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    Digital Cameras Sponsored Digital Cameras Sponsored Presentation Transcript

    • DigitalCameras
    • Sponsored by
      2
    • Digital Camera Types
      3
      Prosumer*
      Mobile Phone
      Professional SLR
      • Expansive
      • Versatile
      • Better images
      • Responsive
      • Bulky
      • Heavy
      • Cheap
      • Small
      • Light
      Point & Shoot
      Prosumer SLR
      *Prosumer = Consumer cameras with some pro-like capabilities
    • SLR vs. Fixed-Lens Cameras
      4
    • Digital Camera Operation
      5
      Camera Body
      1) The lens focuses light reflected from the subject onto the sensor
      2) Pressing the shutter button opens the shutter briefly to allow light in
      3) The image sensor converts the light into electric signals
      Shutter
      Lens
      Light
      ImageSensor
      Subject
      DigitalImageProcessor
      5) The image file is stored in the memory card
      4) The digital image processor transforms the signals into an image file (usually in jpeg format)
      MemoryCard
    • The Lens - Zoom
      6
      Changing the distance between the elements magnifies/shrinks the image (zoom in & out)
      Camera lenses are made up of glass elements
      Zoom range (AKA focal range) is measured in millimeters or in image magnification factor (xN)
      Fully-extended lens
      Example: x31 zoom from 18mm (wide) to 250mm (tele)
    • The Lens - Aperture
      7
      Light enters the lens through the aperture hole which can be made bigger or smaller to allow more or less light in
      Aperture size is measured in f-numbers or stops
      f/1.4
      f/16
      Lenses indicate maximal aperture in wide and full-tele modes (smaller numbers are better)
      A lens capable of big apertures (small f-numbers) isbetter: allows more light in in low-light conditions and enables shallow depth-of field images
      f/32
      f/5.6 (shallow depth of field)
    • What to Look For in a Lens
      Zoom range
      Wide for scenery shots
      Zoom for portraits, sports, wildlife
      Big apertures (low f-numbers)
      Allow in more light and shallower depth of field
      Sharpness
      In center and in corners
      Minimal distortion
      Especially in wide and in full-tele
      Materials and build quality
      Glass materials, coating, body materials
      8
    • Image Sensor – Resolution and Size
      • Image sensors affect image quality and resolution (how many dots, or pixels make up the picture)
      Resolution is mainly important when printing pictures
      8MP (megapixel) is sufficient for most print sizes
      More resolution ≠ Better images
      Sensors come in a variety of sizes
      Usually the bigger the camera the larger the sensor
      Bigger sensor  better image quality
      9
    • Image Sensor – Noise
      Sensors generate random variation in brightness or color, called Image Noise
      Image noise depends on:
      Sensor quality
      Sensor size – smaller sensors are noisier
      Cameras have built-in Noise-Reduction (NR),but this reduces detail
      10
      Noise-free image
      Noisy image
    • Image Stabilization (IS)
      Image stabilization (IS), is an electro-mechanical system built into a camera or a lens
      Reduces camera shake and thus image blur
      Also known as Vibration Reductions (VR)
      11
      Example: IS implemented by moving lens elements to counteract camera motion
    • ISO (Sensitivity)
      ISO= light sensitivity – the ability to capture images in low-light
      Measured in ISO values: 64, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200…
      Higher numbers indicate higher sensitivity
      Cameras allow increasing ISO level to capture images in low-light conditions
      Theoretically the higher the ISO the camera enables the better
      However higher ISO = higher image noise
      Depends on sensor quality and size
      Most digital cameras produce unusable images with highest ISO levels
      12
      ISO 400
      ISO 1600
    • LCD Screen
      Things to look for:
      Screen Resolution
      Higher resolution = more details
      Visibility in strong day light
      Swivel / Tilt
      Enables shooting from different angels
      13
      • The LCD screen at the back of the camera is used to control it and to review images and movies
      Swivel-and-Tilt Screen
    • Camera Features
      Manual Controls - allow controlling all picture-taking parameters – aperture, shutter speed, ISO
      14
      • Face Detection – the camera automatically focuses on the faces in the image
      • Live Histogram – the histogram shows light distribution in the image, thus indicating whether the image is well-exposed .
    • Summary - Things to Consider
      15
    • 16
      Shop on
      More…
    • Photo Credits
      Night Time is the Right Time / Jakob Montrasio, http://www.flickr.com/photos/yakobusan/280627593/
      17
    • Legal Note
      This presentation is provided for use under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 license.
      (You may use, distribute, embed and make copies. You may not make commercial use or change. Attribution to the creators is required)
      18