Chapter 4

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  • 1. Chapter 4 Nucleic Acids “The Flow of GeneticInformation in the Cell”
  • 2. Nucleic AcidsPolymers specialized for the storage,transmission, and use of geneticinformation.DNA = deoxyribonucleic acidRNA = ribonucleic acidThe monomeric units (building blocksof nucleic acids) are nucleotides.
  • 3. NucleotidesConsist of apentose sugar, aphosphate group,and a nitrogen-containing base.
  • 4. Nitrogenous BasesDNA bases: adenine (A),cytosine (C), guanine (G),and thymine (T)Complementary basepairing: A–T(U) C–GPurines pair withpyrimidines by hydrogenbonding.Instead of thymine, RNAuses the base uracil (U).
  • 5. Nucleic Acid SynthesisThe “backbone” of DNAand RNA is a chain ofsugars and phosphategroups, bonded byphosphodiester linkages.
  • 6. Nucleic Acid Synthesis• The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions (antiparallel).
  • 7. RNA vs. DNA
  • 8. DNAThe two strands of a DNA molecule form a double helix. (anti-parallel)All DNA molecules have the same structure; diversity lies in the sequence of base pairs.
  • 9. RNASingle StrandedLess Stable then DNAWhat clue does thisgive us to its functionin comparison toDNA?
  • 10. “The Correct Flow of Genetic Information in the Cell” Central Dogma of Molecular BiologyThe complete set of Not all the informationDNA in a living is needed at all times;organism is called its sequences of DNAgenome. that encode specific proteins are called genes.