Kanimang Camara: Alternative tenure & enterprise models for pro-poor growth : Non-timber and timber enterprises in the Gambia
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Kanimang Camara: Alternative tenure & enterprise models for pro-poor growth : Non-timber and timber enterprises in the Gambia

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Day 3, Session 7: Experience with extraction and management of non-timber forest products ...

Day 3, Session 7: Experience with extraction and management of non-timber forest products

Kanimang Camara, National Consultancy on Forestry Extension and Services

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  • 1. Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise Non-Timber and Timber Enterprises in The Gambia Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Gambia Kanimang Camara Cameroon, May 25th – 29th, 2009
  • 2. General Country context: Gambia Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The The Gambia is a sub-tropical country in West-Africa with a total land area of approximately 10,689km². Population of about 1.4 million (Gambia Population Profile 2003) people and population growth rate of 4.2% per annum. Climate Sudano-sahelian type (rainy season June-October & dry season November-May)
  • 3. Gambia General Country context Cont. The Gambia with a GNP of about US $ 37.5 M Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The The economy is characterized by its small size, narrow economic base, low level of literacy and overall skills Re-distributive trade, agriculture and tourism build the main sectors of the economy. Tourism contributes 16% of the GDP
  • 4. Gambia General Country context Cont. 43% of total area is forested – 460,000 ha. Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The (excluding mangroves) 78% of this is tree and shrub savannah Since central control did not work, Gambia moved to participatory management approaches in 1990s Gambia Forest Management Concept and National Forestry Fund made state forests nuclei of knowledge for community forest management Goal of 30% forest cover, 200,000 Ha. of it community owned and managed.
  • 5. Steps of passing land and tree tenure rights to local communities the Regional forest officer approves Gambia the management plan and the Director approves the PCFMA application. Upon Villagers and local authorities approval the PCFMA is concluded Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The agree on setting land aside for and the forest committee is the purpose of community forestry and testify that this land registered with the FD is free from any individual ⇓ claims and is subject to the forest committee may common management establish by-laws and agreements ⇓ with the local authorities on a final villagers establish a formal community forest boundary body or forest committee acting on their behalf ⇓ ⇓ the Regional forest officer in the forest committee collaboration with the PFM unit establishes a preliminary forest conducts the PCFMA evaluation management plan and applies with other stakeholders for PCFMA conclusion ⇓ ⇓
  • 6. Gambia Steps of passing land and tree tenure rights to local communities Cont. The final survey of the The order is published and Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The concerned CF is conducted announced in the gazette ⇓ The notice of the CF is concluded and gazetted ⇓ the CFMA is concluded between the forest committee, on behalf of the community or group of communities and the Director, on behalf of the SoS, provided that the committee performed well and that the community forest boundaries are fixed
  • 7. Gambia Case Study 1: Jombong Bantang Cultural Camp, Berefet village Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The
  • 8. General Enterprise Information Gambia Jombong Bantang Cultural camp owned by Berefet Village Registered with FD, AG Chambers & GTA Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Located on Folonkojang CF (63.5Ha.)
  • 9. Gambia General Enterprise Information Cont. The Ecotourism enterprise has set goals which are to: Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The improve the livelihoods of the community members; fight against rural urban drift; build the capacity of members of the enterprise in group management and entrepreneurial skills; create economic benefits for the community through Sustainable Forest Management as well as providing access to micro credit facilities at community level.
  • 10. General Enterprise Information Cont. Gambia Seed money of 5,600 Euros – German Grant Profits from Log Enterprise Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The VDC main umbrella body CFC – Environmental issues (CF) IG Members – mgt. Forest-based Enterprises Profits generated equally divided in 2 parts ( vill. & ent. dev. )
  • 11. Gambia Infrastructure, Assets, Partners, and Community Ties Enterprise owns the following: - boat and out boat engine, generator, water pump and Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The - tank, freezer, refrigerator, plastic chairs, tables, buildings, kitchen utensils, video, television and telephone.
  • 12. Offer and Value Proposition Production value (GMD) 2003 -2008 Gambia 2007-2008 2006-2007 2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004 Accommodation 427,500.00 248,750.00 121,500.00 31,125.00 16,000.00 Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Food 1,852,500.00 1,400,000.00 1,020,000.00 627,750.00 323,000.00 Soft drinks 142,500.00 130,875.00 96,000.00 19,800.00 10,500.00 Mineral water 299,250.00 211,225.00 135,000.00 95,850.00 80,000.00 Beer 34,200.00 29,400.00 33,000.00 30,000.00 2,400.00 Boat trips 18,000.00 12,500.00 8,000.00 6,000.00 1,500.00 Paddling 1,800.00 1,500.00 700.00 400.00 200.00 Forest walk 21,000.00 16,800.00 13,750.00 11,000.00 7,500.00 Tailoring 2,400.00 1,925.00 1,050.00 0 0 Total 2,799,150.00 2,040,475.00 1,429,000.00 821,925.00 425,100.00 Exchange rate 1US$ = 19.30 Gambian Dalasis (D)
  • 13. Customers & Market that the Enterprise Services Gambia Major customers of the Enterprise are: Group researchers, European students on educational tours (arts and culture), musicians, eco- Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The friendly visitors, birdwatchers, GOs and NGO Promotional Strategies: Sign boards, media, participation in National Tourism fares & promotional trips to the TDA Markets: Domestic market
  • 14. Finance – Flow of Money In and Out of the Enterprise Gambia Profit margin 2007-2008 projected at D2,799,150.00 (US$139,957.50) 56.16% Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The 50% salaries for IG members & 50% ROI & Village Dev.
  • 15. The future – Opportunities, Challenges Gambia and General Options Internal challenges External challenges Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Proper management of revenue Establish and maintain generated by the enterprise. collaboration with other Capacity building of members institutions to access on entrepreneurial and group support/service. management skills. Lobby with Government to Maintaining standards and the include rural-community reputation of the enterprise as enterprise members in well as sustaining bio-diversity. international promotional tours Increase access to the tourism and fares on tourism. market to sell products/services Creation of Regional network of of the enterprise. community based eco-tourism Installation of solar energy programme to be able to lightening system coordinate prices, joint . promotional campaign and sharing of operational cost. Securing tenure over the remaining forest areas on village customary land
  • 16. The future – Opportunities, Challenges and Gambia General Options Cont. Key opportunities: Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Availability of land for expansion, rich bio-diversity and culture. Securing tenure over the remaining forest cover on customary land through CF programme. Creation of a webpage about the enterprise and provision of internet services. Procurement of transport for easy access to and from the village. Possibility for the village to benefit from the rural electrification and water programmes from the local council. Continuous capacity building of IG members for effective service delivery. Availability of communal labour and resources to implement planned activities.
  • 17. The future – Opportunities, Challenges and General Options Cont. Gambia NGO and international organizations could continue to play the following roles as partners in development: Capacity building programs for entrepreneurs, Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Provision of micro-finance opportunities with low interest rates. Facilitating tenure arrangements on land and forest to guarantee long term ownership over the resources. Patronizing community based eco-tourism structures by conducting workshops and seminars to boost the incomes of the enterprises. Creation of linkages with other actors along the chain Supplementing the efforts of the enterprise in community development activities. Creation of enabling policy framework for the effective operation of community based enterprises.
  • 18. The future – Opportunities, Challenges and General Options Cont
  • 19. Gambia Case Study 2: Sibac Honey and Honey by-product Enterprise, Buram village Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The
  • 20. General Enterprise Information Gambia Enterprise owned by the community of Buram village Registered with FD & NBAG IN 2003 Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Location Sibac CF (31.8 Ha.) Enterprise Dev. & Market Assistance Programme
  • 21. General Enterprise Information Cont. Gambia Organizational structure: Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The VDC – CFCs- Product based groups Labour - Community contribution
  • 22. Gambia Infrastructure, Assets, Partners, and Community Ties List of equipment: Hives, pair of gloves, uniforms, pair of gum boots, knives, Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The smokers & plastic containers
  • 23. Offer and Value Proposition – How the Enterprise Makes Money Gambia Production value 2003 – 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Sieved 36,000.00 21,000.00 18,200.00 4000.00 4000.00 honey Body 1280.00 740.00 887.50 0 0 cream Candle 480.00 279.00 292.00 0 0 Soap 1280.00 750.00 885.00 0 0 Total 39,040.00 22,769.00 20,264.50 4000.00 4000.00
  • 24. Customers – The End – Users, Customers and market that the Enterprise Services
  • 25. Customers – The End – Users, Customers and market that the Enterprise Services Gambia Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The
  • 26. Finance – Flow of Money in and out of the Enterprise Cash Flow Projection 2007 – 2008 Gambia First harvest Second harvest Cash in Hand 0 18,824.00 Sales 19,520.00 19,520.00 Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Expenses Transport 260.00 260.00 Plastic containers 150.00 150.00 Soap 8.00 8.00 Torch light 25.00 0 Battery 8.00 8.00 Perfume 25.00 25.00 Caustic soda 10.00 10.00 Candle 10.00 10.00 Sign board 200.00 0 Total expenses 696.00 471.00 Total cash less 18,824.00 37,873.00 expenses
  • 27. The future – Opportunities, Challenges and Gambia General Options Internal challenges External challenges Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Continues protection of the Sustainability of NBAG’s area against forest fires. activities as an umbrella Protection of hives against body. theft and pest outbreaks. Unfair competition between Building the capacity of IG illegal and legal producers of members to explore other honey. business ideas in adding Negative climatic impacts value to wax. (drought) Packaging and labeling of Access to micro-finance products credit at reasonable interest Inadequate information rates about the enterprise
  • 28. Gambia The future – Opportunities, Challenges and General Options Cont. Some of the key opportunities for the enterprise in the future Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The include the following: Increased production capacity through the procurement of additional hives; Acquisition of legal ownership status over the remaining forest cover to establish more hives; Availability of local skills on bee farming; Capacity building of individual bee farmers for improved production and income earning capacities of community members and Change of wooden hive stands to metallic, used tires or concrete.
  • 29. The future – Opportunities, Challenges and General Options Cont. Gambia GOs, NGOs and international organizations supporting the development of small- scale forest based enterprises should facilitate the following: Support capacity building programmes for local entrepreneurs; Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Link local entrepreneurs to micro-finance service and support providers; Help communities to secure long term tenure over the land and forest to guarantee communal ownership over the resources; Create enabling policy environment for the effective operation of the enterprises (tax incentives); Support Government efforts to meet the policy goals targeted for the forestry sector; Facilitate Regional experience sharing workshops for small –scale forest- based entrepreneurs; GOs should review their current forest policies and legislations to enhance popular participation in forest management and The National Authorities should enforce forest regulations to reduce illegal and unfair competition in the markets.
  • 30. Timber and NTFP Enterprises in The Gambia