SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION  (C. Wright Mills)   Is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of people and s...
THE THREE MAJOR  SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>A. CONSENSUS OR STRUCTURAL  </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONALIST THEORY </li></u...
CONSENSUS OR STRUCTURAL    FUNCTIONALIST THEORY <ul><li>Society as a cultural system – both something people do together a...
  Leading Proponents: <ul><li>Auguste Comte: Interested in the concepts and relations between orders and dynamics. Sociolo...
  CONFLICT THEORY  (A Critical Sociological Theory) <ul><li>Considered as an acceptable and valid way to gain insight into...
CONFLICT THEORY  (A Critical Sociological Theory) <ul><li>It envisions culture, social institutions, social control and so...
Leading Proponents: <ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that people possess an essential nature a...
  MICROSOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>View social realities in terms of highly specific and personal interaction between in...
MICROSOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism (George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley) </li></ul><ul><...
MICROSOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>Ethnomethodology: (Harold Garfinkel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underscores the role of unwr...
 
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Socio lecture notes 2 (theories)

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Socio lecture notes 2 (theories)

  1. 1. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION (C. Wright Mills)   Is a quality of mind, a capacity to understand the interplay of people and society, biography and history, of self and the world.
  2. 2. THE THREE MAJOR SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>A. CONSENSUS OR STRUCTURAL </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONALIST THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Views society as made up of different parts which are interrelated and interdependent withone another. </li></ul><ul><li>All the parts function to achieve order, stability and consequently equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Operates in the spirit of status quo preservation, conformity and obedience to establish patterns in society and mutual and interdependent life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. CONSENSUS OR STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALIST THEORY <ul><li>Society as a cultural system – both something people do together and something they collectively know and believe in. </li></ul><ul><li>Law as an integrating element: the force of law rather than the law of force is what will sustain a nation and guarantee its survival and growth. </li></ul>
  4. 4.   Leading Proponents: <ul><li>Auguste Comte: Interested in the concepts and relations between orders and dynamics. Sociology involves the investigation of different laws of action and reaction or the interdependence of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer: Introduced the concept of differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is still integration and interdependence among different parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emile Durkheim: The most important and prominent forerunner of modern functionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically concerned with the details and nuances that define solidarity and order. Viewed values on the conception and importance of specific social structures and the behavior required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others: Bronislaw Malinowski, Arthur Radcliff-Brown, Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton </li></ul>
  5. 5.   CONFLICT THEORY (A Critical Sociological Theory) <ul><li>Considered as an acceptable and valid way to gain insight into human society. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not recognize cooperation and unity as basis of human relationship but it primarily views groups and individuals making up society in continuing conflict with one another. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CONFLICT THEORY (A Critical Sociological Theory) <ul><li>It envisions culture, social institutions, social control and social policy as oppressive since they favor only the dominant groups and not the subordinate ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Sees progress as disruptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Society changes because of continuing class struggles. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Leading Proponents: <ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that people possess an essential nature and interest and they believe in accordance to it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societies emerged and developed due to the conflict and antagonisms between these interests and the groups that represent it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution is a key to social change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Max Weber (1869-1920) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with the relationship between politics and intellectual thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on general and specific goals and values, Weber studies how people maneuver and behave in pursuing their interests. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8.   MICROSOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>View social realities in terms of highly specific and personal interaction between individuals and small groups in their everyday life. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MICROSOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism (George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes that people relate with others with the use of socially constructed symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dramaturgical Model (Erving Goffman) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regards people as if they were acting like stage performers aware of their social status and they try to live up to the expectation inherent in that status. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. MICROSOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES <ul><li>Ethnomethodology: (Harold Garfinkel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underscores the role of unwritten, hidden rules within a small group. These rules although implicit greatly govern the interaction among the members of the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology (Alfred Schutz) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses the element of intersubjectivity since every person has a way of viewing a social phenomenon. Person’s interpretation of social reality is based on common sense knowledge in which the person creates construct or own abstract model of the world of everyday life. </li></ul></ul>
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