2-1_1. kalinkov rev

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2-1_1. kalinkov rev

  1. 1. CURRENT STATUS OFTHE POTABLE WATERSECTOR IN BULGARIAPROBLEMS AND FUTUREDEVELOPMENT Prof. Dr. Eng. Petar Kalinkov
  2. 2. Water resources in Bulgaria Surface water 1961-1998 (50% probability) River basin Total flow BG territory neighbouring countries 106 m3 % 106 m3 % 106 m3 %Danube basin 6017 30,96 5996 31,63 20,6 4,3Black sea basin 2243 11,55 1976 10,43 267 56East Belomorski 7184 36,97 7183 37,90 - -West Belomorski 3988 20,52 3799 20,04 189 39,7Total: 19433 100 18956 100 476.9 100 82% formed in the mountains 18% formed in the plains 2430 m3 per capita per annum available surface water
  3. 3. Water resources in Bulgaria Underground water 1961-1998 Operational Underground Water Resources River Basin Potential Utilized Non utilized m3/s 106 m3/a m3/s 106 m3/a m3/a 106 m3/a % Danube basin 90 2838 13.5 426 76.5 2412 85 Black sea basin 22 662 11.8 372 10.2 322 48 East Belomorski 37 1167 19.7 621 17.5 552 47 West Belomorski 9 284 5 158 4 126 44 Total (1998) 158 4953 50 1577 108 3376 68 Underground water is the only possible solution for potable water supply in many regions of the country. 612 m3 per capita per annum potential underground water
  4. 4. WAI & WSIWATER AVAILABILITY WATER STRESS INDEXINDEXWAI = available fresh water WSI = consumed water population available water WAI < 1000 m3/cap/a  WSI = 0,0 - 0,1 no stress; water deficit  WSI = 0,1 - 0,2 low stress;  WSI = 0,2 - 0,4 average stress;  WSI = 0,4 - 0,8 high stress;  WSI = 0,8 - 1,0 very high stress;
  5. 5. WAI & WSI in Bulgaria Indices 1991 1995 2001 2004 2005 2010 Population 8 669 269 8 384 715 7 891 095 7 761 049 7 718 750 7 504 868 WAI 2 238 2314 2 458 2 500 2 513 3250 m3/cap./dayAbstracted water, 5199 2464 2 403 2 891 2 657 3 330 10 6 m3WSI m3/cap./day) 0.268 0.127 0.124 0.149 0.137 0.136
  6. 6. Water supply serviceAt 1998 4510 (75.8%) settlements are served by the National Water Supply System; 98 % of the population is water supplied;At 2010 5031 (84.6%) settlements are served by the National Water Supply System; 98.8 % of the population is water supplied;
  7. 7. the facilities 11+5 reservoirs with 1 505,000,000 m3 storage capacity; 42 WTPs with 480,506,000 m3/a capacity, providing 42% of the supplied water; 3560 pump stations with 768,378,000 m3/a capacity 6 087 water tanks with total capacity 2615879 m3; 70620 km water distribution network. others PVC+PEHD Cast iron Steel Asbestos cement 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  8. 8. Water supplied by WSS 2010Companies 1998 1994 1986
  9. 9. Population (un)growth 2010 1998 1994 1986
  10. 10. …which results in 500 450 400Liters per capita per day 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1986 1994 1998 2010
  11. 11. …however in 2010 929,410,000 m3 - supplied water; 340 l/cap/d Only 371,400,000 m3(40%) are accounted; 135 l/ca/d And 558,000,000 m3 (60%) are not accounted; 70% are 30% are pure physical consumed but 205 l/cap/d losses not accounted
  12. 12. …and the problems Great water losses in the transport trunks, the distribution networks and the building connections; Water shortage during the summer months and during droughty conditions, due to lack of equalizing water reservoirs; Many not completed facilities of the water supply infrastructure;
  13. 13. Potable water abstraction100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% reservoirs underground rivers water
  14. 14. The water qualityWater Quality Unit River water Res.water Und. water pH - 7.0-7.8 7.0-8.0 7.0-7.5 0,0÷12,0~330 d 0,0÷10,0 Turbidity NTU 0,0÷0,01 10÷300~40 d 12,0÷20,0Colour (Pt. Co.) ° 5,0÷30,0 5,0÷45,0 - Alkalinity mg/l 0,2÷1,0 1,0÷4,0 - Oxidizability mg.O2 /l 1,0÷6,0 1,0÷12,0 - Temperature ºC 0,2÷16,0 4,0÷15,0 6,0÷12,0 Fe mg/l 0,0÷1,0 0,0÷0,5 0,0÷0,12 Mn mg/l 0,0 0,0÷2,5 0,0÷0,5 NH3 mg/l 0,0÷1,2 0,0÷0,5 - NO3 mg/l 0,0÷10,0 0,0÷5,0 0,0÷12,0 NO2 mg/l 0,0÷0,1 0,0÷0,35 -Microb. Indices above the norm above the norm above the norm
  15. 15. 2-stage water treatment scheme
  16. 16. 1-stage water treatment scheme
  17. 17. Removal of Manganese
  18. 18. What are the main WTPs’ problems? The equipment is physically and technically out dated; Necessity of re-evaluation of the treatment technologies due to deterioration of the raw water quality; The preparation of projects for many WTPs is preceding the construction and filling in of the reservoirs, which results in utilization of prognostic, not real water quality data; The treatment of technical waters is either not developed at all or has not been solved good in many WTPs; Some water abstraction by reservoirs are not secured by sanitary protection zones, which creates problems to the raw water quality; Lack of research institute that should develop technologies based on real, not prognostic water quality.
  19. 19. THANK YOU FOR YOURATTENTION

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