Issue 3(Oct-Dec 2012)
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM)

IAOBM

Editor in Chief

Dr. Mohammad ...
Editorial Review Board












































Adebimpe Linc...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM)
IAOBM
Issue 3(Oct-Dec 2012)

Table of ...
This is one paper of
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management
(IJAOBM)
Issue 3(Oct-Dec 2...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

The two ‘faces’ of con...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Introduction
Job satis...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

effective functioning ...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

contradictory conclusi...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

boosterism, etc. In ot...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

depend on the ‘nature’...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Control Variables
Posi...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

26.3% are University g...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

4.1 Preliminary analys...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

The variables used for...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Organizational citizen...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

4.3 Private sector sam...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

9
8
7
OCB

6
Low job s...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

This study provides us...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

and examination of a c...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Allen, N.J., & Meyer, ...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Fields, D.L. (2002). T...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Lambert, S. (2006). Bo...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

correlates and consequ...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Van Knippenberg, D., V...
International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82

Author’s biography
Yan...
The two 'faces' of continuance commitment
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

The two 'faces' of continuance commitment

369

Published on

development of two "faces" of continuance commitment based on job satisfaction facets and distinctions between satisfaction and dissatisfaction

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
369
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The two 'faces' of continuance commitment

  1. 1. Issue 3(Oct-Dec 2012)
  2. 2. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM) IAOBM Editor in Chief Dr. Mohammad Ali Sarlak Associate Editors                                Alan Smith, Robert Morris University, United StatesAndrew Creed, Deakin University, Australia Anna Maria Gil Lafuente, University of Barcelona, Spain Anthony Libertella, Adelphi University, United States Chunhui Liu, University of Winnipeg, Canada Constantin Bratianu, Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest, Romania Eric Otenyo, Northern Arizona University, United States Farley Nobre, Federal University of Parana, Brazil Flora Bernardel, University of Padova, Italy Irina Purcarea, The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania Jaime Rivera-Camino, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid , Spain Jan Kratzer, Technical University Berlin ,Germany João Ferreira, University of Beira Interior, Portugal Jonathan Matusitz ,University of Central Florida, United States Jose M. Merigo ,University of Barcelona, Spain LILIANA FARIA ,ISLA CAMPUS LISBOA - LAUREATE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITIES, Portugal Luiz Sakuda , Centro Universitário da FEI, Brazil Mahmud Akhter Shareef, McMaster University, Canada Maria Rosita Cagnina, University of Udine, Italy Matthew Irvin, Eastern Kentucky University, United States Patrizia Garengo, University of Padua, Italy Ruppa Thulasiram, University of Manitoba, Canada Simon Samwel Msanjila , Mzumbe University, Tanzania Susan Kruml, Millikin University, United States Theodor Valentin Purcarea, Romanian-American University, Romania Thierry Rakotobe-Joel , Ramapo College of New Jersey , United States Tomislav Hernaus, University of Zagreb, Croatia Tsan-Ming Choi , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong VÍCTOR JESÚS GARCÍA MORALES, UNIVERSITY OF GRANADA, Spain Vitor Braga, Porto Polytechnic - School of Technology and Management of Felgueiras, Portugal Xi Zhang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China YANNIS MARKOVITS, National Centre of Public Administration and Local Government, Greece
  3. 3. Editorial Review Board                                           Adebimpe Lincoln, Cardiff Metropolitan University, USA Aminu Mamman, University of Manchester, USA Ana Aleksic, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business Zagreb, Croatia Angilberto Freitas, Unigranrio University, Brazil Antonia Mercedes García-Cabrera , Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Arto Ojala, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Carla Marques, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal CRISTINA ESTEVÃO, School of Management of Idanha-a-Nova, Portugal Daniel Pittino, Italy CRISTINA Raluca POPESCU,University of Bucharest, Romania Dario Miocevic, University of Split/Faculty of Economics, Croatia David Rooney, The University of Queensland, Australia Davood Askarany, University of Auckland, Bahrain Fernanda Nogueira, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal Helga Rippen, Westat ,USA Irena Jindrichovska, Prague University of Economics and Management, Czech Republic Jen-te YANG ,National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism ,Taiwan Joseph Sungau, Mzumbe University, Tanzania Júlio Abrantes, Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal Jürgen Donhauser, Comenius University Bratislava ,Germany Justine Mbukwa, Mzumbe University, Tanzania K. Övgü Çakmak-OtluoÄŸlu, Istanbul University, Turkey Maria Nieves Perez Arostegui, University of Granada, Spain María Teresa Bolívar-Ramos, University of Granada, Spain Mayumi tabat, National Dong Hwa University, Japan Olli-Pekka Viinamäki , University of Vaasa, Finland Pilar Piñeiro García, University of Vigo, Spain Prasenjit Chatterjee, MCKV Institute of Engineering, India Priscila Alfaro-Barrantes, Florida State University, United States RAMANJEET SINGH, India Roberta Cuel, University of Trento, Italy Rodrigo Martin-Rojas, Leon University, Spain Rupsa Chatterjee, calcutta University, India Ryh-song Yeh , Yuan Ze University, Taiwan Sara Nunes, Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal Shrimatee Dowd-Koniecki, USA Sonia M. Suárez-Ortega, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Timothy Kellison, The Florida State University, USA Tracy Cooper, University of South Florida, USA Viktoriia Potishuk, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany Wen-Chung Shih ,Asia University, Taiwan Yong Liu , Tianjin University, China
  4. 4. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM) IAOBM Issue 3(Oct-Dec 2012) Table of Contents 1 THE IMPACT OF TEAM AUTONOMY ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF JAPANESE CARE WORKERS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED PROCEDURAL JUSTICE IKUSHI YAMAGUCHI, Meiji University, Japan MAI YAMAGUCHI, Japan Lutheran College and Graduate school, japan 33 EXPLORING THE BEHAVIORAL NATURE OF CSR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF COMPANY RESPONSES TO HIV AND AIDS IN MALAWI RHODA BAKUWA , University of Malawi, Malawi ERIC SANKHULANI, University of Malawi, Malawi 62 THE TWO ‘FACES’ OF CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT: THE MODERATING ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION ON THE CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT – ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP YANNIS MARKOVITS , 1 Regional Institute of Education of Thessaloniki , Greece 83 GAINING BEHAVIOR KNOWLEDGE IN THE ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: AN EXPLORATORY CASE STUDY MICHELLE L. ROSSER, University of Oklahoma, USA ROBERT M. NELSON , University of Central Oklahoma, USA 123 INFLUENCE OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AND PERSONALITY ON CAREER EXPLORATION: STUDY WITH PORTUGUESE STUDENTS LILIANA FARIA, Laureate International Universities , Portugal MARIA DO CéU TAVEIRA, University of Minho, Portugal 150 THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON POLITICAL BEHAVIORS MOHAMMAD ALI SARLAK, PNU, IRAN HOSEIN SAFARZADEH, Islamic Azad University, IRAN MAHDI SAADAT FARD, Islamic Azad University, IRAN
  5. 5. This is one paper of International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM) Issue 3(Oct-Dec 2012)
  6. 6. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 The two ‘faces’ of continuance commitment: The moderating role of job satisfaction on the continuance commitment – organizational citizenship behavior relationship Yannis Markovits 1, 2 1 2 Regional Institute of Education of Thessaloniki, National Centre of Public Administration and Local Government, Greece Department of Accounting, School of Business and Economics, Alexander’s Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece, Nik. PLastira 66B, Thessaloniki, GR-542 50 markovii@cyta.gr Abstract Problem statement: The purpose of this study is to explore the role of job satisfaction to the continuance commitment – organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) relationship. In particular to examine satisfaction’s mediating role by pointing out that the two ‘faces’ of continuance commitment make very specific predictions: those with the ‘happy face’ (the highly satisfied) will show more OCBs the more they realize that they have a lot to lose if the leave the organization; and those with the ‘unhappy face’ (the less satisfied) will show less OCB the more they realize how ‘stuck’ to the organization they are. Methodology: A structured questionnaire was delivered to employees measuring continuance commitment, job satisfaction, OCB, positive/negative affectivity and demographics to 392 public sector and 323 private sector employees in Greece. Results: The hierarchical regression analyses show that there is a significant interactive effect among continuance commitment – job satisfaction – OCB for both sectors (private and public). Also, employees with low job satisfaction the regression of OCB frequency on continuance commitment are significantly different from zero, and for employees with high job satisfaction the regression slopes indicate significant differences from zero both for continuance commitment. Conclusions: These results explain the effect of a satisfied or dissatisfied worker on the relationship between the more calculative forms of commitment on the intended behavior at work, especially the extra-role behavior. The “Good Soldier” syndrome seems to be evident when a worker is happy with the job, even if the decision to stay with the organization is due to the need for the particular job (either due to lack of alternatives or due to high sacrifices). If management wants employees with OCBs, then job satisfaction is essential for this occurrence. Keywords: Continuance commitment, Job satisfaction, Organizational citizenship behaviors, Moderating effect 62 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  7. 7. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Introduction Job satisfaction “is an attitudinal variable … [and] can be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job” [Spector, 1997, p. 2]. It could be considered as “an affective … reaction to a job that results from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired … [Cranny et al., 1992, p. 1], or as an “affective response by individuals resulting from an appraisal of their work roles in the job that they presently hold” [Graham & Messner, 1998]. In general, job satisfaction has been seen in the relevant literature, as an affective or emotional attitude of an individual towards his or her job [James & Jones, 1980] or as a general attitude towards a job and some particular aspects of it, e.g., nature of work, relations with co-workers, etc [Knoop, 1995]. The position taken in the present paper is that job satisfaction is composed of two facets relating to the extrinsic and intrinsic features of a job [Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005]. Extrinsic satisfaction is the satisfaction derived from extrinsic circumstances, for example, remuneration, management policies, physical conditions, or job security. Intrinsic satisfaction is the individually felt satisfaction arising out of opportunities for achievement, creativity, personal advancement, etc. Organizational commitment is a multi-component construct which describes individuals’ feelings of attachment to their organization. For the needs of this research we have used one of the components conceptualized by Allen and Meyer’s [1990]: continuance commitment. Continuance commitment is more of a calculative form derived from the individual’s ongoing investment in the organization and the availability of alternative employment of similar value [Dunham et al., 1994]; the employee ‘needs to be’ to the organization. Recently, continuance commitment has been further divided into two distinguishable categories: one is called high sacrifices – (i.e., the perceived sacrifices associated with leaving from an organization) and the other low alternatives – (i.e., the lack of alternative employment opportunities) [McGee & Ford, 1987; Meyer et al., 1990; Dunham et al., 1994; Meyer et al., 2002; Powell & Meyer, 2004; Bentein et al., 2005]. The concept of Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is firstly introduced in the mid 1980s by Organ [1988] and is the “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the 63 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  8. 8. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 effective functioning of the organization”. Later, Van Dyne et al. [1994] proposed the “extra-role behavior” as the behavior which benefits the organization and is intended to benefit the organization; a behavior which is discretionary and which goes beyond existing role expectations. Also, OCB defined as behavior that goes beyond the basic requirements of the job; is to a large extent discretionary; and is of benefit to the organization [Lambert, 2006]. Thus, organizational citizenship is the functional, extra-role, pro-social organizational behavior directed at individual, groups and/or an organization. These are helping behaviors not formally prescribed by the organization and for which there are no direct rewards or punishments. From the above argument, there should be excluded those pro-social behaviors that are prescribed by the organization as performance requirements, and dysfunctional or non-compliant behaviors [Chien, 2004]. 1. Review of literature and hypothesis 1.1 Antecedents and correlates of organizational citizenship behaviors Bolon [1997] conducted a field study in a large tertiary hospital in the US and 202 mainly nursing personnel participated in the study. He found that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to the OCBI construct - these behaviors are directed toward individuals and comprising of altruism and courtesy as suggested by Williams and Anderson [1991]. As far as the forms of commitment are concerned, continuance commitment was unrelated to this part of the construct that the citizenship behavior is aimed towards coworker. Another study conducted on government employees in Kuwait [Alotaibi, 2001] found that neither job satisfaction nor organizational commitment could be considered as antecedents or as predictors of OCBs. The researcher explained this finding on cultural specificity, since almost all previous studies were conducted in a Western or American cultural context, whereas, this study was in a Near Eastern, Arabic cultural environment. However, another non-Western study, this time conducted in the Sultanate of Oman [Kuehn & Al-Busaidi, 2002] on data collected from 153 employees working in the private and public sector, reached the conclusion that job satisfaction and normative commitment were significant predictors of OCB. It seems, that even though both previous studies conducted in an Arabic cultural environment, their 64 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  9. 9. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 contradictory conclusions reached, make them more culturally specific and less generalizable. Furthermore, LePine et al. [2002] conducted a meta-analysis on OCB literature and research, and found strong support for the predictor relationship of job satisfaction and organizational commitment to various OCB measures and constructs. Similar conclusions reached by Herscovitch and Meyer [2002] found that OCB is a consequence of the existence of organizational commitment. As it could be seen, results on the relationship between job-related attitudes and contextual performance are mixed; however, recent meta-analyses have shown that, by and large, job satisfaction and organizational commitment could be regarded as predictors of the OCBs, irrespective of the measurement scales adopted. More specifically, although various different measures and constructs are used for the measurement of OCBs, different studies found that organizational commitment predicts or correlates with OCBs [cf. Williams & Anderson, 1991; McFarlane Shore & Wayne, 1993; Schappe, 1998]. As far as the predictive relationship of continuance commitment to OCB, it has been observed that the individual self-concept moderates the relationship between continuance commitment and individually based OCBs. According to Johnson and Chang [2006, p. 564] “employees with strong individual self-concepts pay more attention to person-level information, such as investments and potential economic losses. These employees would likely cultivate continuance commitment based on compliance, which involves maintaining membership so long as it prevents the loss of valued investments and no alternative employment opportunities exist that are more favorable”. 1.2 The moderating relationship The above argument, leads to a general proposition that there is a moderating relationship between continuance commitment, job satisfaction, and OCB, i.e., job satisfaction works as moderator of the predictive relationship between continuance commitment and OCB. Summarizing, the insofar theorizing, continuance commitment predicts extra-role performance since an individual who feels committed towards the organization, feels identified with the goals, norms, and values of this organization, is loyal to management directives and policies pursued and express a tendency to remain in the organization. By expressing these positive feelings to the organization, the job performance is not only the expected one, the focal performance, but even more, performance exceeds what is required by management and is showed through altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy, 65 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  10. 10. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 boosterism, etc. In other words, OCBs are exposed by the individual. However, continuance commitment is a driving force that leads to positive feelings towards one’s job, i.e., the expression of job satisfaction. The individual perceives the job as part of his or her broad organizational membership and acts accordingly, i.e., performs well at work and even more, behaves as a ‘good soldier’. The proposition made in this study is that continuance commitment explains OCBs, but this relationship is moderated by job satisfaction. Following, the above argument, the major question is: which forms of continuance commitment manage to predict extra-role behaviors? Continuance commitment is the calculative form derived from the individual’s ongoing investment in the organization and the availability of alternative employment of similar value. Thus, this form of commitment implies that the employee makes a rational evaluation or choice of his/her stay in the organization; the individual measures the side bets of the decision. Employees, according to the theory of Perceived Organizational Support (POS), tend to personify the conditions faced during employment and reciprocate this with respect to felt commitment. In fact, POS would create a felt obligation to care about the organization and employees will fulfill this type of indebtedness by increasing their commitment and efforts [Rhoades et al., 2001, p. 825]. This reciprocity norm is also evident on job satisfaction, since employees by being satisfied with their job, they exhibit positive performance at work [Haar & Spell, 2004]. Moreover, the Social Exchange Theory (SET) has the ability to predict positive HRM initiatives, including employee commitment, employee motivation and a desire to remain with the organization. Gould-Williams and Davies [2005] found in the UK public sector, specifically in seven local government departments that 58% of the variation in employee commitment is predicted, 53% variation in motivation and 41% of the variance in the desire to remain with the organization. In fact, according to the SET, the stronger the relationship of the individual with the organization, the more the identification, attachment and involvement felt [Van Knippenberg et al., 2007]. 1.3 Hypothesis As it could be seen from the aforementioned literature review continuance commitment seems to have weak correlations with positive outcomes such as OCB. However, this finding might 66 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  11. 11. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 depend on the ‘nature’ of continuance commitment, i.e., whether commitment is due to low alternatives and or due to high sacrifices. The one ‘face’ of continuance commitment shows that people are happy where they are, although they have low alternatives and sacrifice many things if they would leave their organization. These employees are not ‘stuck’ to the organization, but they are happy workers who also realize that their organization provides benefits to them - those ones that they would sacrifice if they decide to leave the organization. On the other hand, the other ‘face’ of continuance commitment would be that people are unhappy but they have no alternatives and would sacrifice a lot. Those are the ones that are really ‘stuck’ with their organization. These two ‘faces’ of continuance commitment would allow making very specific predictions about the relationships between continuance commitment and OCB: those with the ‘happy face’, i.e., the highly satisfied would show the more OCB the more they realize that they have a lot to lose; whereas those with the unhappy face would show even less OCB the more they realize how ‘stuck’ they are. The main purpose of our research, therefore, is to collect more empirical evidence for the importance and nature of interactive attitudinal effects to explain organizational citizenship behaviors in organizations. More specifically, our research was designed to extend this basic approach by analyzing a combination of work attitudes that differs from the attitudes prior research has focused on, namely job satisfaction and continuance commitment. Job satisfaction represents the ‘situational variable’ and continuance commitment represents ‘personality’ in our reasoning. Accordingly, it can be expected that both variables interact. If job satisfaction is low (representing a weak situation), then one’s continuance commitment should have a significant negative impact on OCB. However, if job satisfaction is high such a strong situation will overwhelm any continuance commitment impact on OCB. More specifically, continuance commitment has a strong negative relation to OCB when job satisfaction is low but continuance commitment will be unrelated to OCB when job satisfaction is high. This leads to the following hypothesis (Figure 1 presents the heuristic framework of the analysis): Hypothesis: Job satisfaction moderates the relationship between continuance commitment and OCB. 67 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  12. 12. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Control Variables Positive/Negative Affectivity ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT JOB SATISFACTION Figure 1: Heuristic framework for the analysis 3. Methods 3.1 Sampling and subjects The present field research is a two-study one, and the data collected from two independent samples drawn from the public and the private sector in Greece. The public sector sample is from ten regional and local government organizations located in the geographical area of Thessaloniki (overall six organizations are approached) and in total, 392 employees successfully responded to the research. The response rate is 61% and the demographic characteristics of the sample are: 42.7% males and 57.3% females; mean age is 35 years; mean organizational tenure is 9 years; 82% of the sample is non-supervisory employees, and the remaining are heads of departments; educational level is: 20.1% completed Secondary Education; 18.3% graduated from a Technological Educational Institute; 41.8% are University graduates; 19.8% have a Postgraduate diploma. The respondents answered anonymously and at their own convenience. As far as the private sector sample is concerned, 323 employees returned to us completed and usable questionnaires from 12 service sector companies. All companies have premises and operations in the geographical area of Thessaloniki. The overall response rate is 59%. The demographic characteristics of the sample are: 42.4% males and 57.6% females; mean age is 32 years; mean organizational tenure is 5 years; 77.4% of the sample is nonsupervisory employees, and the remaining are heads of departments; educational level is: 41.8% completed Secondary Education; 19.5% graduated from a Technological Educational Institute; 68 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  13. 13. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 26.3% are University graduates; 12.4% have a Postgraduate diploma. The respondents answered anonymously and at their own convenience. 3.2 Measures Job satisfaction is measured through a structured self-report questionnaire based on Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) [Weiss et al., 1967] with twenty three items: twelve measuring extrinsic satisfaction and eleven measuring intrinsic satisfaction. Continuance commitment is based on the Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS) [Powell & Meyer, 2004] and has nine items. For the measurement of OCB, the four dimensional scale of Moorman and Blakely [1995] is used. This scale has the following dimensions [Fields, 2002, p. 238]: Interpersonal helping: five items (altruistic behaviors - response to personal needs of coworkers when they deal with job-related tasks and problems). Individual initiative: five items (employee efforts to improve individual and group/team task performance, challenge groupthink, and encourage participation). Personal industry: four items (adherence to organizational and management rules and instructions, the unusual attention to quality, and the performance of tasks above and beyond the call of duty). Loyal boosterism: five items (uncritical faithfulness to the organization, the defense of its interests, and the contribution to the good reputation of the organization and its general welfare – the promotion of the organization’s image to outsiders; it includes employees’ actions with others external to the organization). As control variable the Positive and Negative Affective Scale (PANAS) is used, [Watson et al., 1988] comprising of twenty items – ten for positive affectivity and ten for negative affectivity. This scale measures general positive and negative affect, a personality characteristic identifying general feelings of positive or negative mood and relating them to the organizational and job conditions and circumstances. The measurement scale is the 7-point Likert, having as endpoints 1 = Complete disagreement, and 7 = Complete agreement. All scales employed in this study are translated into Greek. 4. Results 69 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  14. 14. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 4.1 Preliminary analyses Tables 1 and 2 provide descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and intercorrelations for the components of job satisfaction, continuance commitment, OCB, and the two affectivity states for e public sector and private sector samples, respectively. Mean SD  1. Job satisfaction 4.61 .89 .90 2. Continuance commitment 4.55 1.15 .86 .23** 3. OCB 5.45 .77 .86 .31** .12* 4. Positive affectivity 4.94 .94 .90 .34** .15** 5. Negative affectivity 2.63 .78 .87 -.40** -.14** -.12** -.32** Variables 1 2 3 4 .41** Note. N = 392, ** p < .01 (two-tailed), * p < .05 (two-tailed) Table 1: Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients), Pearson correlations (public sector) Mean SD  1. Job satisfaction 4.72 1.01 .93 2. Continuance commitment 4.05 1.13 .85 .19** 3. OCB 5.10 .86 .91 .46** .13* 4. Positive affectivity 4.86 .99 .91 .38** -.05 5. Negative affectivity 2.62 .86 .88 -.03 Variables 1 2 3 4 .60** -.15** -.12** -.23** Note. N = 323, ** p < .01 (two-tailed), * p < .05 (two-tailed) Table 2: Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients), Pearson correlations (private sector) 70 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  15. 15. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 The variables used for both studies have, by and large, strong inter-correlations and their internal reliabilities are high, exemplifying significant psychometric properties. As anticipated, the control variables of positive and negative affect are significantly correlated with all variables entered into the regression analyses, except in two instances for the private sector sample. 4.2 Public sector sample The results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that there is a significant interactive effect among continuance commitment – job satisfaction – OCB: b = 1.10 (p < .01) and the explained variance of the interaction is 56% (see Table 3). Furthermore, it can be seen that job satisfaction and continuance commitment exert quite similar interactive influences on OCB: for employees with low job satisfaction the impact of continuance commitment on OCB is much more pronounced than for employees with high job satisfaction. Moreover, both interactions are disordinal in nature as the regression lines of the relationship between continuance commitment and OCB cross over within the range of satisfaction values [see: Aiken & West, 1991, p. 22f]. To answer the question of whether the regression of OCB on continuance commitment are different from zero for high and low values of job satisfaction, in addition, simple slope analyses are performed. The results of these analyses reveal that for employees with low job satisfaction the regression of OCB frequency on continuance commitment are significantly different from zero (b = -1.85, t = 5.43, p < .01). On the other hand, for employees with high job satisfaction the corresponding regression slopes indicate significant differences from zero both for continuance commitment (b = 0.23, t = 4.46, p < .01) (see Figure 2). 71 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  16. 16. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Step 1 Step 2 B SE b B SE b .16** .04 -.44** .12 .04 .04 -.74** .15 Positive affectivity (PA) .28** .04 .28** .04 Negative affectivity (NA) .11** .04 .10 .04 1.10** .21 Job satisfaction (JS) Continuance commitment (CC) JS * CC R2 .52 .56 Adjusted R2 .27 .32 Note: ** p < .01, * p < .05, N = 392 Table 3: Hierarchical regression analysis for continuance commitment, job satisfaction, and OCB (public sector) 9 8 7 OCB 6 Low job satisfaction 5 High job satisfaction 4 3 Low continuance commitment High continuance commitment CC Figure 2: Regression lines for continuance commitment, job satisfaction, and OCB (public sector) 72 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  17. 17. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 4.3 Private sector sample The results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that there is a significant interactive effect among continuance commitment – job satisfaction – OCB: b = 1.14 (p < .01) and the explained variance of the interaction is 48% (Table 4). Furthermore, the results reveal that for employees with low job satisfaction the regression of OCB frequency on continuance commitment are significantly different from zero (b = -1.84, t = 4.68, p < .01). On the other hand, for employees with high job satisfaction the corresponding regression slopes indicate significant differences for continuance commitment (b = 0.18, t = 3.35, p < .01) (See Figure 3). Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Step 1 Step 2 B SE b B SE b Job satisfaction (JS) .18** .04 .14 .13 Continuance commitment (CC) .09* .04 .05 .18 Positive affectivity (PA) .48** .04 .45** .04 Negative affectivity (NA) -.01 .04 .05 .04 1.14** .24 JS * CC R2 .42 .48 Adjusted R2 .18 .23 Note: ** p < .01, N = 323 Table 4: Hierarchical regression analysis for continuance commitment, job satisfaction, and OCB (private sector) 73 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  18. 18. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 9 8 7 OCB 6 Low job satisfaction High job satisfaction 5 4 3 Low continuance commitment High continuance commitment CC Figure 3: Regression lines for continuance commitment, job satisfaction, and OCB (private sector) Thus, increasing levels of continuance commitment are, by and large, associated with decreasing levels of OCB only when job satisfaction is low. 5. Discussion The present field study explored the moderating role of job satisfaction on the relationship between continuance commitment and OCB. It has been found that this relationship is evident and that the role of job satisfaction is to explain “when” this relationship is strong and to what direction. In other words, when job satisfaction is low, increasing levels of continuance commitment lead to decreasing levels of OCBs; whereas, when job satisfaction is high, increasing levels of continuance commitment lead to an increase on OCB. This outcome explains the effect of a satisfied or dissatisfied worker on the structural relationship between the more calculative forms of commitment on the intended behavior at work, especially the extra-role behavior. The “Good Soldier” syndrome seems to be more evident and pronounced when a worker is happy with his/her job, even if the decision to stay with the organization is not because he or she wants it, or ought to, but because he or she needs the particular job (either due to lack of alternatives or due to high sacrifices). 74 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  19. 19. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 This study provides useful information for managers and HR practitioners, since it stresses the importance of developing workplace environments and employment relationships that will make people feel at least happy with their job and the organization they work for. If they expose such positive feelings, even if they feel that their commitment to the organization is more calculative than affective, or normative, i.e., the side-bets of their decision to stay are stronger that their affective feelings or their obligation commitments, then the extra-role and pro-social behaviors of these workers at work will be exhibited and performed. In other words, if management wants employees to have OCBs, then job satisfaction is essential for this occurrence. 5.1 Limitations An important limitation of this study is the problem with the common-variance method that arises from self-report and mono-source methodological tools adopted. This method biases are attributable to the measurement method, rather than to the construct of interest [Bagozzi & Yi, 1991]. This might account for some inflation of the relationships between the variables used for the research, but apparently cannot be responsible for finding links. However, there are relatively few alternatives to this type of field studies. This deficiency is exhibited in all field studies using selfreported quantitative-type questionnaires. It is difficult to envisage a way in which individual attitudes such as job satisfaction can be assessed other than through self report. This is less of a problem, however, for the hypothesized interaction effects. The problem of common method variance cannot account for interactions among variables but leads to an underestimation of these statistical interactions [McClelland & Judd, 1993]. Despite the mono-source design, there should be confidence in the interactions obtained. Moreover, the instruments developed for this research have well proven psychometric properties, suggesting that they are likely to be resistant to common method variance [Spector, 1987]. One alternative to overcome this limitation might be to focus on a more qualitative approach, although personal interviews with a small number of respondents would limit generalizability. Longitudinal studies incorporating behavioral data from third party informants are strongly advocated in the literature. However such an approach was not possible here and third party informants would be unable to comment on individual attitudes. Third party reports of satisfaction or behavioral assessment of commitment are clearly avenues to be pursued in future. However, given that the main contribution of this research was the development 75 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  20. 20. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 and examination of a conceptual framework incorporating attitudes, self-regulations, and economic sectors, these further lines of research remain to be developed. Another limitation is the Greek translation of items, initially constructed in English or of an English-speaking audience. Thus, interpretation problems could be arise, thus, some statements were further explained when written in Greek This research decided to direct translate the items assuming to be ‘etic’, instead of adopting the belief that quantitative researches should use culturally appropriate ‘emic’ measures [see: Markovits et al., 2010; Vandenberghe, 2003]. Finally, the samples are convenient ones, thus, this may limit the generalizability of the findings, although the relatively large sample sizes mediate this shortcoming. The sample sizes are large enough, providing acceptable statistical power to the results. However, the inclusion of a selection of relevant control variables (e.g., positive and negative affectivity), seeks to limit the extent to which individual experience might confound the outcomes. 6. Recommendations for Future Research The moderating role of job satisfaction to the continuance commitment - OCB relationship needs to be further tested on the stability and generalizability of its conceptual framework. In particular, the present empirical study needs further replication in other cultural contexts, either as part of a longitudinal study in the same cultural context, or as a cross-cultural and a cross-national study. Qualitative study of the more personalized and specific areas of OCBs and job attitudes may also prove illuminating. This can be further connected to qualitative material selected by managerial assessments of employees’ OCBs and attitudes towards their job and organization. 7. References Aiken, L.S., & West, S.G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. New York: Sage. 76 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  21. 21. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Allen, N.J., & Meyer, J.P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x Alotaibi, A.G. (2001). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior: A study of public personnel in Kuwait. Public Personnel Management, 30(3), 363-377. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y.J. (1991). Multitrait–multimethod matrices in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, 426–439. doi: 10.1016/S1057-7408(08)80022-8 Bentein, K., Vandenberghe, C., Vandenberg, R., & Stinglhamber, F. (2005). The role of change in the relationship between commitment and turnover: A latent growth modeling approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 468-482. doi: 10.1037/00219010.90.3.468 Bolon, D.S. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior among hospital employees: A multidimensional analysis involving job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Hospital and Health Services Administration, 42(2), 221-241. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10167456 Chien, M.H. (2004). An Investigation of the relationship of organizational structure, employee's personality and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(2), 428-432. Retrieved from http://www.jaabc.com/journal.htm Cooper-Hakim, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). The construct of work commitment: Testing an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 131(2), 241-259. doi: 10.1037/00332909.131.2.241 Cranny, C.J., Smith, P.C., & Stone, E.F. (eds.) (1992). Job satisfaction. New York: Lexington. Dunham, R.B., Grube, J.A., & Castaňeda, M.B. (1994). Organizational commitment: The utility of an integrative definition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(3), 370-380. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.79.3.370 77 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  22. 22. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Fields, D.L. (2002). Taking the measure of work: A guide to validated scales for organizational research and diagnosis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Gould-Williams, J., & Davies, F. (2005). Using Social Exchange Theory to predict the effects of HRM practice on employee outcomes. Public Management Review, 7(1), 1-24. doi: 10.1080/1471903042000339392 Graham, M.W., & Messner, P.E. (1998). Principals and job satisfaction. The International Journal of Educational Management, 12(5), 196-202. doi: 10.1108/09513549810225925 Haar, J.M., & Spell, C.S. (2004). Programme knowledge and value of work-family practices and organizational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(6), 1040-1055. doi: 10.1080/09585190410001677304 Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J.P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of the three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 474-487. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.474 James, L.R., & Jones, A.P. (1980). Perceived job characteristics and job satisfaction: An examination of reciprocal causation. Personnel Psychology, 33(1), 97-135. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1980.tb02167.x Johnson, R.E., & Chang, C.H. (2006). ‘I’ is to continue and ‘we’ is to affective: The relevance of the self-concept to organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(5), 549-570. doi: 10.1002/job.364 Knoop, R. (1995). Influence of participative decision-making on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of school principles. Psychological Reports, 76(2), 379-382. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1995.76.2.379 Kuehn, K.W., & Al-Busaidi, Y. (2002). Citizenship behavior in a non-Western context: An examination of the role of satisfaction, commitment and job characteristics on selfreported OCB. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 12(2), 107-126. doi: 10.1108/eb047446 78 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  23. 23. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Lambert, S. (2006). Both art and science: Employing organizational documentation in workplace-based research, in M. Pitt-Catsouphes, E.E. Kossek, & S. Sweet (eds.) The work and family handbook: Multi-disciplinary perspectives, methods, and approaches. 503-525, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. LePine, J.A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D.E. (2002). The nature of dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52-65. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.87.1.52 Markovits, Y., Davis, A.J., Fay, D., & Van Dick, R. (2010). The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Differences between public and private sector employees. International Public Management Journal, 13(2), 177-196. doi: 10.1080/10967491003756682 McClelland, G.H., & Judd, C.M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114(2), 376-390. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8416037 McFarlane Shore, L. & Wayne, S.J. (1993). Commitment and employee behavior: Comparison of affective commitment and continuance commitment with perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 774-780. doi: 10.1037/00219010.78.5.774 McGee, G.W., & Ford, R.C. (1987). Two (or more?) dimensions of organizational commitment: Reexamination of the affective and continuance commitment scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(4), 638-641. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.72.4.638 Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J., & Gellatly, I.R. (1990). Affective and continuance commitment to the organization: Evaluation and measures and analysis of concurrent and time-lagged relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(6), 710-720. doi: 10.1037/00219010.75.6.710 Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, 79 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  24. 24. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 correlates and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842 Moorman, R.H., & Blakely, G.L. (1995). Individualism-collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(2), 127-142. doi: 10.1002/job.4030160204 Organ, D.W. (1988). OCB: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books: Lexington, Mass. Powell, D.M., & Meyer, J.P. (2004). Side-bet theory and the three-component model of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 157-177. doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00050-2 Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825-836. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.825 Schappe, S.P. (1998). The influence of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and fairness perceptions on organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 132(3), 277-290. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9540226 Spector, P.E. (1987). Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem? Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), 438-443. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Sage: Thousand Oaks. Vandenberghe, C. (2003). Application of the three- component model to China: Issues and perspectives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(3), 516-523. doi: 10.1016/S00018791(02)00066-0 Van Dyne, L., Graham, J., & Dienesch, R.M. (1994). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 765-802, doi: 10.2307/256600 80 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  25. 25. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Van Knippenberg, D., Van Dick, R., & Tavares, S. (2007). Social identity and social exchange: Identification, support, and withdrawal from the job. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(3), 457-477. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00168.x Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063 Weiss, D.J., Dawis, R.V., England, G.W., & Lofquist, L.H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation Bulletin, 22: 120. Williams, L.J., & Anderson, S.E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617. doi: 10.1177/014920639101700305 81 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013
  26. 26. International journal of the academy of Organizational behavior management (IJAOBM), 3(2012) 62-82 Author’s biography Yannis Markovits teaches organizational behavior and human resource management in Greece. He received his PhD in Management (work/organizational psychology) from Aston Business School, Birmingham. He has worked both in public administration and private sector organizations for more than twenty years in management and HR positions, and teaches at the Institute of Education, National Centre of Public Administration and Local Government and at the Alexander’s Technological Educational Institute. His research interests centre on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, employee motivation, and employees’ training. Dr. Markovits has authored articles, books, and book chapters, and presented his work in various international scientific conferences. He serves as reviewer on academic journals, and he is associate editor of the International Journal of the Academy of Organizational Behavior Management and member of the editorial review board of the International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology. He has also participated and supervised various research projects and worked as national expert on missions and projects in Greece and in the EU. 82 1927-565X (Print) - ISSN 1927-5668 (Online) -, Copyright IAOBM 2013

×