izsd@yahoo.com2.0   FRAMEWORK      STRUCTURAL      SYSTEM
izsd@yahoo.comRecognize types and definition offramework structural systems:  a. Column and beam  b. Cantilever  c. Truss ...
izsd@yahoo.comCOLUMN   & BEAM
izsd@yahoo.com                    DEFINITIONDEFINITION > COLUMN  A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed pr...
izsd@yahoo.comPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES• Most architectural structures are of the post-and-beam type.• Post and beam buildi...
izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS                        6
izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS
izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS
izsd@yahoo.comSKELETON FRAME
izsd@yahoo.comPOST & BEAM SYSTEM @ POST & LINTEL SYSTEM                       LINTEL                         POST
izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature)          Tree branches
izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature)     Banyan tree
izsd@yahoo.comCANTILEVER
izsd@yahoo.com         DEFINITION            CANTILEVER   A beam @ other rigid structuralmember extending beyond a fulcrum...
izsd@yahoo.com       DEFINITION      CANTILEVER BEAMA projecting beam supported at      only one fixed end.               ...
izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature)    Cantilever Stone
izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature)    Oyster Mushroom
izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature)       Tree
izsd@yahoo.comTRUSS
izsd@yahoo.com                    DEFINITION A structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle &    compo...
izsd@yahoo.com   EXAMPLES (nature)         Wing Bones of a BirdWarren TrussBridge
izsd@yahoo.com   EXAMPLES (nature)        Pelvic Bones of a BirdKingPostTruss
izsd@yahoo.comTYPES
izsd@yahoo.com
izsd@yahoo.comSPACE FRAME  @ space structure
izsd@yahoo.com                     DEFINITION  Three-dimensional framework of members pinned                   at their en...
izsd@yahoo.comMaterial: structural steel pipe, tubing, channels, tees @            W-shapesConnectors:                    ...
izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature)        Bone Structure
izsd@yahoo.com1. SKELETON                   TYPES   FRAMEWORK   (braced)• Number of bars  interconnected  at the nodes.• e...
izsd@yahoo.com                        TYPES2. STRESSED-SKIN SYSTEMS• Thin sheet material +rigid frame = STRESSED SKIN• Use...
izsd@yahoo.com                          TYPES3. SUSPENDED STRUCTURES (cable or membrane)• Form of long-span structure that...
izsd@yahoo.comGEODESIC FRAME
izsd@yahoo.com                 DEFINITION   A steel dome having members which follow three      principal sets of great ci...
izsd@yahoo.comTYPES    1. Struts:        Struts are the force        members in a geodesic        dome that act in        ...
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2.0 Framework Structural System

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2.0 Framework Structural System

  1. 1. izsd@yahoo.com2.0 FRAMEWORK STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
  2. 2. izsd@yahoo.comRecognize types and definition offramework structural systems: a. Column and beam b. Cantilever c. Truss d. Space Frame e. Geodesic Frame
  3. 3. izsd@yahoo.comCOLUMN & BEAM
  4. 4. izsd@yahoo.com DEFINITIONDEFINITION > COLUMN A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive loads applied at the member ends.DEFINITION > BEAM A rigid structural member designed to carry & transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. POST & BEAM SYSTEM @ POST & LINTEL SYSTEM A simple construction method using a lintel, header, or architrave as the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns, pillars, or posts.
  5. 5. izsd@yahoo.comPOST AND BEAM STRUCTURES• Most architectural structures are of the post-and-beam type.• Post and beam buildings carry the weight of their structural components(and the weight of objects and people in them) by bearing on one another.• The weight of the roof and beams is carried by the posts down to the foundation and then into the ground. Horizontal beams are subject to bending loads, therefore the structural materials should be able of resisting both tension and compression.• We can further subdivide the post and beam structures into:
  6. 6. izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS 6
  7. 7. izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS
  8. 8. izsd@yahoo.comLOAD BEARING WALLS
  9. 9. izsd@yahoo.comSKELETON FRAME
  10. 10. izsd@yahoo.comPOST & BEAM SYSTEM @ POST & LINTEL SYSTEM LINTEL POST
  11. 11. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Tree branches
  12. 12. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Banyan tree
  13. 13. izsd@yahoo.comCANTILEVER
  14. 14. izsd@yahoo.com DEFINITION CANTILEVER A beam @ other rigid structuralmember extending beyond a fulcrum &supported by a balancing member @ a downward force behind the fulcrum. Diagram of loading
  15. 15. izsd@yahoo.com DEFINITION CANTILEVER BEAMA projecting beam supported at only one fixed end. Diagram of loading
  16. 16. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Cantilever Stone
  17. 17. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Oyster Mushroom
  18. 18. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Tree
  19. 19. izsd@yahoo.comTRUSS
  20. 20. izsd@yahoo.com DEFINITION A structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle & composed of linear members subject only to axial tension @ compression.1. PLANAR TRUSSDEFINITION:A truss all of whosemembers lie in a singleplane (two dimensionalplane).• E.g: roofs, bridges2. SPACE FRAMETRUSS
  21. 21. izsd@yahoo.com EXAMPLES (nature) Wing Bones of a BirdWarren TrussBridge
  22. 22. izsd@yahoo.com EXAMPLES (nature) Pelvic Bones of a BirdKingPostTruss
  23. 23. izsd@yahoo.comTYPES
  24. 24. izsd@yahoo.com
  25. 25. izsd@yahoo.comSPACE FRAME @ space structure
  26. 26. izsd@yahoo.com DEFINITION Three-dimensional framework of members pinned at their ends. • A tetrahedron shape is the simplest space truss, consisting of six members which meet at four joints.Simple tetrahedron Diagram of a planar space frame such as used for a roof
  27. 27. izsd@yahoo.comMaterial: structural steel pipe, tubing, channels, tees @ W-shapesConnectors: Members/struts nodes threadedwelded connection bolted connection connections
  28. 28. izsd@yahoo.comEXAMPLES (nature) Bone Structure
  29. 29. izsd@yahoo.com1. SKELETON TYPES FRAMEWORK (braced)• Number of bars interconnected at the nodes.• e.g. domes, barrel vaults, double and multiplier grids, braced
  30. 30. izsd@yahoo.com TYPES2. STRESSED-SKIN SYSTEMS• Thin sheet material +rigid frame = STRESSED SKIN• Used in aircraft, the space shuttle, unit body automobiles.• e.g. Stressed skin folded plates, stressed skin domes and barrel vaults, pneumatic structures.
  31. 31. izsd@yahoo.com TYPES3. SUSPENDED STRUCTURES (cable or membrane)• Form of long-span structure that is subject to tension and uses suspension cables for support.• e.g. Cable roofs. Material - PTFE-coatedfibreglass & PVC-coatedpolyester.Nature - spider web
  32. 32. izsd@yahoo.comGEODESIC FRAME
  33. 33. izsd@yahoo.com DEFINITION A steel dome having members which follow three principal sets of great circles intersecting at 60°, subdividing the dome surface into series of equilateral spherical triangles.The more complex this system of triangles, the more spherical the dome becomes.
  34. 34. izsd@yahoo.comTYPES 1. Struts: Struts are the force members in a geodesic dome that act in compressive and tensile forces to resist loading. 2. Pins: The pins are used at vertices to hold the struts together. 3. Substructure: The foundation transfers loads from the superstructure down into the earth.

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