Yannis Markovits_Seminar_Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans
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Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans

Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans

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Yannis Markovits_Seminar_Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Teaching Organization Defined "Teaching Organization is one in which everyone is a teacher, everyone is a learner, and reciprocal teaching and learning are built into the fabric of everyday activities."
  • 2. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Time - we only have so much of it. The effective teacher cannot create a single extra second of the day - any more than anyone can. The effective teacher controls the way time is used. Effective teachers systematically and carefully plan for productive use of instructional time. One of the primary roles that you will perform as a teacher is that of designer and implementor of instruction. Teachers at every level prepare plans that aid in the organization and delivery of their daily lessons. These plans vary widely in the style and degree of specificity. Some instructors prefer to construct elaborate detailed and impeccably typed outlines; others rely on the briefest of notes handwritten on scratch pads or on the backs of discarded envelopes. Regardless of the format, all teachers need to make wise decisions about the strategies and methods they will employ to help students move systematically toward learner goals.
  • 3. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Teachers need more that a vague, or even a precise, notion of educational goals and objectives to be able to sequence these objectives or to be proficient in the skills and knowledge of a particular discipline. The effective teacher also needs to develop a plan to provide direction toward the attainment of the selected objectives. The more organized a teacher is, the more effective the teaching, and thus the learning, is. Writing daily lesson plans is a large part of being organized.
  • 4. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Several lesson plan outlines could be presented. You as a teacher will probably begin by choosing a desirable outline and sticking fairly close to it. Planning and classroom delivery innovations usually come once you are in the classroom with your own set of learners, have developed your own instructional resources, and have experimented with various strategies. Although fundamental lesson planning elements tend to remain unchanged, their basic formula is always modified to suit the individual teacher's lesson preparation or style of presentation.
  • 5. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Adults’ Learning Teachniques Lecture Questions & Answers Discussion Brainstorming Exercises Presentation Work groups Case studies Role playing Simulation Problem solving Self-controlled learning Expert interview Educational trip - visit
  • 6. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans The lesson plan is a dreaded part of instruction that most teachers detest. It nevertheless provides a guide for managing the learning environment and is essential if a substitute teacher is to be effective and efficient. Three stages of lesson planning follow: Stage 1: Pre-Lesson Preparation Goals Content Student entry level
  • 7. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Stage 2: Lesson Planning and Implementation Unit title Instructional goals Objectives Rationale Content Instructional procedures Evaluation procedures Materials
  • 8. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Stage 3: Post-Lesson Activities Lesson evaluation and revision. Lesson planning involves much more than making arbitrary decisions about “what I'm going to teach today”. Many activities precede the process of designing and implementing a lesson plan. Similarly, the job of systematic lesson planning is not complete until after the instructor has assessed both the learner's attainment of the anticipated outcomes and effectiveness of the lesson in leading learners to these outcomes.
  • 9. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans One final word. Even teachers who develop highly structured and detailed plans rarely adhere to them in lock-step fashion. Such rigidity would probable hinder, rather than help, the teaching-learning process. The elements of your lesson plan should be thought of as guiding principles to be applied as aids, but not blueprints, to systematic instruction. Precise preparation must allow for flexible delivery. During actual classroom interaction, the instructor needs to make adaptations and to add artistry to each lesson plan and classroom delivery.
  • 10. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Recommendations on preparing postgraduates for teaching Postgraduates with treaching responsibilities should be appropriately prepared for teaching. Every department should appoint a mentor to offer guidance and support. A member of staff should also be involved with the outcome if graduate teaching assistants (GTA) are engaged in any form of assessment that contributes to the award of a degree. Appropriate bodies should develop a Code of Practice for GTA contracts of employment. Preparation of teaching should be integrated into the study programmes of research students. (UK Council for Graduate Education, 1999)
  • 11. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Questions to guide course design decisions Determine and understand the student audience Who is likely to enroll in the course? What are their academic backgrounds? What are their initial interests likely to be? If you are in a position to determine who can enroll, what audience are you designing the course for?
  • 12. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Identify course goals and learning objectives What do you expect your students to be able to do as a result of the course? What prerequisite knowledge do students need to begin the course? Are there skills or attitudes which students should develop to achieve these goals? How will students be able to demonstrate that they have achieved the course objectives? What are your areas of interest and expertise related to the course?
  • 13. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Defining and limiting the course content What do all students in the course need to master? What should students seeking a good knowledge learn? What optional material will be provided for students with special skills or interests? What resources are available to assist your teaching?
  • 14. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Organizing the course content What order of course content will aid students' understanding of the course? What pace will both address the course objectives and accommodate variations in students' learning?
  • 15. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Planning learning activities to enable students to achieve the objectives What learning activities will students do in class? What learning activities will students need to do outside of class, e.g., to get sufficient practice using new concepts or skills? How will out-of-class learning activities be related to or integrated with in-class activities? How will the learning objectives fit with students' individual interests and objectives? What kind of feedback will students receive about the learning activities?
  • 16. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Planning methods of evaluating student learning and providing feedback What type of evaluation methods are consistent with the course objectives? For what type of evaluation methods can you provide sufficient feedback to students? How many assignments constitute a reasonable workload for an N unit course? Which learning activities will be graded?
  • 17. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Deontological ethics Certain actions are right or wrong in themselves and there are absolute standards which need to be upheld. How we know which acts are wrong and how we distinguish between a wrong and an omission?
  • 18. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Teleological ethics It distinguishes between “the right” and “the good”, with “the right” encompassing those actions which maximise “the good”. The outcomes determine what is right, rather than the inputs (our actions), in terms of ethical standards.
  • 19. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Utilitarianism The outcomes are all that matter in determining what is good and that the way in which the society achieves its ultimate good is through each person pursuing his/her own self interest. The aggregation of all self interests will automatically lead to the maximum good for society at large.
  • 20. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Ethical Relativism There is no universally vaild moral principles. A given set of ethics or moral principles are only valid within a given culture at a particular time (conventionalism). Individual choice is the key determinant of the validity of moral principles (subjectivism).
  • 21. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Ethical Objectivism Although moral principles may differ between cultures, some moral principles have universal validity whether or not they are universally recognised. There is one true moral system (absolutism). There is a ‘core morality’ of universally valid moral principles, with an inderterminate area where relativism is accepted (weak ethical objectivism).
  • 22. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Ethics is a complex subject, but in professional contexts some of its central concerns are: to respect the autonomy of individuals to avoid causing harm to treat people fairly to act with integrity to use resources as beneficially as possible
  • 23. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Respecting autonomy We respect autonomy when we: equip individuals to make informed decisions about what they do provide individuals with opportunities for making informed choices do not prevent individuals from acting in accord with their informed decisions Respecting autonomy, however, does not mean allowing everyone to do whatever they wish, for two main reasons: sometimes individuals do not have sufficient understanding to make informed choices sometimes if an individual were to carry out his/her wishes it would infringe the autonomy of others. It might also raise other ethical issues
  • 24. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Useful questions when considering the extent to which autonomy is respected In teaching Do information systems make clear what a study scheme or module entails? Do schemes/modules allow choice whenever educationally appropriate and operationally viable?
  • 25. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans In research Do the objectives or methodology of a research project respect the autonomy of human subjects or respondents? Do the objectives or methodology of a research project fail to respect the autonomy of others because they involve deceit, dishonesty, invasion of privacy or breaking confidentiality? Are all likely participants - subjects and researchers - fully informed of the nature of the research before deciding whether to participate or allow information about themselves to be used? Is the situation in which people are invited to take part in research such that they will not feel pressured or coerced to do so? Will the consent of participants be gained before research proceeds? Is written consent to take part in research ethically appropriate? Can participants withdraw from the project at any time without feeling they might be penalised? Are research data to be used in ways not clearly stated to researchers and subjects? (“Subjects” may include people who are not actively involved in the research but about whom data is used)
  • 26. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Useful questions when considering the importance of avoiding harm Has sufficient care been given to anticipating any physical or psychological harm or unreasonable stress which teaching or research activities might cause to students, human or animal subjects and staff? Have all steps been taken to eliminate possible harm or to reduce it as far as possible? If adverse effects are possible on students, subjects, researchers, institutions or communities from the conduct of research or publication of its findings, are these ethically justified? Should a module or research project be rejected or discontinued if its objectives cannot be achieved without the risk of harm? What is the justification for continuing it? If risk of harm is foreseeable, is this clearly stated to students or other participants as soon as possible?
  • 27. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans We treat people fairly if we: provide everyone with the service to which they are entitled do not allow any personal views we may have to affect the quality of service we give to each individual treat individuals differently from each other only when there are differences between them which are relevant to the situation when there are relevant differences between individuals, treat them in ways which are appropriate to those differences
  • 28. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Useful questions when considering whether people are treated fairly In teaching Do students have equal access to the resources that are provided by the university in connection with their studies? Are issues covered by assessment accessible to all students? Does assessment concentrate on issues which are as far as possible accessible to students, whatever their cultural backgrounds? Are procedures in place that allow reasoned and reasonable decisions as to whether students should be treated differently according to recognisable educational needs? Do procedures guarantee impartial assessment as far as possible? For example, when sample double-marking takes place, does the second marker choose what to look at?
  • 29. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans In research Do all researchers have equal access to resources to carry out the research? Do research subjects have equal access to whatever support is provided to help them deal with any effects of the research? If it takes place, does the second marker choose what to look at?
  • 30. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Useful questions when considering acting with integrity In teaching Do schemes/modules achieve the objectives described in scheme/module descriptors? Do students and staff receive the service which the University has undertaken to provide: adequate learning resources and experience? sufficient guidance, feedback and access to tutors?
  • 31. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans In research Will the research methodology achieve its stated objectives? Is the impartiality of research at risk of being compromised by dependence on a sponsor or an institution with particular interests? Do participants get promised facilities and support to carry out the research and cope with its impact, not merely during its execution, but after its completion?
  • 32. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Useful questions when considering how resources may be used as beneficially as possible In teaching Are study schemes/modules designed to meet students' appropriate educational needs? As far as is feasible, do schemes/modules produce the greatest benefits from the resources they absorb - such as students' time and opportunity to study, and the University's facilities?
  • 33. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans In research Is the project the most beneficial use of resources - the potential research data, budgets, facilities and participant's input and sponsor's resources? If not, should an alternative project be put forward, or fewer resources used?
  • 34. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Personal Development Plans Personal Development Plans (PDPs) have evolved as a particular approach to planning career and skill development activities for individuals within institutions. The concept of a PDP is the creation of a clear development action plan for an individual for which the individual takes primary responsibility. Academic staff often have a supporting role.
  • 35. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Personal Development Planning has been described as “a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development”. The primary purpose of a PDP (Personal Development Plan) is to help you learn and develop more effectively and to be able to: learn in a wider variety of ways and a wider range of contexts; recognise and be able to list evidence for your own learning and therefore the progress you are making; draw upon and use your expanded personal knowledge to achieve particular goals;  review, plan and take responsibility for your own learning;  recognise and define your training/learning needs
  • 36. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans What is a Personal Development Record? There are many different kinds of PDR (Personal Development Records) built around a variety of frameworks. However, all are intended in different ways to maintain a clear record of learning and personal development. By reflecting on your skill needs over time and recording the training that is successfully completed a comprehensive set of information can be built up that can help you, inter alia to: initially be a more effective researcher be a more independent, autonomous and effective learner plan and manage your career decide on future career paths create appropriate CVs have evidence with which to apply for (or retain) membership of a Professional or Statutory Body related to your profession apply for promotion
  • 37. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans The research degree programme Administrative Stages The most obvious formal administrative fixed points in an MPhil/PhD research programme are: The initial administrative stage application, interview, acceptance and enrolment, which may involve most, if not all, of the following: preliminary project ideas, scoping, considering possible sources of funding, firming up on topic/consideration of supervisory team leading to completion of proposal, submission of application to register project and project approval. Transfer MPhil to PhD unless you have been registered directly for a PhD Submission of the thesis viva examination and award of degree. The Annual Monitoring operating alongside the other stages.
  • 38. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans The Academic Stages The research degree programme itself can be broadly considered in three main sections which may overlap to a lesser or greater extent. First Stage Identifying the topic Confirming originality of topic Considering ethical issues: starting approval process if necessary Undertaking appropriate preliminary training programme Surveying and analysing the relevant literature and other sources Defining the objectives in clear and specific terms Formulating testable hypothesis Defining basic concepts and variables Stating underlying assumptions Constructing a plan to maximise internal and external validity
  • 39. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Second stage Specifying data collection procedures, development of artifacts and/or data analysis systems (where appropriate) Executing the research plan and gathering data following appropriate ethical guidelines
  • 40. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Third stage Evaluating results and drawing conclusions Writing up thesis
  • 41. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans Skills training requirements for research students (A) Research Skills and Techniques - to be able to demonstrate: the ability to recognise and validate problems original, independent and critical thinking, and the ability to develop theoretical concepts a knowledge of recent advances within one’s field and in related areas an understanding of relevant research methodologies and techniques and their appropriate application within one’s research field the ability to critically analyse and evaluate one’s findings and those of others an ability to summarise, document, report and reflect on progress
  • 42. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans (B) Research Environment - to be able to: show a broad understanding of the context in which research takes place demonstrate awareness of issues relating to the rights of other researchers, of research subjects, and of others who may be affected by the research, e.g. confidentiality, ethical issues, attribution, copyright, malpractice, ownership of data and the requirements of the Data Protection Act demonstrate appreciation of standards of good research practice in their institution and/or discipline understand relevant health and safety issues and demonstrate responsible working practices justify one’s own research and contribute to promoting the public understanding of one’s research field understand the process of academic or commercial exploitation of research results
  • 43. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans (C) Research Management - to be able to: apply effective project management through the setting of research goals, intermediate milestones and prioritisation of activities design and execute systems for the acquisition and collation of information through the effective use of appropriate resources and equipment identify and access appropriate bibliographica resources, archives, and other sources of relevant information use information technology appropriately for database management, recording and presenting information
  • 44. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans (D) Personal Effectiveness - to be able to: demonstrate a willingness and ability to learn and acquire knowledge be creative, innovative and original in one’s approach to research demonstrate flexibility and open-mindedness demonstrate self-awareness and the ability to identify own training needs demonstrate self-discipline, motivation, and thoroughness recognise boundaries and draw upon/use sources of support as appropriate show initiative, work independently and be self-reliant
  • 45. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans (E) Communication Skills - to be able to: write clearly and in a style appropriate to purpose, e.g. progress reports, published documents, thesis construct coherent arguments and articulate ideas clearly to a range of audiences, formally and informally through a variety of techniques constructively defend research outcomes at seminars and viva examination effectively support the learning of others when involved in teaching, mentoring or demonstrating activities
  • 46. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans (F) Networking and Teamworking - to be able to: develop and maintain co-operative networks and working relationships with supervisors, colleagues and peers, within the institution and the wider research community understand one’s behaviours and impact on others when working in and contributing to the success of formal and informal teams listen, give and receive feedback and respond perceptively to others
  • 47. Teaching organization, motivating postgraduate students, ethical issues, personal development plans (G) Career Management - to be able to: appreciate the need for and show commitment to continued professional PDP take ownership for and manage one’s career progression, set realistic and achievable career goals, and identify and develop ways to improve employability demonstrate an insight into the transferable nature of research skills to other work environments and the range of career opportunities within and outside academia present one’s skills, personal attributes and experiences through effective CVs, applications and interviews