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  • 1. Value-Added Presentation By Yvette Best
  • 2. Presentation Objectives
    • To define the term Value-Added and the purpose of it
    • To show how different patterns of teacher instruction affect the growth of high achieving, average and low achieving students
    • To examine the impact of teacher effectiveness on student achievement
    • To highlight the importance of sustained academic growth for each child over time
  • 3. The History of Value-Added
    • Dr. William Sanders first developed this model in Tennessee to examine longitudinal sustained academic growth of each child based of assessment data. This model was intended to make effective use of data that was collected from criterion and norm-referenced assessments.
    • Since 1992, it tracked Tennessee’s students scores in every subject, every grade, and with every teacher.
    • It’s the largest data base ever assembled.
    • It’s mandatory in Pennsylvania and Ohio as well as in over 300 districts and across the U.S. HISD uses the EVAAS which is a Value-Added system that was also created by Dr. Sanders to measure student growth and teacher effectiveness.
  • 4. What is Value-Added
    • The Value-Added approach attempts to level the playing field by focusing on the growth of each student rather than achievement.
    • Using a statistical analysis of several test scores, it tracks the growth of an individual student's improvement from year to year, and uses that progress to estimate the effectiveness of teachers, principals and schools.
  • 5. How does Value-Added Work?
    • Value-added calculate projected test scores for students in a given grade and subject.
    • The projected scores are based entirely on the students’ prior academic achievement.
    • They are then compared to the actual scores at the end of the year.
  • 6. The Philosophy Behind Value-Added
    • Schools can and should add value for each student during each school year.
    • This should hold true whether the student comes in above grade, at grade or below grade level.
    • Students are entitled to grow at least at the rate they have demonstrated in the past.
  • 7. Purpose of the Value-Added Model (VAM)
    • It is designed to provide longitudinal growth data on individual students.
    • The data collected can transform the way in which teachers and school leaders understand instruction and student-learning.
  • 8. Goal of Value-Added
    • The primary goal of Value-Added is to ensure that each child has a chance to show how much he or she can grow without being compared to other cohorts of students.
  • 9. Three Conditions for a Value-Added Model
    • Scales of measure must be closely correlated to the curriculum.
    • There must be sufficient stretch in the assessment instrument.
    • There must be appropriate reliabilities of measurement.
  • 10. The Advantages of Using the Value-Added Model
    • It allows for the measurement of each child.
    • A student’s growth is not based on a single assessment.
    • The aggregation of data across classrooms provide a vivid picture of what is happening.
    • 4. Each student serves as his or her control and thus, eliminates factors like socio-economic status that may affect the learning outcomes of students.
    • 5. It’s usage increases data-driven decision making.
  • 11. What the Research Shows
    • The following patterns in student achievement can occur when Value-Added data is examined:
  • 12. Shed Patterns
    • Shed Patterns
      • These are most traumatic to student learning in schools because these patterns happen when the lowest achievers make the greatest gains in the classroom. This means the high-achieving students are held back.
  • 13. Shed Pattern
  • 14. Reverse Shed Patterns
    • 2. Reverse Shed Patterns
    • This is the case where the teacher focuses instruction on the high achievers and the other students receive less attention. These patterns are also particularly dangerous because the slower and middle students will not show much growth.
  • 15. Reverse Shed Pattern
  • 16. Tee-Pee Patterns
    • 3. Tee- Pee Patterns
    • These patterns arise when the teacher focuses their instruction on the average students in the class. Therefore, the average students make the greatest gains and those that at the bottom and top show less gain.
  • 17. Tee-Pee Pattern
  • 18. Variability of Teacher Effectiveness
    • As one travels up the grade levels, the variability of teacher effectiveness increases.
    • The difference in student achievement could be a function of the teacher sequence that a child went through.
    • * For example, a study showed that 5 th grade math students who were assigned to top teachers for 3 consecutive years scored at the 96 th percentile. On the contrary, students assigned to a series of ineffective teachers for 3 consecutive years scored in the 44 th percentile.
  • 19. Research cont’d
    • Dr. Sanders research in Tennessee also indicated that 5 th grade students who had a series of three highly effective teachers in a row, gained 50 percentile points more on the state’s assessment than other students who had three ineffective teachers.
    • A similar study conducted in Dallas also showed identical results.
  • 20. Teacher Effectiveness Over Time
    • Teachers have growing effectiveness during their first 10-12 years of teaching.
    • These years are followed by another 10-12 years of their highest level of effectiveness.
    • This effectiveness declines during the last third of their careers.
  • 21. Pattern of Teacher Effectiveness Over Time
  • 22.  
  • 23. Sustaining Academic Growth for Each Child
    • No matter at what level a student enters a class, he or she should be assured to show significant growth over the school year.
    • Students should make gains every school year and simply passing a state assessment may not be enough to measure that growth.
    • Instruction must be tailored to meet the needs of each child so that shed and tee-pee patterns will disappear.
  • 24.  
  • 25. Revelations from Value-Added Research
    • The differences in teacher effectiveness is the single largest factor affecting academic growth.
    • Highly effective teachers ensure that all students are achieving.
    • They teach students from where they are and work on their growth.
    • They differentiate instruction. There is no one- size-fits-all instruction going on.
    • Highly effective teachers make remarkable gains that lead to highly effective schools.
  • 26. Conclusion
    • The use of Value-Added data enables schools to see whether or not students are making the gains that they should. It allows each teacher to be more confident with working with the students that they receive because their effectiveness will be measured based on the gains that each student makes. Additionally, the success of a student or the teacher is not limited to the passing of one particular assessment. The use of differentiated instruction in the classroom will ensure that all students make gains across the board. Ultimately, the use of the Value-Added Model paints a better picture of how each student is performing each school year.
  • 27. Research Information
    • http://articles.latimes.com/2009/oct/18/local/me-myths18
    • http://www.cgp.upenn.edu/ope_value.html#2
    • http://www.recorderonline.com/articles/process-44046-student-education.html
    • http://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary/valueadded.htm
    • Nicholson M.R. & Brown, J.R., Value-Added Analysis in Instruction, School Administrator v. 67 no.2 (Feb 2010) p.26-27, 29-30
    • Value-Added Concepts & Research with Dr. William Sanders- notes from video