strategy that focuses on creating a new market and value network. Sustaining Innovation Continuous improvement by maintaining existing products Provide with Higher Price Eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network in a long term by displacing an earlier competition rule Improving product or service in ways that the market does not expect Disruptive Innovation Provide deficient product Destruction existing market Create New market Existing Player moves to High End market Make Non-consumer to consumer Change Existing Paradigm  Innovation at existing process  Innovation at the value of enterprise  Resource relocation Typically, by designing for a different set of consumers in the new market and later by lowering prices in the existing market. BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 The Innovator’s Dilemma Clayton Christensen
  • 20. Start / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Start by Perfect Defeat Title number Game industry Hardware make software PS2 4400 Nintendo64 210 GameCube 280 PS2 had 4 times better Performance compare to the past PS2 was also lower price DVD player Sales 15000 15000 13200 10249 10000 10000 5000 3293 0 5000 2174 0 PS2 Nintendo64 PS2 BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 GameCube
  • 21. Unwinnable / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Unwinnable Competition Sony Microsoft Base on PS2 Blueray Disc HD graphic Cell Processor (Super Computer) Famous in Red Ocean “Don’t invest in industry where MS goes.” Xbox similar with power PC Nintendo Small size Lack of Graphic Existing industry Rules : No.3 company should step back NEC Matsushita SEGA BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 22. What happen? / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy But… What Happen?! 1 WakeMed Health Park U.S. medical facilities use Wii at Physical therapy Medical verification 2 57-year-old, 64-year-old couple Daily life exercise with Wii Sport 3 Britain‟s Queen News : enthusiastic fan of Wii BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 23. How did they made innovation Gaming Population Expansion Strategy BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 24. Gaming Population Expansion Strategy / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Start by DS 2 touch screen Voice recognition Intuitive UI 35% of buyers purchase another software within 90 days 10% of buyers purchase more than 11 software Start by targeting 20~30 (DS have function of keeping 4 peoples data) Spread to 40~50 parents Spread to 50~ for dementia prevention, rehabilitation Brain Age 30.09 million Nintendogs 21.67 million NintendoDS All age 2.8 people play per household 1.8 people have DS per household 2011 Sales 150 million DS (PS2 130 million) Mania Low graphic Best 3D graphic Simple, Convenient Complex Control No Expand Goal : 1 people 1 DS PSP GPS, DMD, Digital camera No loading, fast UMB large storage $150, cheap game pack $250 Long battery, 15~19 hours Short, 4~7 hours BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 25. Mother’s Point of View / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Mother’s Point of View Shape of Remote control Which mothers like Wireless Fearless (use CMOS camera sensor) Children don’t clean up Buy even they have one What if consoles increase family fellowship Complex control make decrease in gaming population Mothers don’t care High quality console No need of high performance Lower cost Making small Reduce electricity rates (1/4) Able to put on 24 hours Turn off the fan Anyone want to watch Can’t delete Gaming time, Score News, weather : Mii channel Health Game : Wii Fit BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 26. Success / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Success OF Wii 2007 6 million in US 2007~2009 Christmas No.1 Product Nintendo PS3, 120 0 World financial Crisis Sales increase 54% Europe sales increase 91% Although PSP, PS3 decline Wii, 244 5 Xbox360 , 1900 42% Compare to 2003 vs 2008 3.3 times Revenue (Y 1820 billion) 4.7 times Net Profit (Y 530 billion) of Xbox360, PS3 player have Wii BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 27. Breakthrough of Nintendo Wii A Good example of “Disruptive Strategy” 1. Changing the Competition Rule of the Market 2. Brought Non-gamers into the Market 3. Turning technical weaknesses into an ability 4. Commercialized the invention and ability Wii Success Factor Factor Caused what? New Scope on Nongamers - Turning the weakness into a strength - Relatively low graphical performance into a cost leadership with fair quality Fit for new scope on “non-gamers” Centralized S/W Development (In-house) - High Revenue from the Casual Game titles Cost of Casual game is relatively low However, Price of Casual game is not too low Fit for new strategy - Avoid Strict and harsh specification competition and software complexity Non-gamer customer base has potential profit BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 28. Marketing / Nintendo : Disruptive Strategy Marketing Mix Market creation rather than Market research One Source multiuse Targeting 18~35 years old Male 5~95 years old everyone 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Customer First Magazine, Cartoon Comics Trend (secret of Pokemon Mu) Card Game Animation Localization U.S best partner Star Marketing 1. 2. 3. 4. Idea Frame Work High Quality 4kids for animation Warner Bros for Movie Hasbro for toys Wizards for Cardgame High Cost High Quality Strategy High Quality Normal Middle Killer idea Low Cost Low Cost Strategy Low Quality Low Cost BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 High Quality Low Cost
  • 29. Console Unit Price and Cost ‘06 In USD 808 1000 604 499 500 479 200 249 0 PS3 XBox Unit Price Wii Unit Cost Selling price: cheaper than cost In the hope that Long-term revenue from Software could cover. BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 30. Change the rule / Mid Title How Wii changed Gamer 50~ 33% Total players 2/5 is women 0~18 23% 18~49 44% 90 80 80 70 Gamer Average age 32 60 50 41 38 40 21 30 11 20 9 10 0 Wii Xbox360 Men BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 Women PS3
  • 31. Change the rule / Mid Title How Wii Change the Rule Before Wii  High Definition Graphic & Sound  Targeting Hardcore Gamer , mostly 18-35 males  Complex Games Titles After Wii  Cheap Price  Game Population Expansion: Attract Women And Elder Non Game Users  Importance Of Casual Game : Could Be More Profitable Than The blockbuster games BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 32. Current Positioning of Players Hardcore Games C o m p l e x i t y Sony PS3, PSP MS XBox 360 Nintendo Wii, DS Casual Games Low Technology BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 High
  • 33. 04 NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY Problem Definition BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 +
  • 34. The question of the Case  It seemed that Nintendo’s Wii had revolutionized and changed the name of the game.  Would this disruptive transformation leave Sony and Microsoft in the cold?  What course of action is available? BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 35. Problem Definition of Sony/MS Problem 1 Overall Market is changing Existing Market - Key Successful Factor Changes Created Market - Much Higher Performance from Enlarging Customer base Managing and restructuring the business portfolio are necessary Problem 2 Console Cost Problem Innovation Needed The Profitability of existing market deteriorates - Console Cost is higher than Console Price (Sony) - Other substitute platforms with SNS and On-line games Console Products lack special features while substitutes are enhanced BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 36. Changing Market / Problem Definition Problem1. Changing Market Problem 1 Current Existing Market Overall Market is changing - Key Successful Factor Changes (From: Higher specifications, Complex Games) (To: Console Price, Profitability and Revenue improvement) - Newly Created Market Expected Performance not fulfilled - Higher Performance from Enlarging Customer base (Nintendo is not directly competing) Managing and restructuring the business portfolio is necessary BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 37. Existing Base got Worse / Problem Definition Problem2. Existing Base got Worse Problem 2 Console Cost Problem Innovation Needed The Profitability of existing market deteriorates - Much Higher Console Price than Wii - Console Cost is higher than Console Price (Sony) - Other substitute platforms with PC and On-line - Decreasing Attractiveness of Console against PC, On-line and Cell Phone PS and XBox Console Products lose price attractiveness while substitutes are enhanced with low price and special features BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 38. Data / Problem Definition DATA: Price and Cost The Console Price and Cost Fact (In USD) Sony PS3 MS XBox360 Nintendo Wii Year Price Cost Price Cost Price Cost ‘06-’07 499 808 479 604 249 200 08 399 448 399 323 - - Unit Revenue from the Software After sales of Console Method Third-party Software Third-party Software In-house Software Rate 10-15% ($6 to $9) 10-15% ($6 to $9) 100% Data From : http://vgsales.wikia.com BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 39. Why? / Problem Definition Focused on hardware’s technical competition Why? Both envisioned their game consoles as becoming all encompassing home entertainment centers. Expensive price High manufacturing cost Results! BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 40. 05 NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY Recommendation BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 +
  • 41. Strategic Activity Options / Recommendation Recommendation Strategic Activity Options Level Target Implementation Option for Sony / MS Existing Base Corp. Level Buss. Level Maintaining Getting Out New Market Getting In Ignore Price/Cost Margin Sell Console cheaply Make Console Premium Software Third-party Contract In-house Developing BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 42. 1 / Recommendation Recommendation 1 Maintain the existing base! Do not engaging in the low-end market competition! Level Target Existing Base Maintain! - Existing Customers are Loyal Slow but Increasing market size New Market Corp. Level Choice Ignore! - Uncertainty is too high Managing two product line is costly - Existing Market initial console price as a deterrent factor Even cost is higher than Price Price/Cost Margin Software Buss. Level Possible Hardships - Cost Reduction Third-party Why choose it? - In-house development appropriate for low-end market Market still grows but some evidences that market is declining Existing market is not a stable cash-cow Possible substitutes market could be very critical BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 43. 2 / Recommendation Recommendation 2 Maintain the existing base! Also engaging in newly created the low-end market! Level Target Choice Existing Base Maintain! - Existing Customers are Loyal Slow but Increasing market size New Market Getting in! - Still huge opportunity exists Low-end market is more profitable Price/Cost Margin Cost Reduction /Restructuring - Even cost is higher than Price Restructuring is needed to fit for manufacturing low-end console Software Third-party In-house - Third-party for Blockbuster titles In-house for low-end users‟ titles Corp. Level Buss. Level Possible Hardships - Why choose it? Balancing two market is a hard task Making innovative move in the existing market could be very hard BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 44. 3 / Recommendation Recommendation 3 Getting out of the existing base! Do not engaging in the low-end market! Level Target Choice Existing Base Getting out! New Market Why choose it? - The market would decline and currently profitability deteriorates Getting in! - Still huge opportunity exists Low-end market is more profitable Price/Cost Margin Cost Control/ Premium - Imitate but copying is not enough Position in “Premium” in new market Software In-house/ Third-party shift - Outsourcing effect by shifting S/W provider In-house for stable low-end S/W develop Corp. Level Buss. Level Possible Hardships - Entire transforming is a risky choice R&D for In-house developing and shifting cost for S/W companies will be burdensome BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 45. Our Team Choice Creative Imitation Strategy BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 46. Creative Imitation Strategy / Recommendation Creative Imitation Strategy Apple McDonald VISA Wal-Mart Competitive imitation strategy : Laggards acquire larger sales by imitating pioneers product Used Apple     Policy Theory Not like Me-Too strategy(just mimics pioneers product) Improve weakness Complement the concepts by Mass-Production, Mass-Sale, Aggressive Marketing Entry at the lower position and jump up over the pioneer By Imitation  Safety, Low Uncertainty  Even though it can’t guarantee market domination  They can get the market leader position Imitation strategy has same value with innovation strategy ‘Innovation and Entrepreneurship’ Peter Ferdinand Drucker BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 47. Creative Imitation Strategy / Recommendation Creative Imitation Differentiation New Start 1. 2. 3. Same Quality, Lower Price Higher Quality, Similar Price Higher Quality, Lower Price 70% of time making the product Average imitation cost is 65% of innovation cost Imitation company use Limitation      Short term Strategy Capacity of High Quality or lower cost Finance, Technology Market research, Market creation Before entry : check technology, speed, system they need BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 48. Creative Imitation Strategy / Recommendation Short term Imitation of Software, Hardware Long-term (Possibilities) 1. Maintaining or developing better quality, lower price 2. Discover the potential application of the innovation (ex Tylenol) 3. Building customer-centric service by strengthen the customer service Step 1     Step 2 Choosing benchmarking target : Wii Confirm the Company requirements Confirm the specific success factors and field Make exact criteria  Configuration of a team Diverse experience Professional skills  Project Team : administrators, data analysts, management support, outside experts BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 49. Sony & Microsoft / Recommendation Play Station Consumer (Target) Yong Adults, Mostly Male In Their Late 20s Or 30s Change the perception of Video Game The new hype entertainment Whole new level of video gaming technology More sophisticated and violent games BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 50. Sony & Microsoft / Recommendation Why did they get in? one of the diversification moves recognized potential threat the video game market of its PC market XBox Consumer (Target) Yong Adults, Mostly Male In Their Late 20s Or 30s Launched in 2001 to compete with PS2& GameCube. Xbox Live: allowing subscribers to play online Xbox games with network. BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 51. Console Unit Price and Cost „06 In USD 808 1000 604 499 500 479 „08 In USD 1000 200 249 0 500 448 399 399 323 200 249 0 PS3 PS3 XBox Unit Price Wii Unit Cost Selling price: cheaper than cost In the hope that Long-term revenue from Software could cover. XBox Unit Price Wii Unit Cost Cost Reduction available Still Sony recording loss, but what matters now Software revenue BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 52. Feasibility of New Investment / Recommendation Feasibility of New Investment Microsoft SONY Financial Status (working capital as of ending balance for 2008) $13,356mil $9,124mil Console Development cost $3bil * 0.5 * 0.65 = $975mil $3bil * 0.25 * 0.65 = $487.5mil Technological Factors No matter Customer Factors Are there still enough customers? - Low-end market already full Video Game industry is still growing BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 53. Weakness of Wii / Recommendation Weakness of WII Low graphic performance Not many usable software titles Inadequate for the adults players Not suitable for playing alone Low degree of difficulty Excessive repeatability BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 54. Action Plan / Recommendation Incremental Strategy Imitation Strategy Product Strengthening Strategy Maintaining the existing base: Hard core users Imitation of Wii R&D Marketing Operation Improve Console’s Technological Performances Aggressive marketing Cost Reduction Process Imitation BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 Differentiation Convergence with TV(SONY), Computer(Microsoft) Customer Oriented Marketing Process Differentiation
  • 55. 06 NINTENDO’S DISRUPTIVE STRATEGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VIDEO GAME INDUSTRY Reference BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012 +
  • 56. Reference 김영한, 2009, 닌텐도이야기, 한국경제신문 김정남, 2010, 닌텐도처럼 창조한다는 것, 북섬 이노우에 오사무, 2010, 닌텐도‘놀라움’을 낳는 방정식, 씨실과 날실 셰프, 2009, 닌텐도의 비밀, 오렌지 Clayton Christensen, The Innovator’s Dilemma The Video Game Industry http://sites.duke.edu/soc142-videogames/global-value-chain/market-power/why-nintendo-has-dominant-market-share-2/ http://shjeon.blogspot.kr/2011/06/iphone-disruptive-innovation.html http://blog.naver.com/cgeorge07?Redirect=Log&logNo=10044243094 http://sutamu.tistory.com/56 http://cafe.naver.com/a4size/262 http://blog.naver.com/paust21?Redirect=Log&logNo=50115131203 http://www.globalwindow.org/wps/portal/gw2/kcxml/04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKLd4238DEDSYGZAR76kWBGoAF czMsEKoakztsZU8zLFCHm65Gfm6ofpO-tH6BfkBsaGhpR7ggAJHc7jw!!/?id=2129703&workdist=read BUSS402(03) Strategic Management Fall 2012
  • 57. Thank You