Gardening nutrition interventions_review


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  • Sources:, CDC
  • More examples can be found at the Bay Area Nutrition and Physical Activity Collaborative ( and the California School Garden Network (
  • Sources from Literature Review
  • Gardening nutrition interventions_review

    1. 1. Gardening Interventions to Improve Nutritional Adequacy for Low Income Youth in East Palo Alto Keshav Rao
    2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Community Gardening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay Area Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Empirical Takeaways </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for EHF Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study Design/Evaluation/Partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding Sources </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Problem <ul><li>1/3 of American youth and adolescents are either overweight or obese </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 50% of youth between 4-18 consume 5 servings of fruits & veggies </li></ul><ul><li>Low income, minorities most marginalized with poor access to healthy food and bad eating habits </li></ul>2007 Childhood Obesity Rates (
    4. 4. Community Gardening <ul><li>Provides youth with hands-on experience planting, harvesting, and learning about fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in exposure to healthy food choices leads to healthier consumption decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively low-cost, high impact intervention that has spread across the nation </li></ul>
    5. 5. National Movement <ul><li>Since 1982, the National Gardening Association has given nearly $4 million through 9586 grants, reaching 1.44 million gardeners </li></ul><ul><li>Annually, the Home Depot Garden Club gives away $1000 gift cards (5) and $500 gift cards (95) to help build school and/or community gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Jamba Juice is giving $500 grants (20) to community gardens that focus on increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables among youth </li></ul>
    6. 6. Bay Area Case Studies <ul><li>Urban Sprouts has been building gardens in low-income San Francisco school communities since 2003, reaching over 3700 kids </li></ul><ul><li>The East Bay Asian Youth Center plans to create at least 10 garden-based nutrition education lessons in a total of 40 class sessions at Bella Vista, Franklin and Garfield elementary schools in Oakland </li></ul><ul><li>Alice Water’s Chez Panisse Foundation built a one acre organic garden and kitchen classroom at the MLK Jr. Middle School in Berkeley. The program has impacted over 3000 students and countless educators </li></ul>
    7. 7. Key Empirical Takeaways <ul><li>Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most 5-15 year olds demonstrated significantly higher fruit and vegetable consumption patterns after gardening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One study reported significantly higher Vitamin A, C, and Fiber for gardening vs. control group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gardening participants were more willing to taste different types of vegetables and in some cases, reported higher preference levels post-test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying degrees of increase in nutritional knowledge (from identification of food type to understanding benefits) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Home Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children asking parents for more fruits and vegetables after gardening, leading to an increase in the availability of healthy food </li></ul></ul>Literature: 12 Peer-reviewed journal articles from 2001-2011
    8. 8. Interesting/Unanswered Questions <ul><li>What is the ideal duration/composition of program? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the marginal utility of additional weeks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the optimal structure in terms of gardening activities/duration? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact of dual child-parent gardening + nutrition education on FV consumption and availability in home environment? </li></ul><ul><li>After-school program vs. weekend intervention? </li></ul><ul><li>Full nutrition adequacy tests (blood tests, etc) for long-term gardening-nutrition education intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Are effects of nutrition program dependent on socio-economic status or race? </li></ul>
    9. 9. EHP Project - Overview <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design an effective gardening + nutrition education intervention for low-income East Palo Alto youth (5-15 years old) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variables of Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit and Vegetable consumption (weekly/monthly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition Measurements (Vitamin A, C, E, Iron, Calcium, Fiber, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in preferences of vegetables and fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age-appropriate knowledge of nutritional requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in healthy food availability at home/ parent’s purchasing patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child and parent demographics </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. EHF Project – Study Design <ul><li>Weekend gardening classes and nutrition classes held at EHF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free lunch for participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One group of EPA lower and middle school students with parents vs. control groups without parents </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post survey to gauge fruit and vegetable intake, change in food preferences, knowledge gained after intervention, and change in food purchasing habits by parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary recall book and surveys previously used by other studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline at start of program, Post-experiment survey at 12 weeks, and Long term follow-up at 6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Sprouts/Edible Schoolyard (curriculum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys & Girls club/ EPA public schools (participants), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford (volunteers/nutritionist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master Gardeners of Santa Clara (gardeners) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Funding Sources <ul><li>National Gardening Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Depot Garden Club ($500-$1000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamba Juice ($500) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bay Area Nutrition and Physical Activity Collaborative ($500 - $5000) </li></ul><ul><li> ($500) </li></ul><ul><li>Sparkseed Ventures </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford Social-E Challenge </li></ul>