Anatomy and physiology for yoga students


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Anatomy and physiology for yoga students

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology for Yoga Students worldwide Dr Shashikant Basic
  2. 2. Cell Theory• Term “cell” was coined in 1665 by Robert Hooke when he looked at a slice of dried cork. He also observed that: 1. All living things are comprised of cells. 2. Cells are the smallest “living” unit in an organisms. 3. Cells come from previously existing cells.
  3. 3. Cell Diversity• Lots of shapes and sizes
  4. 4. Typical Cell
  5. 5. Cell Organization
  6. 6. Levels of OrganizationRemember, the human body is organized in several levels, from thesimplest to the most complex. . . Cells – the basic unit of life Tissues – clusters of cells performing a similar function Organs – made of tissues that perform one specific function Organ Systems – groups of organs that perform a specific purpose in the human body***The purpose of the 11 organ systems is for the human body tomaintain homeostasis.
  7. 7. Cell Organization• The cell includes two basic parts: 1. Cell Membrane (outer covering of cell) 2. Cytoplasm • Cytosol (fluid portion of the cytoplasm) • Organelles (cell “organs” or functional parts)
  8. 8. Cell Membrane• Outer boundary• Physical• Chemical• Comprised of two layers of lipid (fat) – Outer and inner layers• Proteins• Proteins give the cell its unique “personality” or function
  9. 9. Cell Membrane
  10. 10. Function of Membrane Proteins1. Transport (in and out of cell)2. Receptors3. Cell adhesion4. Cell recognition
  11. 11. Cell Organization
  12. 12. Cytoplasm• Is comprised of:1. Cytosol (fluid portion of the cytoplasm)2. Organelles (cell “organs” or functional parts)
  13. 13. Cytosol• Intracellular fluid• Contains dissolved nutrients, ions, proteins and waste products
  14. 14. Organelles1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)• A network of membrane-bound tunnels throughout the cytoplasm
  15. 15. ER Rough ER Smooth ER
  16. 16. Ribosomes• Particles attached to ER are ribosomes.• Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis within every cell.
  17. 17. Golgi Apparatus• Flattened membranes• Involved in packaging and secretion of proteins
  18. 18. Golgi Apparatus
  19. 19. Mitochondria• Bean shaped• Outer and inner membranes
  20. 20. Mitochondria• Inner membrane folded into cristae• Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced on cristae.• ATP is high energy compound.• ATP only produced in mitochondria.
  21. 21. Nucleus
  22. 22. Nucleus• Control center of cell• Contains DNA/chromosomes• Genetic repository for ~ 35,000 genes• Genes control the synthesis of proteins in each cell.• Red blood cells don’t have a nucleus.• Skeletal muscle cells have multiple nuclei.
  23. 23. • Acidsolutions have a highhydrogen ion concentration• Base or alkaline solutions have a low hydrogen ion concentration
  24. 24. • All organisms are composed of energy and matter. Matter and energy work together to build and run the human body.• Elements are bonded together to form a wide array of structural and functional molecules. Molecules need a constant supply of energy to carry out their roles.• Humans are primarily composed of organic molecules called biochemicals. It is necessary to take in appropriate portions of the biochemicals needed to replace those that are used up.
  25. 25. Levels of Organization:
  26. 26. Superficial AnatomyGenerally consider body in Anatomical Position while studied Two other positions: supine and proneAnatomical Directions Anterior vs. ?; medial vs. ?; superior vs. ? . . . Etc. . . . Proximal vs. distal
  27. 27. AnatomicalRegions:Take wordsapart!
  28. 28. In the clinic: Abdomino-pelvic Regions
  29. 29. Body Planes• Sagittal plane - Divides the body into right and left halves.• Transverse (Horizontal) plane - Divides the body into superior and inferior halves.• Frontal (Coronal) plane - Divides the body into anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal halves.
  30. 30. Orientation Terminology• Left Right• Superior Inferior• Anterior Posterior• Ventral Dorsal• Proximal Distal• Medial Lateral• Superficial Deep• Adduct Abduct• Cranial Caudal
  31. 31. Body Cavities
  32. 32. (Anatomy and Physiology for Yoga students - Dr Shashikant (
  33. 33. Movement Terminology• Abduction Adduction• Flexion Extension• Inversion Eversion• Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion• Pronation Supination• Lateral rotation Medial rotation• Protrusion Retrusion• Elevation Depression• Opposition Reposition• Circumduction
  34. 34. Structure of Cell• Cell is a structural & Functional unit of human body, capable of carrying out functions of life independently. – Nucleus – Cytoplasm – Cell Membrane Functions of Cell - Production of Bio-Energy - Storage - Multiplication - Specific function according to location
  35. 35. Systems• Muscular System• Skeletal System• Digestive System• Respiratory System• Circulatory System• Excretory System• Reproductive System (Male & Female)• Nervous System• Endocrine System
  36. 36. Overview of Anatomy & Physiology• Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another – Gross or macroscopic – Microscopic – Developmental• Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery [characteristics and mechanisms that make it a living being.]
  37. 37. Gross Anatomy• Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)• Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system• Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
  38. 38. Microscopic Anatomy• Cytology – study of the cell• Histology – study of tissues
  39. 39. Developmental Anatomy• Traces structural changes throughout life• Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth
  40. 40. Physiology• Considers the operation of specific organ systems – Renal – kidney function – Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system – Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels• Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
  41. 41. Physiology• Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way muscle uses bone for movement
  42. 42. Principle of Complementarity• An anatomical structure usually reflects its function [Form follows function]• What a structure can do depends on its specific form
  43. 43. Levels of Structural Organization• Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules• Cellular – cells are made of molecules• Tissue – consists of similar types of cells• Organ – made up of different types of tissues• Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together• Organismal – made up of the organ systems
  44. 44. Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cell Molecules 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to Smooth form molecules muscle tissue Heart3 Tissue level Cardiovascular Tissues consist of system Blood similar types of cells vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth Blood muscle vessel tissue (organ) 6 Organismal level Connective The human organism is made tissue up of many organ systems 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different 5 Organ system level types of tissues Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Figure 1.1
  45. 45. Organ Systems of the Body• Integumentary system – Forms the external body covering – Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails – Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
  46. 46. Organ Systems of the Body• Skeletal system – Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments [with the joints they make up] – Protects and supports body organs – Provides the framework for muscles – Site of blood cell formation – Stores minerals
  47. 47. Organ Systems of the Body• Muscular system – Composed of muscles and tendons – Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression – Maintains posture – Produces heat
  48. 48. Organ Systems of the Body• Nervous system – Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves – Is the fast-acting control system of the body – Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
  49. 49. Organ Systems of the Body• Cardiovascular system – Composed of the heart and blood vessels – The heart pumps blood – The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
  50. 50. Organ Systems of the Body• Lymphatic system – Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels – Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood – Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream – Houses white blood cells involved with immunity
  51. 51. Organ Systems of the Body• Respiratory system – Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs – Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  52. 52. Organ Systems of the Body• Digestive system – Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver – Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood – Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
  53. 53. Organ Systems of the Body• Urinary system – Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra – Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body – Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
  54. 54. Organ Systems of the Body• Male reproductive system – Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens – Main function is the production of offspring – Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones – Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
  55. 55. Organ Systems of the Body• Female reproductive system – Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina – Main function is the production of offspring – Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones – Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus – Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn
  56. 56. Organ Systems Interrelationships• The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment• Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen• Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood• Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2
  57. 57. Human Anatomy and Body Systems
  58. 58. Digestion is chemical and mechanical process on the ingested food to prepare it for assimilation by the body.• Function of Digestive System – Ingestion – Chewing – Swallowing – Digestion – Absorption – Excretion of undigested food
  59. 59. • Organs of Digestive System – Mouth – Pharynx (Throat) – Oesophagus (Food tube) – Stomach – Small intestine – Large intestine – Rectum
  60. 60. Layers of Digestive System• Inner Epithelial layer – Secretion of enzyme and mucus – Soft and pink in colour• Middle Muscular layer – Outer layer (Longitudinal muscles) – Inner layer (Circular muscle) – Peristalsis (Segmental contraction)• Outer Serous layer – Protective function – Diagram
  61. 61. The Digestive SystemPurpose: to convert food particles into simpler micromolecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream andused by the bodyMajor Organs and their Functions:Mouth – to chew and grind up food -- saliva also begins the chemical breakdownEsophagus – pipe connecting mouth to stomach (25cms)Stomach – secretes an extraordinarily strong acid (pH = 2) thatleads to breakdown of food -- once the food is broken down in the stomach andmixed with digestive juices, it is called chyme
  62. 62. Pancreas – produces the hormone insulin that regulatesblood sugar levels -- also help neutralize stomach acidLiver – produces bile, which breaks down fats in foodsGallbladder – pouch-like organ that stores bile for future useSmall Intestine – after digestion is complete, the chymeenters the small intestine where it is absorbed into thebloodstream -- the chyme is propelled along by folded surfacescalled villi, on the intestineLarge Intestine – removes water from the chyme and gets thewaste ready for excretion
  63. 63. • Mouth – Beginning of Digestive system – Lips, teeth, gums, tongue. – Palate (soft and hard), tonsils – Opening of Salivary glands• Teeth – Total 32 in adults• Tongue – Functions • Helps in mastication • Mixing all saliva with food • Swallowing • Sensation of taste • Speech
  64. 64. • Salivary glands – 3 pairs • Parotid in front of ear • Submandibular below lower jaw • Sublingual below tongue• Saliva – Secretion of salivary glands – Secreted with ingestion, memory, smell of food – Ptylin converts starch into sugar• Pharynx (Throat) – Posterior of nose, mouth & larynx – Musculo membranous tube
  65. 65. • Swallowing – Voluntary and Involuntary stages• Voluntary – Bolus formation – By movement of tongue and cheeks – Bolus pushed into pharynx• Involuntary – Soft palate raised up & closes nasal passage – Glottis contracts and closes – Larynx lifted upwards and forwards – Food passes to Oesophagus – Breathing ceases during this step
  66. 66. • Stomach – Dilated part of Digestive system – Lies in upper abdomen below diaphragm – Slightly left to midline – Upper opening connected to Oesophagus – Lower opening connected to Duodenum – Both remain closed during gastric digestion – J shaped in standing position – Elastic muscular bag with capacity of 2 liters – 3 muscular layer- vertical, circular, oblique
  67. 67. • Functions of the Stomach – Storage of food for 3 hours – Partial digestion of proteins and fats – Semi digested food from stomach enters the Duodenum• Oesophagus – 25cm long muscular tube – From pharynx to stomach – Behind trachea and in front of vertebral column – Major part passes to Thorax – Food passes to stomach by active muscular action – Solid food reaches stomach in 7 to 8 seconds – Liquids reaches stomach in 2 to 3 seconds
  68. 68. • Small intestine – 6 to 7 meter long, 2.5cm diameter – Lies in center of abdomen – Divided into 3 parts • First part – Duodenum • Second part – Jejunum • Third part – ileum• Alkaline Secretions – Protects from acid contents of stomach• Small intestine – Mucosa • Deeply folded to increase the surface area • Helps in absorption of food.
  69. 69. • Large intestine – 1.5meter long, 5 to 6cm diameter – Divided into 3 parts • Right ascending colon • Transverse colon • Left descending colon• Sigmoid Colon & Rectum – Temporary storage of faeces – Anus is guarded by external & internal sphincters
  70. 70. Liver• Functions – Synthesis of bile – Formation of urea – Detoxification of drugs – Destruction of RBC – Storage of excess glucose in form of glycogen – Storage of Vitamin A & D – Storage of Hemoglobin – Manufacturing of blood proteins, albumin & globulin – Manufacturing of prothrombin & fibrinogen
  71. 71. • Gall bladder – Stores the liver bile (60ml)• Pancreas – Located in upper abdomen behind the stomach – Right part in the C of Duodenum – Extends to the left up to the spleen – Manufactures digestive enzymes – Manufactures insulin
  72. 72. The Digestive System
  73. 73. The Excretory SystemPurpose: to rid the body of wastes, including excess water and saltsMajor Organs and Their FunctionsKidneys – the main organs of the excretory system -- waste-laden blood enters the kidney and the kidney filters out urea, excess water and other waste products, whicheventually travel out of the kidney as urine -- eventually they travel through the ureter to the urinary bladderRectum – solid (food) waste travels out of the body through the rectum
  74. 74. • Excretion – The process of expulsion of waste products & toxins out of the body• Excretory organs – Urinary system – Skin – Large intestine – Lung• Organs of Urinary system – Two kidneys – Two ureters – Urinary bladder – Urethra
  75. 75. Skin – sweat glands remove excess water and salts from the body Lungs – expel the waste gas carbon dioxide The Excretory System
  76. 76. • Kidney – Located at the backside of abdominal cavity, on either side of vertebral column – Bean shape – Size- length 13cm, breadth 6cm,thichness 3cm – Weight- 150gm
  77. 77. • Functions of kidney – Expulsion of waste products and toxins – Maintenance of water level in body – To maintain reaction of blood – Expulsion of toxic medicine – To maintain balance of salts and minerals• Functional unit of kidney – Nephron – 10,00,000 in each kidney• Ureters – Starts from hilum up to urinary bladder – 25cms long, 4mm wide – Carries urine to urinary bladder by peristalsis
  78. 78. • Urinary bladder – Muscular bag – In the pelvis anterior to rectum in case of male – In the pelvis anterior to uterus in case of female – Collection of urine – Sphincter of bladder voluntary control – 300 to 900 ml storage capacity – After 1000 ml voluntary control is lost• Urethra – Male urethra passes through penis, length 25cm – Female urethra opens anterior to vagina, length 2.5 cm
  79. 79. • Contents of urine Daily filtration Actual excretionWater 180 liter 1.5 literSalts 700 gm 15 gmGlucose 170 gm 0Urea 50 gm 30 gm• Urine – Daily output 1200 to 1500 ml – 95 % water, 5 % salts & organic matter – Urea, uric acid, salts of potassium, magnesium and calcium
  80. 80. • Functions of skin – Protection from injury – Sensation of touch – Regulation of body temperature – Absorption of oil, ointments – Excretion – Regulation of water balance – Production of Vitamin D – To keep the skin & hair smooth, silky & shin
  81. 81. The Respiratory SystemPurpose: to provide the body with a fresh supply of oxygen forcellular respiration and remove the waste product carbon dioxideMajor Organs and Their FunctionsNose – internal entry and exit point for airPharynx – serves as a passage way for both air and food at theback of the throatLarynx – your “voicebox”, as air passes over your vocalchords, you speakTrachea – the “windpipe”, or what connects your pharynx to yourlungs -- a piece of skin, called the epiglottis, covers the tracheawhen you swallow, preventing food from entering
  82. 82. Bronchi – the two large passageways that lead from the trachea toyour lungs (one for each lung) -- the bronchi are further subdivided into bronchioles -- eventually, the further subdivisions lead to tiny air sacs called alveoli -- alveoli are in clusters, like grapes -- capillaries surrounding each alveolus is where the exchange of gases with the blood occursThe diaphragm is the muscle that causes you to breath -- hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm
  83. 83. Importance of Respiratory System Sign of Life The most Vital function Respiration is INDEPENDENT but can be controlled to some extent (pranayama)
  84. 84. Image of the Respiratory System
  85. 85. • Functions – Supply of Oxygen – To remove CO2 and water vapour – Purification of blood – Protective function- coughing, sneezing – Talking• Organs of Respiration – Nose – Throat – Larynx – Trachea with its branching system – lungs – (diagram of Respiratory System)
  86. 86. • Nose – Two nasal cavities separated by nasal septum – The Nasal Septum is made up of cartilage & bone• Function – Warming of Air – Filtration of Air – To keep nasal passage moist – Sensation of smell
  87. 87. • Throat & Larynx – Throat (seven passages) • Larynx • Oesophagus • Mouth • Left Eustachian tube • Right Eustachian tube • Left nostril • Right nostril
  88. 88. • Trachea – Made up of cartilage and muscles – Two main branches- Left and Right bronchus – Branching and sub branching ending in alveoli
  89. 89. • Inspiration – Active process – by muscular action • Contraction of diaphragm – Increase in vertical diameter • Contraction of intercostals muscles – Elevation of ribs and sternum – Increase in antero-posterior and transverse diameter • Expansion of lungs due to negative pressure – Air drawn inwards• Expiration – Passive process – Elastic recoil of the lungs due to Relaxation of diaphragm and inter costal muscle. – Positive pressure created in lungs• Control of Respiration – Control of Inspiration and Expiration by medulla oblongata
  90. 90. • Lung Volumes – Tidal capacity : 500c.c. – Dead space : 150c.c. – Vital capacity : 4500c.c. – Total lung capacity : 6000c.c. – Residual volume : 1350c.c. – Expiratory reserve : 1500c.c. – Inspiratory capacity : 3000c.c.
  91. 91. • Analysis of gases in respiration O2 N2 CO2 Inspired air 21% 79% - Exhaled air 16% 79% 5%• Effects of Pranayama – More oxygenation of blood – Improvement in function of all organs – Life span increases because of more supply of oxygen
  92. 92. The Circulatory SystemPurpose: to deliver oxygenated blood to the various cells and organsystems in your body so they can undergo cellular respirationMajor Organs and Their FunctionsHeart – the major muscle of the circulatory system -- pumps blood through its four chambers (two ventriclesand two atria) -- pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs, where it gets oxygenated, returned to the heart, and then pumped outthrough the aorta to the rest of the body -- valve regulate the flow of blood between the chambers
  93. 93. Arteries – carry blood away from the heart and to the major organsof the bodyVeins – carry blood back to the heart away from the major organs ofthe bodyCapillaries – small blood vessels where gas exchange occursBlood – the cells that flow through the circulatory system -- red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich proteinthat carries oxygen -- white blood cells function in the immune system -- platelets help in blood clottingSpleen – helps to filter out toxins in the blood
  94. 94. Image of the Circulatory System
  95. 95. Components of blood – Total volume of blood – 5 to 6 liters – Components • Plasma 55-60 % • Blood cells 40-45 % – RBC – WBC – Platelets
  96. 96. • R.B.C. (Red blood cells) – Colour of blood due to RBC – 4 to 5 millions / c.c. – Hemoglobin carry 90% Oxygen – Dumbbell shaped cells with no nucleus• W.B.C. (White blood cells) – White colored – 6000 to 9000 / c.c. – Kills the bacteria (protective role) – No specific shape, with central nucleus
  97. 97. • Platelets – 1,00,000 to 2,00,000 / c.c. – Helps in clotting of blood (Enzyme Thrombokinase) – Circular shape• Plasma – 90 to 92 % water – 8 to 10 % dissolved organic & inorganic matter (proteins, glucose, salts & hormones) – Presence of antibodies
  98. 98. Functions of Blood – To carry Oxygen from lungs to cells and to carry CO2 from cells to lungs – To carry nutrients from Digestive system to cells – To carry excretory products (waste material) from cells to excretory organs – To carry hormones – To maintain water balance in the body – To maintain body temperature – To protect the body from infections – Clotting the blood after injury
  99. 99. Difference between Arteries & Veins• Arteries • Veins – Carry blood from heart – Carry blood from other to other organs organs to heart – Carry oxygenated blood – Carry de-oxygenated – Have thick walls blood – Do not have valves – Have thin walls – Presence of valves
  100. 100. • Heart – Situated in the rib cage of chest on the left side – Embedded in lungs – Size of heart is equal to the size of clenched fist – Connected with many big (giant )blood vessels – Made up of involuntary muscle – Heart starts beating from 4th month of IU life. – Duration of one heart beat is 0.8sec.
  101. 101. • 4 Chambers of Heart – Auricles to receive blood – Ventricles to pump blood – Left side oxygenated blood – Right side deoxygenated blood
  102. 102. • Circulation of Blood – Continuous circulation – Force of circulation due to pumping action of heart – From left ventricle  Aorta  Branches & Sub branches  Artery  Small artery  Arteriole  Capillaries  CELLS Venouls  Small veins union of many veins  Superior & Inferior venacava  Right auricle  Right ventricle  Pulmonary artery  Lungs (oxygenation)  Pulmonary veins  Left auricle  Left ventricle
  103. 103. • Spleen – Situated in abdominal cavity – Left hypochondriac region, below the ribs – Weight 100gm• Function of Spleen – Production of blood cells – Storage of blood – Destruction of platelets – To transport hemoglobin to liver – Seat of some antibodies – Extracts bacteria and dead cells from blood.
  104. 104. The Reproductive SystemFunctions of the Male Reproductive System•Production of gametes.•Synthesis of androgens.•Delivery of sperm into the femalereproductive tract. Functions of the Female Reproductive System •Production of gametes •Production of female sex hormones •Reception and maintenance of …
  105. 105. The Nervous SystemPurpose: to coordinate the body’s response to changes in its internaland external environmentMajor Organs and Their FunctionsBrain – control center of the body, where all processes are relayedthrough -- consists of cerebrum (controls though and senses) and cerebellum (controls motor functions)Spinal Cord – sends instructions from the brain to the rest of thebody and vice versa -- any organism with a major nerve cord is classified as a chordateNerves – conduct impulses to muscle cells throughout the body
  106. 106. • Nervous system – Central processing unit of body. Controls and balance of body functions.• Divisions – Central nervous system (CNS) – Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – Autonomic nervous system (ANS)• Components – Nerve cell – Sensory nerve – Brain – Motor nerve – End organ
  107. 107. Diagram of a Nerve Cell
  108. 108. • Functions of Nervous system – Control over voluntary and involuntary functions / actions. – To control body movements, respiration, circulation, digestion, hormo ne secretion, body temperature – To receive stimuli from sense organs, perceive them and respond accordingly – Higher mental functions like memory, receptivity, perception & thinking.
  109. 109. • Parts of CNS – Cerebrum – Cerebellum – Mid brain – Pones – Medulla oblongata – Spinal cord
  110. 110. • Brain – Protected by skull – Three coverings of brain called meninges • Dura • Arachnoid • Pia matter – Cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) between the Pia meter and Arachnoid – CSF acts as a shock absorber and provides nutrition to the brain
  111. 111. • Cerebrum – Biggest part of brain, divided into two hemispheres – Contra lateral control – Outer surface is grey due to cells – Internally white due to fibers – Surface is folded to increase the area• Functions of cerebrum – Intellect, memory, will power, imagination, emotion & other psychological functions – Receive and perceive the stimuli – To give command for reaction with the help of past experience – To control over other parts of nervous system
  112. 112. • Cerebellum – Situated below and behind the cerebrum• Functions of cerebellum – Controls tone muscles – Helps coordination of body movements – Helps balancing the body• Mid brain – Underneath the cerebrum and above pons• Functions of mid brain – To control involuntary functions
  113. 113. • Pons – Below mid brain• Functions of pons – Control of consciousness – Control level of concentration• Medulla oblongata – Lowest part of CNS just above the spinal cord• Functions of Medulla oblongata – Control of respiration – Control of circulation – Control of swallowing and vomiting
  114. 114. • Spinal cord – Located safely in spinal canal – Length is 45cm, which extends up to first lumber vertebra – 31 pairs of peripheral nerves starts from spinal cord• Functions of spinal cord – To propagate sensory stimuli from organs to the brain – To carry commands from the brain towards the organs – Reflex action
  115. 115. • Reflex action – Protective function of the spinal cord – Sensory organ – Afferent nerve – Sensory cell in posterior horn of spinal cord – Connector nerve – Motor cell in anterior horn of spinal cord – Efferent nerve – End organ of reaction
  116. 116. • Autonomic nervous system (Involuntary nervous system) – It has control over • Digestion • Respiration • Circulation • Hormone secretion • Maintenance of body temperature • Maintenance of water balance• Peripheral nervous system – 12 pairs of cranial nerves from brain (cranial nerves) – 31 pairs of spinal nerves from spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  117. 117. The Endocrine SystemPurpose: to control growth, development, metabolism andreproduction through the production and secretion of hormonesMajor Organs -- hypothalamus -- pituitary gland -- thyroid -- parathyroid -- adrenal glands -- pancreas -- testes -- ovaries
  118. 118. The Skeletal SystemPurpose: to provide structure and support to the human bodyBones are where new blood cells are generated (in themarrow), and require the mineral calcium for strengthMajor Bones of the Human Body-- femur (thigh bone) -- humerus (upper arm)-- radius and ulna (lower arm) -- cranium (skull)-- sternum (breastbone) -- clavicle (shoulder blade)-- fibula and tibia (calf) -- vertebrae (back)-- scalpula (shoulder) -- pelvic bone-- coccyx (tail bone) -- phalanges (fingers/toes)
  119. 119. Composition of Bone• 70% calcium, magnesium & phosphorus salts (Inorganic matter)• 30% Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates (Organic matter)• Children – Less amount of inorganic matter• Old Age – Less amount of organic matter
  120. 120. Types of Joints Types of jointsFixed joints Mobile joints Skull, Ball & Socket joint, Vertebra Sliding joint, Hinge joint, Pivot joint
  121. 121. Types of Mobile jointsBall & Socket joint Hinge jointSliding joint Pivot joint
  122. 122. Functions of Skeletal System• Supports the body• Protects the vital organs• Helps to produce red blood cells• Acts as levers in locomotion• Provides surface for muscle attachment• Storage of salts and minerals
  123. 123. The Muscular SystemPurpose: works with the skeletal and nervous system to producemovement, also helps to circulate blood through the human body -- muscle cells are fibrous -- muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntaryExamples of muscles :-- biceps -- triceps -- deltoids-- glutes -- hamstrings -- Quadriceps
  124. 124. Types of Muscles• Striped Muscle (Voluntary Muscle, Skeletal Muscle) – Movement controlled by will – Attached to bones, ligaments, cartilage & skin• Unstriped Muscle (Involuntary Muscle, Smooth Muscle) – Movements cannot be controlled by will – Glands, Blood Vessels, Organs & Tubular structures are made of unstriped muscle• Cardiac Muscle – Involuntary Control – Interconnected fibres (forming a web)
  125. 125. Figure 7-11(a)
  126. 126. Figure 7-11(b)
  127. 127. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles of the Head and Neck
  128. 128. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles of the Head and Neck
  129. 129. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles of the Anterior Neck Figure 7-13
  130. 130. Anatomy of the Muscular System•Muscles ofthe Spine Figure 7-14
  131. 131. Anatomy of the Muscular System •Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm Figure 7-15(a)
  132. 132. Anatomy of the Muscular System •Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm Figure 7-15(b)
  133. 133. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles of the Shoulder Figure 7-17(a)
  134. 134. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles of the Shoulder Figure 7-17(b)
  135. 135. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles that Move the Arm Figure 7-18(a)
  136. 136. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles that Move the Arm Figure 7-18(b)
  137. 137. Anatomy of the Muscular System• Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist Figure 7-19
  138. 138. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles That Move the Thigh Figure 7-20(a)
  139. 139. Anatomy of the Muscular System•Muscles That Movethe Thigh Figure 7-20(b)
  140. 140. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles That Move the Leg Figure 7-21
  141. 141. Anatomy of the Muscular System • Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Figure 7-22(a)
  142. 142. Anatomy of the Muscular System•Muscles That Move theFoot and Toes Figure 7-22(b)
  143. 143. Anatomy of the Muscular System•Muscles That Movethe Foot and Toes Figure 7-22(c)
  144. 144. Anatomy of the Muscular System•Muscles ThatMove the Foot andToes Figure 7-22(d)
  145. 145. When skeletal muscles contract, they mayproduce two types of contractions:  Isotonic contraction  Isometric contraction
  146. 146. Isotonic contraction – as tension increases (more motorunits recruited), length of muscle changes usuallyresulting in movement of a joint. The tension (load) on amuscle stays constant (iso = same, tonic = tension)during a movement. (Example: lifting a baby, picking upobject, walking, etc. )
  147. 147. Isometric contraction – no change in length of muscleeven as tension increases. The length of a muscle staysconstant (iso = same, metric = length) during a“contraction” (Example: holding a baby at armslength, pushing against a closed door.)Necessary in everyday life to counteract effects of gravity(e.g. postural muscles keeping head up)
  148. 148. The Immune SystemPurpose: to remove infectious diseases and other pathogens fromthe human bodyMajor Organs and Their FunctionsSkin – also called the integumentary system, the skin is the body’sfirst line of defenseWhite Blood Cells – recognize disease agents (antigens) and createantibodies to tag and remove these antigens -- phagocytes are the white blood cell type that actually eats and destroys these antigensLymph Nodes – help restore fluid lost by the blood and return it tothe circulatory system