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Liz Alden Wily: What is happening to forest ownership on the African continent?

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Day 1, Keynote Address …

Day 1, Keynote Address

Presentation by Liz Alden Wily, RRI Fellow

Published in: Education
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  • 1. !"#$%&'()$*"&+ ,,-$.(&&/0 12/3)'(4$52+$6778
  • 2. ! "#$%&'()*&# ! 9/:(;<")=$!"$<2>>()")=$;/$?/@(A;$;()3@($")$%?@"B2$C #$%&'(%&')*+,-&.*"%&)'($/0 ! %$'(D/&3;"/)2@+$;@2)A";"/)$?@/:$A;2;($;/$>(/>&( ! !2@=(&+$A(&?E'@"D()$F3;$2&A/$>2@;$/?$=&/F2&$;@()' ! -);(=@2&$;/$'(:/B@2;"#2;"/) ! 9&/0$")$%?@"B2$2)'$:2")&+$/BB3@@")=$;<3A$?2@$") G2A;(@)$H$9/3;<(@)$%?@"B2 ! I<($A;/@+$/?$?/@(A;$;()3@($@(?/@:$"A$;<($A;/@+$/?$&2)' @"=<;A$@(?/@:J$$")$%?@"B24$;<"A$<")=(A$/)$$;<($10*'/!'/ "%*%$"&(.&1$"%(2*+-&,*'3&+!/0%" L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 2
  •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lden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 3
  • 4. !"#$%&#'($)*+,-.$,'/01$1.'/0', ! M3;$2)$()'$;/$;<($!"#$%&'($)*$+&,-&./0+1(&+$)*'&$)* %2#&$0/'#&,-&2/3$)&"1!2%' ! I<2;$"A$E$'(2&$0";<$%2#&+$'%&(,+,)1$+&4/#'%1,) %2#&%"#$%3#)%&,-&567&31++1,)&"/"$+&8-"1($)'&$' '4/$%%#"'&,)&%2#1"&,9)&+$)* L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 4
  • 5. 1#.)($%,#2).*'*3)%$-+(%-'(%'%.#4)%$#%54'6 7*8 !A(B3@")=$'3($&2)'$@"=<;A$/?$;<($&(=2&&+$0@/)=?3&&+ '"A>/AA(AA('$/?$;<("@$;()3@( !Q(&>")=$@(A;@3B;3@($=/D(@)2)B($/?$A/B"(;+$;/02@'A :/@($=()3")(&+$")B&3A"D($2)'$;<()B($F/;;/:$3> =/D(@)2)B($A+A;(:A !2)'$<(&>")=$;/$@(A;@3B;3@($'(:/B@2;"B$(B/)/:"B )/@:A$;/02@'A$2$)(0$R2=@2@"2)$(B/)/:"B$/@'(@S$") 0<"B<$=/D(@):();$2"'A$H$;2L(A4$)/;$/0)A$H$;">A L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 5
  • 6. !"#$%&'"+,-./012,34-56-6371.3711839.18:;,"1+3<==>/ ;1:+,.@ =? 4-66-- 5.-53AB 9:; ;A"+5 !<=%>7447#* -,A"19"5 "+8"5 +&$3B##&(#)C' D-+@5 E5,5. F=G=== H545I" 8"JK1:," +&$3B##&(#)C' H1L5HK"E:- ;A"+5 +&$3B##&(#)C' ?@9A" -0@9, +&$3B##&(#)C' B>7*<%C<C%D-'E J1.85+ <MG=== D:I5", +&$3B##&(#)C' E5,5. +&$3B##&(#)C' 65:8"35.5K"5 !=G!!N 61:,A3D1.-5 O?=G=== :5- PN>G===3Q3P=G=== 6&($RC%#36('B# :653S9."25,-T F==G=== ,5+L5+"5 ;A"+5 P== L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 6
  • 7. F G#/%H7H%#.H7*'.6%A&.73'*(%4#() $-)7.%.7,-$(0 -);(=@2&$;/$(2@&+$A;2;($:2P")=4$F/;<$?(3'2&$2)'$B/&/)"2& TA32&$@();EA((P")=$=@(('$H$'(A"=)('$;/$B2>;3@( @(A/3@B(A$2;$AB2&( :1'.,''#''1,) ! UVVW$C$:2P")=$%?@"B2$(4')+,)"" ! 5"A3)'(@A;2)'")=$;<($B/);(L;$/?$3A3?@3B; ! -);@/'3B")=$G3@/>(2)$;()3@($@(=":(A ! ,()'(@")=$2&&$3)@(="A;(@('$&2)'$;<($>@/>(@;+$/?$;<( 9;2;( L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 7
  • 8. ;/'%$1)1)!&%2#&80/'# ! -)'/B;@")2;('$>/A;E")'(>()'();$=/D(@):();A$@(;2") ;<($)/@:A$C$2)'$")B@(2A")=&+$F3+$");/$;<(: ! I<($A;2;($F(B/:(A$;<($>@":2@+$@();EA((P(@4$:/@( &2)'&/@'$;<2)$;@3A;(($/?$>3F&"B$&2)'A$X'($?2B;/ Y/D(@):();Z9;2;($!2)'A[ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 8
  • 9. <=$R3)C#$(%U3#&%VW3/ " T);";&('$</&'(@A$2A$5)+2!""!6)&(11$5*'%"&/)&+$/) >3F&"B$&2)'$X9;2;(ZY/D(@):();$&2)'[ " )&+$5+(3$1%!6)&$")&XA(;;&(:();$H$?2@:")=[$B2) A(B3@($;<2;$/BB3>2)B+$2)'$3A($;/$2)+$3A(?3&$'(=@(( " %BB/@'")=&+$B/::3)";+SA$1(,,)1%!6)&*"")%"&X>2A;3@(A4 0(;&2)'A4$?/@(A;AZ0//'&2)'A[$@()'(@('$:/A;$")A(B3@( " )&+$B/:>()A2;"/)$?/@$</3A(A$H$B@/>A$0<()$;<($A;2;( @(]3"@('$?/@$/;<(@$3A( ^()+")=$/0)(@A<">$"A$B<(2>$?/@$=/D(@):();A$2)'$(&";(A L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 9
  • 10. 3;(W$&VB%U3XB#'3$C#(%C $7(22$'!%-&#*")3&"-"%)2&0<(@($@"=<;A$2@($'(_)('$2)' 3><(&'$F+$&/B2&$@3&(A$H$B/)A()A3A4$)/;$)2;"/)2&$&20A4 2)'$/?;()$@//;('$")$&/)=$;@2'";"/)A `2@"2;"/)A$")$@(=":(A$F3;$:/A;$A<2@($C # %$D"&&2=(EF2A('$/>(@2;"/)2&$?@2:(0/@P # `"&&2=(EF2A('$B3A;/'"2&$23;</@";+ # .2:"&+$/0)(@A<">$/?$</3A(A$H$?2@:A$X3A3?@3B;$/@ >(@:2)();$R$B3A;/:2@+$?@((</&'S[ # a/&&(B;"D($/0)(@A<">$/?$@(A/3@B(A$3A('$")$B/::/) # M@/D"A"/)A$?/@$A(2A/)2&$2)'$/;<(@$A3F/@'")2;($@"=<;A L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 10
  • 11. I%%%J-).)%%K%-#/%7(%$-)%$.'*(7L#*%#33+..7*,0 <= >2",/!2&1)*1!#),/'&+$)*&(+$13'? Kb4$%3A;@2&"24$M2>32$K(0$Y3")(24$."N"4$a2)2'24$K/@02+4$,3AA"24$M<"&">>")(A 2)'$UW$!2;")$%:(@"B2)$A;2;(A$F3;$(A>(B"2&&+$c@2#"&4$a/&/:F"24$c/&"D"24 a/&/:F"24$a/A;2$,"B24$M2)2:24$M2@2=32+4$M(@3$$H$c(&"#($XBd$677$5<2$)/0 &(=2&&+$/0)('$)/0$F+$B/::3)";"(A$/)$;<($F2A"A$/?$<"A;/@"B$/BB3>2)B+$") !2;")$%:(@"B2$2&/)([ " >2",/!2&+#!$+&(2$)!#&1)&'%$%/'&,-&(/'%,3$"@ # "1!2%'?&:2")&+$%?@"B24$2&A/$52&2+A"2$H$/;<(@A A= >2",/!2&"#'%1%/%1,)&,-&'%$%#B($.%/"#*&"1!2%'&&%, ."1C$%#&.",.#"%@&(,++#(%1C#'&1)&-,"3#" )$%1,)$+1'#*&"#!13#'?&a<")24$`"(;)2:4$!2/A4$5/)=/&"24 %#(@F2"N2)4$5(L"B/4$%@:()"24$5/&'2D"24$Y(/@="24$e+@=+#A;2) L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 11
  • 12. M J-'$%)N'3$46%7(%$-)%$.'*(7L#*Y ! %BP)/0&('=(:();$/?$B3A;/:2@+$&2)'$@"=<;A$2A !"#$%&'(!")!'"&*("#+,&-(C$2)'$"@@(A>(B;"D($/?$0<(;<(@ C # Q(&'$F+$")'"D"'32&A4$?2:"&"(A4$B&2)A$/@$B/::3)";"(A # ,(="A;(@('$/@$)/; # %F&($;/$F($B3A;/:2@"&+$A/&'$/@$)/; # ^3($A3>>/@;$")$;<($B/3@;A # ^3($?3&&$B/:>()A2;"/)$"?$;2P()$?/@$>3F&"B$>3@>/A( • %)/;<(@$;@2)A";"/)$0<"B<$*#(,!"0)"$RB3A;/:2@+S$@"=<;A F3;$B/)B@(;(&+$@(>&2B(A$;<(A($0";<$2BP)/0&('=(:(); /?$(L"A;")=$B/::3)";+$F2A('$@"=<;A L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 12
  •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lden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 13
  • 14. M<%J-6%'.)%>#.)%3#+*$.7)(%'3P*#/4)H,7*, 3#>>+*7L)(%#/*%&#.)($%4'*H(0 ! .2"&3@($/?$A;2;($2A$B/)A(@D2;/@J$0(2P$>2@2'"=:4$;@2=('+$/? >3F&"B$&2)'A ! M(@A"A;()B($/?$;<($@3@2&$B/::3)";+ZD"&&2=(A$2A$'($?2B;/ @(A"'();A$2)'$</&'(@A ! Y&/F2&$A<"?;$")$@(B/=)";"/)$/?$0<2;$B/)A;";3;(A$2$<3:2)$@"=<; X:2)"?(A;$")$-!$Uf8$H$TK$^(B&2@2;"/)$-)'"=d$,"=<;A[ ! ^(B&")")=$;/&(@2)B($F+$&/B2&$B";"#()A$/?$$A3>>@(AA"/)$/? >@/>(@;+$@"=<;A$$E$2)'$;<(+$@(>@(A();$UdWg$F"&&"/)$/?$;<($@3@2& >//@ ! M2")?3&$@(2&";+$;<2;$>(@:"AA"D($@"=<;A$2@($)/;$>@/>(@;+$@"=<;A 0";<$@"A")=$D3&)(@2F"&";+ ! ,(A();:();$/?$=/D(@):();$H$B/@>/@2;($=@(('$@($?/@(A;A ! ^(:/B@2;"A2;"/)$/?$;<($A;2;($C$:/@($A2+$")$>/&"B+$H$&20 L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 14
  • 15. Q<%A&.73'R%;S:%'(%T.#5).$6 ^(_)";"D(&+4$F+$a/)A;";3;"/) M@/>/A('$")$M/&"B+$/@$^@2?; HZ/@$!2)'$!20 !20 Ud %)=/&2$X677h[ Uid$52&20"$X67764$677i$'?;$&20[ 6d 9/3;<$%?@"B2$XU88f4$677h[ Uhd$!(A/;</$X677i$>/&"B+[ id 5/#2:F"]3($XU88j[ UWd$9"(@@2$!(/)($X677W$>/&"B+[ hd c/;A02)2$XU8fV[ Ufd$c()")$XU88h4$677W$'?;$&20[ Wd T=2)'2$XU88W4$U88V[ Ujd$c3@P")2$.2A/$X677j4$6778$'?; fd I2)#2)"2$XU888[ &20[ jd Y<2)2$XU8Vf4$U886[ UVd$e()+2$X'@2?;$B/)A;d$H$&2)' Vd a/;($^S-D/"@($XU88V4$U888[ >/&"B+[ $ 9/3;<(@)$93'2)$X677V[ +# $ K"=(@$XU88i4$U88j[ $# " 52&"$XU88f4$6776[ $# L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 15
  • 16. U<%D7N)H%#.%'>V72'4)*$%5.#27(7#* Ud b2:F"2$X$677V$>/&"B+[ $#!"F(@"2$XU8h8ZWf4$U8jh[ " 6d 902#"&2)'$X677f[ $#K2:"F"2$X6776[ % id I<($Y2:F"2$XU887[ $#Y3")(2$a/)2P@+ & hd I/=/$XU8fh[ Wd c3@P")2$.2A/$XU88f4$U88j[ jd G;<"/>"2$XU88j[ Vd G@";@(2$XU88h[ 8d ,02)'2$X677h[ U7d 9()(=2&$XU8j6[ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 16
  • 17. =<%% ?$'$)%.)$'7*(%3#4#*7'4%#.%#$-).% H7(5#(()((#.6%$)*+.)$*#.>( Ud 523@";2)"2$$XU8Vi[ K/;$()/3=<$")?/@:2;"/) 6d a<2'$X$U8fj[ Y3")(2$c"AA23 G]32;/@"2&$Y3")(2 id ^,a$XU8fj4$U8ji4$U8V7 677f[ a();@2&$%?@"B2)$,(>d a/)=/$c@2##2D"&&($XU8Vi$K(0 hd a2:(@//)$XU8jh[ &20k[ Wd G=+>;$XU886[ Y2F/)$XU8fi4$U8V64$U8Vj$K(0 fd K"=(@"2 &20k[ jd b":F2F0($XU8V6[ Vd 93'2)$X677W[ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 17
  • 18. W<% X'.7'L#*%7*%/-'$%.)3#,*7L#*%#&% 3+($#>'.6%5.#5).$6%>)'*(%7*%5.'3L3) $ ^(>()'A$/)$'(&"D(@+$C$D(@+$:"L('$>"B;3@($/?$2'/>;"/)$/? # )(0$&(=2&$>@/D"A"/)A$3>$2)'$'/0)$;<($B/);")(); " K/@:A$D2@+$C$'(>()'A$3>/)$0<(;<(@$$B3A;/:2@+ # /0)(@A<">$"A$)(A;('$")$A;2;($&2)'$X(d=d$!"F(@"2[4$)(A;(' F3;$0";</3;$@(2&$(l(B;$X(d=d$I2)#2)"2$0<(@($*,,$&2)'$"A >3F&"B$&2)'[$/@$23;/)/:/3A$X(d=d$a<")2[ id *<(;<(@$B3A;/:2@+$@"=<;A$:2+$/)&+$F($2B;"D2;('$F+ +)/!"%+*%!('&XB?d$I2)#2)"2$H$T=2)'2$0";<$a/;($^S-D/"@($H 52&"4$H$D"@;32&&+$2&&$&2)'$B&2":$A;2;(A[ 18 & *<(;<(@$B&(2@$>@/D"A"/)$"A$:2'($?/@$@(;2")")=$>@/>(@;+ #
  • 19. & *<(;<(@$B3A;/:2@+$@"=<;A$@(B/=)";"/)$(L;()'A$;/ # B/&&(B;"D($$&2)'$@(A/3@B(A$XB?d$K2:"F"2$0";<$9/3;< 93'2)[ ' Q/0$?2@$:")(@2&A4$;":F(@4$H$0"&'&"?($2@($@(B/=)"A('$2A # >2@;$/?$;<($>2BP2=($/@$)/;$2)'$</0$?2@$/D(@&2>>")= B/)B(AA"/)A$2@($>(@:";;('$X2)$"AA3($")$:/A;$!2;") %:(@"B2)$A;2;(A[ ( ,(&2;('4$</0$?2@$+)/$,*%!('&*'3&*32!'!"%+*%!('&/D(@ # @(A/3@B(A$/)$B/::3)";+$&2)'$'(@"D($?@/:$'"l(@();$&20A 2)'$/mB(A4$>@/'3B")=$B/);@2'"B;"/)A$X(d=d$9(( B/::/)&+$")$@(=2@'$;/$0"&'&"?(4$@"=<;A$/D(@$0<"B< B/);@2'"B;$B/::3)";+$?/@(A;$@"=<;A4$A(($")$/"&4$;":F(@4 :")")=4$2)'$(D()$@2)B<")=$@"=<;A$")$A/:($!2;") L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa %:(@"B2)$A;2;(A[ 19
  • 20. jd Q/0$?2@$B/::3)";+$@"=<;A$;2P($>@(B('()B($/D(@ ")D(A;:();$");(@(A;A$")$;<($A2:($&2)'$X(d=d$") 5/#2:F"]3($B/::3)";"(A$F2;;&($?/@$@"=<;A$0";< =/D(@):();$A3>>/@;('$")D(A;/@AJ$A2:($")$:2)+$!2;") %:(@"B2)$A;2;(A[ Vd Q/0$:2)+$&2)'$2@(2A$H$B&2AA(A$/?$</&'")=$2@($(LB&3'(' ?@/:$B3A;/:2@+$>@/>(@;+$X:/A;$B/::/)&+$(LB&3'('$2@( M2@PA$H$,(A(@D(A[$X(d=d$M<"&">>")(A4$-)'/)(A"24$!2;") %:(@"B2)$2)'$%)=/&2$(LB&3'($F(A;$@(A/3@B($2@(2A$?@/: B/::3)";+$F2A('$;()3@([ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 20
  • 21. , *<(;<(@$$;<($F2A"A$/?$;<($B/::3)";+$&2)'$2@(2$"A$;<( # D"&&2=(ZD"&&2=($B&3A;(@$/@$;@"F2&$/@$;(@@";/@"2&$2@(2$C$AB2&( '/(A$:2;;(@$$2)'$A:2&&$"A$2&:/A;$2&02+A$F(A; $ *<(;<(@$;<($&2)'$"A$D(A;('$'"@(B;&+$")$;<($B/::3)";+4 +# 2)$(&(B;('$F/'+$/?$;<($B/::3)";+4$2$B<"(?4$/@$2$@(:/;(@ B/3)B"&$/@$/;<(@$F/'+$X(d=d$:2)+$=/D(@):();A$D(A; B/::3)";+$@"=<;A$")$@(:/;(@$'"A;@"B;ZB/3);+ZB/::3)( =/D(@):();A$/@$2':")"A;@2;"/)A$2A$;@3A;((Ad$Q2A$B@(2;(' 2$B/)A;";3;"/)2&$"AA3($")$9/3;<$%?@"B2[ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 21
  • 22. UUd I<($&(D(&$/?$>@/;(B;"/)$H$@(B/3@A($B3A;/:2@+ /0)(@A$<2D($2=2")A;$A;2;($2)'$>@"D2;($A(B;/@ B//>;"/)$?/@$>3F&"B$>3@>/A($2)'$(A>(B"2&&+$</0 R>3F&"B$>3@>/A(S$"A$'(_)('$X:2+$")B&3'('$>@"D2;( ")D(A;:();$2A$2$>3F&"B$A(@D"B([ U6d %&A/$'(>()'A$/)$</0$)*"-&&20$2)' 2':")"A;@2;"/)$:2P(A$";$;/$:2P($B/::3)";+ ;()3@($2$@(2&";+d$$52)+$3)3A2F&($>2@2'"=:A$<2D( F(()$>@/l(@('$2&:/A;$2A$0";<$;<($");();$;/$?2"&d L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 22
  • 23. CY< Z.)*H(%7*%23&#1(%$)*+.) Ud -);(=@2&$;/$'(D/&3;"/)2@+$?/@(A;$=/D(@)2)B($/D(@2&& 6d %A$0";<$;()3@($=()(@2&&+$C$F/;<$>@"D2;"#2;"/)$H$;/ B/::3)";"(A id I<($(D/&3;"/)$/?$;<($A;2;($;/$B/::3)";"(An$E ?@/:$>(;;+$2BB(AA$;/$:/@($2BB(AA$;/$:2)2=(:();$A<2@(4 :2)2=(:();$B/);@/&$;/$/0)(@A<">$XA(($)(L;$A&"'([ hd 9;"&&$3)'(@02+n$#-&.*+&%0)&2*8(+!%-&(.&+!/0%"&3),!6)+-&"A$;<( @"=<;$;/$3A($2)'$:2)2=($/)&+ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 23
  • 24. ?$',)(%7*%H)2#427*,%$)*+.) ! ,"=<;$;/$'@+$?3(&0//' ! )E?2@:$;@(($>&2);")=$C$R;3@)$+/3@$(+(A$?@/:$;<($?/@(A;S ! c3l(@$#/)(A$E$$</>(?3&$B/:>@/:"A(A ! ^(_)('$2BB(AA$H$3A($@"=<;A$C$")$@(;3@)$?/@$@(>/@;")= ! o/");$?/@(A;$:2)2=(:();$C$2&&$0/@P4$)/$>/0(@ ! 5")/@$?/@(A;A$2A$B/::3)";+$?/@(A;A$C$;/P()$=(A;3@( ! ,(D()3($A<2@")=$C$>2"'$;/$B//>(@2;( ! a/::(@B"2&$3A(@$@"=<;A$")$B/::3)";+$B/)B(AA"/)A ! a/::3)";+$;()3@($C$=/D(@):();$2"'A4$02;B<(A$C$2)' ;2L(A ! E$/@$B/::3)";+$&(2A(A$/3;4$(D()$F2BP$;/$Y/D(@):(); L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 24
  • 25. CC< J-#%#/*(%$-)%&#.)($(%#&%$-)%/#.4H0 Ud 5/A;$"A$1(22$'!%-&5+(5)+%-&#-&(+!/!'*,&+!/0% " cTI$:/A;$"A$)2;"/)2&Z=/D(@):();$>@/>(@;+$F+ # )2;"/)2&$&20$XR>3F&"B$?/@(A;S[ ! jWp$/?$2&&$?/@(A;A$")$;<($0/@&' ! @$fWp$/?$i7$;@/>"B2&$B/3);@"(A$X,,-$677V[ %# %)'$2;$&(2A;$jjp$"A$Y/D(@):();$a/);@/&&(' & # cTI$A;(2'+$'(D/&3;"/)2@+$;@()'$0(&&$3)'(@02+n >@/>/@;"/)$/?$>@"D2;($H$B/::3)";+$/0)('$?/@(A;$<2A @"A()$F+$jp$2)'$ip$A")B($6776 L. 25
  • 26. 1#.)($%[/*).(-75%7*%!YY= ?#+.3)R%::%!YY=]%::%K%ZZ[%!YYW DEFG8E A7&>HFIJK8E&;>8>L; Y/D(@):(); jWp Y/D(@):(); fWp M@"D2;( Uhp M@"D2;( Uip a/::3)";+ 8p a/::3)";+ UVp a/::3)";+$3A( 6p a/::3)";+$3A( Wp L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 26
  • 27. C!< J-#%#/*(%A&.73'^(%&#.)($(0 ./@$Vhp$/?$;@/>"B2&$?/@(A;A$")$677V$E MN=MO Y/D(@):();$/0)('$X'($?2B;/$/@$'($N3@([ 7dUp M@"D2;(&+$/0)('$X")'"D"'32&A$H$_@:A[ 7dhp a/::3)";+$/0)(' Udhp ^(A"=)2;('$?/@$B/::3)";+$3A( L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 27
  • 28. _@Z%'4(#%'%($)'H6%.7()%7*%3#>>+*7$6%K%5.72'$) #/*).(-75%(7*3)%!YY! ,"A($")$B/::3)";+$/0)('$?/@(A;A$q$?/3@E?/&'$A")B($6776 ;/$6d7W$5<2 ,"A($")$>@"D2;(&+$/0)('$?/@(A;A$")B@(2A('$?@/:$7$5<2$;/ 7d6h$5<2 L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 28
  • 29. 1A[%($+H6%#&%CU%3#+*$.7)(%7*34+H7*, /##H4'*H%3#+*$.7)(%B!YY=E PFHL;>&FQRLH PFHL;>&S;LTUD> Y`G,K5GKI 8W K2;"/)2&$Y/D; Vip M@/;(B;('$)/$3A( Ufp M@/D")B"2&4$'"A;@"B; ip a3A;/:2@+$3A( fUp 53)"B">2&";+4$D"&&2=( ip o.5$?/@$&/B2&$3A( ip ;<(@$>3F&"B$F/'"(A fp a/)B(AA"/)AZ&"B()B(A hp M,-`%IG a/)B(AA"/)AZ&(2A(A Uip -)'3A;@"(AZ_@:A 7p a/::3)";+$B/)B(AA"/)A -)'"D"'32&A ip H$&"B()B(A$H$&(2A(A 6p ;<(@$>@"D2;($/0)(@A Up a55TK-I1 Up L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 29
  • 30. CF<% S)((#*(%&.#>%H)2#42)H%&#.)($%$)*+.) <= K,33/)1%@&-,"#'%&,9)#"'21.&1'&!,,*&-,"&C ! a/)A(@D2;"/)$ XR"?$";$"A$/3@A$0($0"&&$&//P$2?;(@$";S[ ! 52)2=(:();$ X/)EA";(4$P)/0$0</$"A$3A")=$0<2;4 B<(2>$ ;<(@(?/@($A3A;2")2F&([ ! a";"#()$(:>/0(@:();$ X<(&>A$@3@2&$>//@$=(;$/@=2)"#('[ ! Y/D(@)2)B($")$=()(@2&$$ X()B/3@2=(A$$")B&3A"D($=/D(@)2)B([ ! 9;2;($@(B/)A;@3B;"/) X<(&>A$.^$@(A;@3B;3@($@/&(A$;/$F($:/@( '(:/B@2;"B$2)'$:/@($2'D"A/@+$;<2) @();EA((P")=[ ! M/D(@;+$@('3B;"/)$ X2A$/0)(@A$<2D($:/@($B/);@/&$/D(@ F()(_;A[ ! 9/B"2&$@(&2;"/)A$ X0/:()$>&2+$2$P(+$@/&($")$?/@(A;$ B/::";;((A$2)'$()A3@($A3FA"A;()B($H ?2:"&+$");(@(A;Ad$a&2AA$@(&2;"/)A$2@($2&A/ 2&;(@('$E$2)$")B&3A"D($;()3@($2>>@/2B< B2)$")B&3'($;<($:/A;$>//@ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 30
  • 31. 6d$94'!'/&;<($?/@(A;4$@2;<(@$;<2)$<2D")=$2BB(AA$;/$;<( ?/@(A;$/@$:2)2=(:();$@(A>/)A"F"&";"(A$"A$3A32&&+$;<( %!55!'/&5(!'%&#)%4))'&"$"%*!'*#,)&:*'3&10)*5; 1('")+6*%!('&*'3&'(%&$")&(+&2*'*/)2)'%&5(4)+" :7(22$'!%-&*'3&5+!6*%)&.(+)"%"&!'&<)5*,=&>'3(')"!*=&70!'*&*'3&?*'@*'!*&!,,$"%+*%)&%0)&1*"); "d(d TA($@"=<;A$2@($'(%&()/3=< "d(d 52)2=(:();$23;</@";+$"A$'(%$()/3=< "d(d c3l(@$#/)(A4$F()(_;EA<2@")=$"A$'(;$()/3=< "d(d o/");$?/@(A;$:2)2=(:();$"A$'(%$()/3=< 0)(@A<">$>@/;(B;A$");(@(A;A4$>@/D"'(A$2&&$@"=<;A$/?$/0)(@A<">$X(d=d$;/ &"B()B($2)'$_)($H$'(B"'($3A($")$;<($_@A;$>&2B([4$;/$F($>@":2@+ F()(_B"2@+4$;/$F($B/:>()A2;('$>@/>(@&+$0<()$&2)'$;2P()$?/@$>3F&"B >3@>/A([d L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 31
  • 32. % 0)(@A<">$/?$?/@(A;$&2)'$4!%0($%&%0)&%+))"&"A$?3;"&( # X!"F(@"24$a2:(@//)[$d$^(A"=)('$;/$>@(E(:>;$&/B2& B/);@/&$2)'$@(D()3(d$ %&A/$>@/'3B(A$3)0/@P2F&( /D(@&2>>")=$@"=<;A$F+$=/D(@):();Z;":F(@$&/==")= B/)B(@)A$H$B/::3)";+$@"=<;Ad hd 0)(@A<">$4!%0($%&%0)&1('%+(,,!'/&5(4)+"&(. (4')+"0!5$"A$2&A/$")(l(B;"D($2)'$2)$2F3A($/?$@"=<;AJ ;<"A$'/(A$)/;$:(2)$/0)(@A$A</3&'$)/;$F($A3FN(B;$;/ B/)A(@D2;"/)4$'"A;@"F3;"/)$2)'$/;<(@$@(=3&2;"/)$F3;$;<2; ;<($?/3)'")=$>/0(@$/?$:2)2=(:();$:3A;$@(A"'($0";< ;<($B/::3)";+$2A$/0)(@$X)/;$;<($B2A($")$Y<2)24$!"F(@"24 a2:(@//)[ L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 32
  • 33. A(4)+"&(.&(4')+B2*'*/)2)'%&2$"%&!'1,$3)&.$,, +)/$,*%(+-&5(4)+C$;/$&"B()B(4$;/$&(2A(4$;/$2>>@(<()'$H _)($X/@$A()'$;/$B/3@;$?/@$&2@=($/l()B(A[$C$2=2")$'/(A )/;$:(2)$)(('$)/;$F($A3FN(B;$;/$/D(@@"'")=$@(=3&2;"/) /)$P(+$2A>(B;A4$F3;$:3A;$<2D($@(2A/)2F&($>/0(@Ad ! D)%%!'/&%0)&!'"%!%$%!('*,&#*"!"&+!/0%&!"&*,"(&E)-n$0($<2D( " A(()$2$&/;$/?$:3''&('$;<")P")=$B/)?3A")=$3A($");(@(A;A 0";<$/0)(@A<">$");(@(A;AJ$?/@(A;$3A(@$=@/3>A$/@$();(@>@"A( =@/3>A$2@($_)($F3;$A</3&'$F($&"B()A('$?@/:$;<($/0)(@$C ;<($B/::3)";+d$a2)$A(;$3>$B/:>(;")=$");(@(A;A$;<($3A(@ =@/3>$2)'$;<($B/::3)";+$"?$;<(A($=@/3>A$/>(@2;($/3;A"'( /?$2$@(B/=)"A('$B/::3)";+$;()3@($?@2:(0/@Pd$%&A/$:2P(A ;<($;@2)A";"/)$?@/:$3A(@$@"=<;A$;/$/0)(@A<">$;@"BP+d L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 33
  • 34. fd I<($6!,,*/)&1(22$'!%-&C$)/;$2$;@3A;(($'"A;@"B;$B/3)B"&4 =/D(@):();$(+&%+!#*,&10!).&:3A;$F($;<($/0)(@J 2)+;<")=$/3;A"'($;<($D"&&2=($"A$;//$@(:/D('$;/$F( :(2)")=?3&$2A$R/0)(@S$r(d=d$c/;A02)24$K2:"F"24$e()+24 c3@P")2$.2A/4$K3F2Z93'2)sd jd D)%%!'/&%0)&"(1!(F"5*%!*,&.+*2)4(+E&+!/0%&!"&*'&!'%)/+*, +)G$!+)2)'%H&a3A;/:2@+$/0)(@A<">$/?$A<2@('$2AA(;A$"A F(A;$'(_)('$/)$;<($&/="B2&$/>(@2;"/)2&$2@(2$/?$;<( B/::3)";+$&2)'$2@(24$)/;$2$>2@;$/?$";4$)/@$3>$;/$;@"F2& &(D(&d$./@$>@2B;"B2&$@(2A/)A$2&A/$P)/0$;<2;$$R;<($A:2&&(@ ;<($F(;;(@$C$;@"F2&$/0)(@A<">$"A$)/;$:3B<$'"l(@(); ?@/:$=/D(@):();$/0)(@A<">S$C$;//$@(:/D('$?@/:$;<( B/::3)";+d L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 34
  • 35. * I<($)(('$;/$'"A;")=3"A<$F(;0(()$3A(@A$2)' # /0)(@Z:2)2=(@An$3A(@$=@/3>A$/@$();(@>@"A($=@/3>A A</3&'$F($@(=3&2;('$F+$;<($/0)(@$C$;<($B/::3)";+ /@$";A$2':")"A;@2;"D($F/'+d %&;</3=<$:2)+$B2A(A$<2D($/)($A;@/)=$&(=4$F(A;$>@2B;"B($B2A(A$;()' ;/$F3"&'$/)$;<@(($&(=A$/?$;<($A;//&$X(d=d$5(L"B/4$I2)#2)"24$92F2<$H 92@202P4$I<($Y2:F"2[ <= H#(,!)1V#&)./'"-,#!&$'&%2#&-,/)*$%1,) W= G/1+*&,)&#X1'%1)!T)#9&*#3,("$%1(&0)112/#&*(#/-&#&2&#)/- 34 5266*('1!).'"&%2#&(,33/)1%@&$'&3$)$!#"&1)(+/*1)!&"1!2%&%, 1''/#'&(,33#"(1$+&/'#&+1(#)(#'Y&Z)#&,[#)*#"'Y&#)%#"&(,)%"$(%' $)*&($)&+131%&(,)(#''1,)&1)%#"#'%'=&K$)&$+',&+#$'#&,/%&%2# -,"#'%&,"&.$"%&,-&1%&&#C#)&0$(]&%,&!,C#")3#)%= L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 35
  • 36. K/;$A3@>@"A")=$;<2;$;<($A")=&($:/A;$A3BB(AA?3&$B2A($/? B/::3)";+$/0)('$?/@(A;@+$"A$I2)#2)"24$0<(@($@//;(' ")$C ! 9/B"/EA>2;"2&&+4$;<($D"&&2=($X)/;$;<($02@'4$/@$'"A;@"B;$/@$B<"(?'/:[ ! a/::3)";+$?/@(A;$2@(2A$2@($)(A;('$0";<")$;<($'(_)('$B/::3)";+ &2)'$2@(2 ! ./@(A;$:2)2=(:();$A;(:A$?@/:$;<($?3&&+$(&(B;('$B/::3)";+ =/D(@):();$B/3)B"&4$)/;$/)($>2@;$/?$;<($B/::3)";+ ! Q2A$B/:>&(;($>/0(@A$/?$:2)2=(:();$(D()$;/$(L;();$/?$F(")=$2F&($;/ '(;(@:")($/0)$(AA();"2&$@(A(@D('$A>(B"(A ! -)$B<2@=($/?$&"B()A")=$C$2)'$B/3&'$"?$)(('$F($&(2A($;<($&2)'$2&;</3=< )(('A$=/D(@):();$>(@:"AA"/)$?/@$;<"A ! ^/(A$)/;$B/)?3A($3A(@$=@/3>A$0";<$/0)(@AJ$;<(+$2@($&"B()A('$F+$;<( B/::3)";+$X";A$.a[$)/;$23;/)/:/3A$/?$"; ! Q2A$2$A":>&($2)'$2&:/A;$B/A;E?@(($:(;</'/&/=+$/?$@(B/=)"A")=$;<($a. K/0$:/@($;<2)$U4h77$a.$(:F@2B")=$6$5<2 L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 36
  • 37. Z-)%`+)(L#*(%&'37*,%$-)%.),7#* Ud -A$";$>/AA"F&($?/@$2&:/A;$2&&$;<($?/@(A;$@(A/3@B($;/$F( /0)('$F+$/@'")2@+$B";"#()A$F+$67W7$C$2)'$:/A;$/?$"; <(&'$B/&&(B;"D(&+$F+$B/::3)";"(Ak " -A$";$>/AA"F&($;<2;$A;2;($?/@(A;$>/0(@A$B2)$F( # @(A;@3B;3@('$;/02@'A$;<($;(B<)"B2&$2'D"A/@+4$@(=3&2;/@+ H$02;B<'/=$?3)B;"/)A$;<2;$2@($A3>>/A('$;/$F($;<( ?3)B;"/)A$/?$'(:/B@2;"B$=/D(@):();k -A$c/;A02)2$;/$@(:2")$;<($/)&+$%?@"B2)$A;2;($;/$=(;$";A$A;2;(Z=/D(@):();$&2)'A '/0)$;/$Wp$2)'$)(2@&+$2&&$/?$;<"A$")$;<($3@F2)$2@(2k$I/$F($?2"@$T=2)'2$2)' I2)#2)"2$<2D($;@"('$F+$'(B&2@")=$2&&$B3A;/:2@+$&2)'A$)/)EY/D(@):();$&2)'Ad L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 37
  • 38. % *</$"A$;<($@"=<;?3&$&(AA/@n$=/D(@):();$/@$B/::3)";+k$-A$"; # >/AA"F&($;<2;$/@'")2@+$B";"#()A$B/3&'$F($;<($"0*+)0(,3)+"$/? B/&&(B;"D($B/::(@B"2&$?/@(A;$();(@>@"A(4$=/D(@):();A =2")")=$;<("@$@(D()3($A<2@($;<@/3=<$;<($>@/>(@$B<2))(&$C ;2L2;"/)k & %)'$"A$";$>/AA"F&($;<2;$4!%0($%$;@2)A?/@:2;"/)$")$?/@(A; # ;()3@($;<2;$B/)O"B;$F(;0(()$A;2;($2)'$>(/>&($0"&&$0"'()$2A >3##&('$'"AB/);();$;3@)A$");/$/3;@2=($2;$A3A;2")(' '"A>/AA(AA"/)k %)'$")$2$0/@A;$B2A($AB()2@"/$")$;<2;$")A;2)B(4$A<2&&$0($A(( :"&";"2A$<"@('$F+$B/)B(AA"/)$B/:>2)"(A$=32@'")=$;<("@$"&&E =/;;()$B/)B(AA"/)A4$/@$=/D(@):();$2&&+")=$0";<$;<(: 2=2")A;$;<("@$/0)$>(/>&(k L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 38
  • 39. ' %)'$?/@$</0$&/)=$B2)$0($'()+$@"=<;?3&$>@/>(@;+k # %@($0($A;"&&$=/")=$;/$F($")$;<($UVVW$:/'($/?$;<( c(@&")$a/)?(@()B($2;$0<"B<$)2;"D($/0)(@A<">$/? &2)'A$02A$'()"('k$Q2D($0($(D(@$2B;32&&+$B/:( /3;$/?$";k$@$0"&&$0($@(:2")$?/@$2)/;<(@$<2&? B();3@+$0";<$;<($&2A;$B/&/)"2&$]3(A;"/) 3)@(A/&D('k ( %)'$0<(@($0"&&$;<"A$@(="/)$F(k$$I":($;/$&(2'k # L. Alden Wily, May 2009 Forest Tenure in Africa 39

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