Integrating the four skills<br />Teaching of language as communication calls for an approach which brings linguistic skills and communicative abilities likewise into close association with each other (Widdowson: 1992, 145).<br />Integrated skills can be defined as a series of activities and tasks which use any combination of the four skills in a continuous and related sequence (Matthews: 1991).<br />
Why integrating the skills?<br />There are two main reasons: <br />practise <br />extend the students’ use of a particular language structure or function and develop the students’ ability in two or more of the four skills within a constant context.<br />How?<br />
Goals and objectives<br />The four language skills. <br />Integration, interaction and participation. <br />Beginning to think in English:<br />A student learns:<br /><ul><li>10% of what he/she reads and says.
90% of what he/she says while performing an action.De Pous, D. (in Turtledove, 2004)</li></li></ul><li>Games <br />Rules of games<br />Agreement of players<br />Surface<br />Hiddenprocesses<br />Underneath<br />Cooperation<br />
Variation: it could be adapted to forming sentences , spelling, using vocabulary in context, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Speeddictation<br />3<br /><ul><li>Purpose: encourage students to spell correctly in a kinesthetic way, introduce vocabulary, semantic fields.
Skills: listening and speaking, writing (spelling).
Variation: guess my word, hangman, scrabble, crosswords, word search (same color), etc…</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Body Maths<br />4<br /><ul><li>Purpose: Motivate students to cooperate in solving problems and the use of vocabulary.
Variation: dictation, prompts for constructing sentences, presentation of vocabulary, mime and guess the word, body spell… </li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />The crocodile<br />5<br /><ul><li>Purpose: reinforce and evaluate vocabulary use in context.
Variation: It could be adapted with synonyms, semantic fields and recommended for any level.</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Orchestra games<br />6<br /><ul><li>Purpose: to make students aware of parts of speech.
Variations: try different speed and rhythm, intensity- for other purposes this can be related to the alphabet songs.</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Mail Order Brothers & Sisters<br />7<br /><ul><li>Purpose: practice conditionals, future forms and filling out forms.
Skills: speaking, listening, writing and reading.
Variations: at the end, students could use reported speech (orally/written) to inform about the activity. </li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Alphabet songs and games<br />8<br /><ul><li>Purposes: to make students integrate through rhythms and tunes as well as make them aware of the importance of spelling.
Skills: listening, reading, speaking and writing.
Variations: this can be related to the orchestra game as the conductor (teacher or students) decides the tune, rhythm and intensity. For advanced levels, they can choose their own songs and adapt them.</li></li></ul><li>“The following activities are about bookwork, so please open your books now!”… <br />
Negative reaction<br />Confusion <br />Bookwork: manageable and fun<br />Twoways: making sure the students are warmed up before and make sure the feeling continues after books open. <br />Book work is fun work!!!!!!!<br />
Activity<br />Things to connect<br />9<br /><ul><li>Purpose: to introduce the topic (vocabulary) of the book in a funny and different way.
Variations: take advantage of the environment, evaluate compound words, phrasal verbs, words and phonetic representation, among others.</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Spinning pen<br />10<br /><ul><li>Purpose: use the course book in a different ways.
Variations: you can use for identifying parts of speech, describing pictures (in case), making questions, statements, asking to name (or sing) a title of a song, a movie, a book which contains that word or miming the word, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Recommendations<br />Physical and mental warm up.<br />Seamlessconnectionbetweenbookwork and workbook. <br />Preparation (language, a closerelatedactivity)<br />Makesureopeningbooksissomethinguseful.<br />Children: wearthemout, so theywanttositdown and rest. <br />Avoid material rewards<br />
References<br /><ul><li>BATLLORI, J. (2001)</li></ul>Gimnasia Mental: El juego como Elemento de Desarrollo. México: Alfaomega.<br /><ul><li>CASE, A. (2006)</li></ul> Bookwork is fun work! In English Teaching Professional, 45, July. U. S. Council.<br /><ul><li>LEE, W. R. (1993) </li></ul>Language Teaching Games and Contests. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.<br /><ul><li>MATTHEWS, A. et al. (1991) </li></ul> At the chalkface, practical technique in language teaching. UK: BC<br /><ul><li>RAFFINI, J. P. (1996)</li></ul>150 Ways to Increase Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom. New York: Allyn & Bacon.<br /><ul><li>TURTLEDOVE, C. (2004) </li></ul> Action Games: 101 Fun Ways to practice English Grammar. 3rd ed. Mexico: Delti.<br /><ul><li>UR, P. (1992)</li></ul>Five-minute Activities: A Resource Book of Short Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br /><ul><li>WRIGHT, A., BETTERIDGE, D. & BUCKBY, M. (1992)</li></ul>Games for Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br /><ul><li>WIDDOWSON, H. G. (1990) </li></ul> Teaching language as communication. Oxford OUP<br />