“ I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by conscious endeavor.” Henry David Thoreau
The more I know, the more I know I do not know. -Unknown
RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC WRITING
What is Research?
Searching for a Theory
Solving a Problem
What is a True Research?
What is a True Research ..….
Research originates with a question.
An inquisitive mind is the beginning of research.
Research demands a clear articulation of a goal.
What you intend to do?
Research requires a specific plan of procedure.
How you propose to reach the goal?
Research usually divides the principal problem into more manageable sub problems.
Principal question is divided to other questions.
WHAT IS A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND HOW IT IS CONDUCTED
A PROBLEM EXISTS:
There is an absence of information resulting in a gap in our knowledge
There are contradictory results
A fact exists and you intend to make your study explain it
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF A PROBLEM?
SOURCES OF A PROBLEM
Experiences & Observation
The vast amount of literature in your own field
Courses that you have taken
Journals, books, magazines and abstracts
Theses and dissertations
Your teacher and your classmates
Guidelines in the Selection of a Topic
Availability of the materials needed for investigation
Particular needs of the community
Socio – economic significance of the problem
Topic is within your level of knowledge and experience
Time required to finish the project
Safety measures to be undertaken
Expenses involved in undertaking the project
Generation of new information
Formulating a Research Problem
For the research problem to be
significant it must:
Help answer a problem / need of the people / community / country
Contribute to the generation of new information
Develop or improve an existing process
Contribute to the development of the scientific skills of the researcher
Evaluating the Problem
1. Is the problem feasible?
a. Has the problem been specified?
b. Is the problem amenable to research?
c. How available are the data?
d. Is the problem too large?
e. Am I capable of solving the problem?
2. Is the problem worthwhile?
a. Will the result advance knowledge?
b. Will the research have some value?
c. Will the research be of interest to possible user?
As soon as you have chosen your topic:
Make the topic more specific and definitive.
Start defining major terms in the title.
Survey the literature.
The title should be written briefly (20 substantive words, function words not included is the maximum allowable length of a title).
Should contain the variables you will study.
Should show the relationship among the variables.
The title should be able to catch the attention of the reader or “eye catching”. It should be concise, descriptive and self-explanatory. It should indicate clearly what the project is about. The title should focus on the topic for investigation and the main variable being studied should be included.
The TITLE is the first thing the reader comes across when surveying the scientific literature. It is an overview of the entire article and maybe the only basis for deciding whether to read the scientific paper or not.
VARIABLES - are the constructs or properties being studied.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE or criterion variable
Is the outcome or objective of the study.
In lay language, it is the result.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE or variate variable
- Is that property or characteristics that makes the outcome or objective vary or differ.
Samples of independent and dependent variables Problem Independent Variable Dependent Variable The study aims to determine the effect of beer on the growth of orchid. beer Growth of orchids
IN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH :
An independent variable is manipulated;
All other variables except the dependent variable are held constant; and
The effect of manipulation of the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed or measured.
Is a tentative explanation for certain behaviors, phenomena, or events which have occurred or will occur.
It is the most specific statement of a problem.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS:
A good hypothesis is researchable.
It should state, in definite terms, the relationship between variables.
It should be testable.
It should follow the findings of previous studies.
FUNCTIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS:
Introduces the researcher’s thinking at the start of the study.
Structures the next stages or procedures of the study.
Helps provide the format for the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the data in the research.
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS:
- Means no existence of an effect, an interaction, of relationships, or of difference.
-Is considered the operational statement of the research hypothesis.
Deductive Hypothesis- based on theory
Inductive Hypothesis- based on observations
EXAMPLE Problem: What intellectual and non-intellectual student characteristic can predict academic achievement?
What intellectual and non-intellectual student characteristic can predict academic achievement?
Environmental conditions in the home and scholastic aptitude are predictors of physics achievement.
Null Hypothesis (H0):
Environmental conditions in the home and scholastic aptitude are not significant predictors of physics achievement.
Work on at least three (3) problems for investigation;
Create the title for each problem;
Make the null and alternative hypothesis for each title.