1 Department of Computer Science and Information SystemsThesis ReportOn-Campus Mobile GuideFor walking trail and Art trailPrepared byXue Jiang (Yuki), B.Sc.Student ID 11086041Department of Computer Science and Information SystemsUniversity of LimerickPrepared under the supervision ofDr. Patrick HealyVersion 1.1May 2013
2 Table of Contents Introduction -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 Project Idea -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 Motivation -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 Structure -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 The project -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 What is it? -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 Why is it important? -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 Who is it for? -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 Where will it be used? -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 4 How will it be made? -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 5 Research -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 5 Introduction -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 5 Research questions -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 5 Background -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 5 Using Mobile Technology for guidance -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 5 Google Map in the campus mobile guide -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 6 Localization and guidance for indoor and outdoor using smart phone -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 7 Background -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 7 Localization and guidance for indoor -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 8 Evaluation criteria -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 8 How to do the guidance -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 9 Notification system -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 10 Interact with users -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 10 Related Projects -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 13 Harvard Guide -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 13 Tree Tour in Oregon State University -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 14 Ennis Walking Trails -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 16 MIT campus tour -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 17 Explorer -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 18 Prototypes -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 21 Technologies involved -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 21 Plans for the summer semester -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 21 Conclusion -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 22 References -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 23 Appendix -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ 27
3 Table of Figures Figure 1 Evaluation criteria used to review mobile guide projects(Kenteris et al. 2011) ........................................................................................................................................................ 9 Figure 2 The Babble interface from Book "Interaction Design" ................................. 12 Figure 3 Harvard University App Screenshot 1 ................................................................. 13 Figure 4 Harvard University App Screenshot 2 ................................................................. 14 Figure 5 OSU App Screenshot 1 ................................................................................................ 15 Figure 6 OSU App Screenshot 2 ................................................................................................ 15 Figure 7Ennis App Screenshot 1 ............................................................................................... 16 Figure 8 Ennis App Screenshot 2 .............................................................................................. 17 Figure 9 MIT App Screenshot 1 ................................................................................................. 17 Figure 10 MIT App Screenshot 2 .............................................................................................. 18 Figure 11 Explorer Screenshot 1 .............................................................................................. 19 Figure 12 Explorer Screenshot 2 .............................................................................................. 19 Figure 13 Explorer Screenshot 3 .............................................................................................. 20
4 Introduction This report documents my research and development of my final year project about mobile guides on campus, with the focus on walking trail and art trail. Project Idea The aim of this project is to investigate the information on campus and find the information that required by the students, staffs and visitors, explore the technologies involved in the project, and then build up the mobile guide application to guide users on campus for walking trail and art trail. Motivation Because of the modern lifestyle highly rely on the smart phone, the motivation of the project is to explore the technology and process of how modern lifestyle corresponds with personal smart phone device and make good use of the information on campus, in order to self-‐guide and educate visitors in both indoor and outdoor environment for walking trail and art trail. Structure The project main consists of two parts: the academic research and the design & develop process. The project What is it? This project is mainly about to design and develop a mobile guide based on the Android system for visitors to explore self-‐guided walking trail and art trail in university. Why is it important? This project will investigate and explore relation between modern lifestyle and popular smart phones (Android platform in this case), how they correspond with each other. And apply these techniques and process on mobile guides on campus to guide visitors. Who is it for? This project is mainly designed for student, staffs on campus, visitors and alumni who wish to do a self-‐guided walking trail or art trail. Where will it be used? This application is designed for the university campus, it can be used in variety of places on and around campus, for instance it can be used to guide people
5 explore walking trails on campus, show them around art gallery, visit some sculptors and arboretum around campus, guide people to different buildings and also help them learn more about the campus. How will it be made? The process of making such an Android mobile application mainly consists of two parts, the interface design and the implementation (coding). To design the interface Adobe Photoshop will be used; Axure or other prototype tools12 will be required for prototyping work. To implement the mobile application, Eclipse platform & Android SDK will be used with some supplementary APIs (e.g., Google Map API) as well. Research Introduction The literature reviews addressed two main issues: the mobile application design principles for the mobile guide on campus and the related technological choices during the design process on this area. Research questions • How to promote multi-‐dimensional interactions when self-‐guiding users on campus? (Millard et al. 2008) • What problems should be taken into consideration on both the app design process and develop process? (Kenteris et al. 2011) • What kind of positioning technologies and map technologies should be used to apply on indoor and outdoor guidance, and also how to do the self-‐guidance? (Hammadi et al. 2012) Background Using Mobile Technology for guidance “Mobile technology presents the opportunity to support educational visits by providing both location-‐based information and guidance through this information based on the visitor’s interests and needs.” (Naismith et al. 2005) In their project Mobile Guide for University of Birmingham’s Botanic Garden 1 http://www.fluidui.com/demos/ 2 https://proto.io/en/signup/
6 (Naismith et al. 2005), they put in multimedia context to help users read, listen, see and explore more about the garden tour. They addressed that the two ideas of user interests and user needs are very important in mobile guide design. It is very common that many of the interesting sites or collections on the campus may not be noticed by the students, staffs or visitors on campus, though there are lots of learning opportunities within these places. To avoid this, the mobile guide can make a good use of this information to guide and assist visitors. Many universities or national galleries have lots of art collections in their own art gallery, to connect the mobile guide with social media (e.g., Facebook or Instagram, etc) will be able to enrich the multi-‐dimensional interaction(Petrelli and Not 2005) between visitors and information of the on-‐campus art collections and popular visiting places through this platform. Google Map in the campus mobile guide (Kenteris et al. 2011) argued in their paper that the map usually is the most basic and essential part in mobile tour guide, most of the similar systems use map as their central part, and then use navigational services and routing services based on the map. Among those systems some of the campus maps were designed like an infographic to show information around campus, this kind of map will not be able to interact with users; some of the maps were based on Google Map, which enable the users to search and explore on it. Most of the maps that connected to Google map in the mobile guide provide the overview and detail zoom levels features, the paper Designing LoL@, a Mobile Tourist Guide for UMTS presented these two levels by giving the case of a tourist map guide in the city of Vienna: include an overview map of walking tour in the city, and related sight-‐seeing information on some certain view point. For example, the tourists would have a prior experience by accessing sightseeing information from the mobile guide even when they were in the hotel, and during visiting, the voice routing service will read the step-‐by-‐step routing instructions so the tourists can concentrate on the view/scenery, they are also capable to upload photographs retrieved from the built-‐in digital camera on their mobile device (Pospischil et al. 2002). These kind of features can be applied on the mobile guide on campus as well, use Google Map on campus as the central part, highlight some popular routes for visitors to do a pre-‐visit. Add those features that can guide users, educate users and promote interactions between users and POIs.
7 Localization and guidance for indoor and outdoor using smart phone Background The positioning technology for localization can roughly be divided into indoor and outdoor two kinds of technology. Google Map is being used in most mobile apps for localization or positioning along with GPS to improve accuracy, and (Bolic and Donko 2012) pointed out OpenStreetMap as an alternative of Google Map, OpenStreetMap maps are from open source community, though it’s not as common as Google Map, but it allow offline map cache and customization. Among all maps in nowadays’ mobile guides, there are raster-‐based maps, which are used to display the location of POIs; another one is GIS-‐based vector map, which is used for routing and guidance services. If concerned about the outdoor positioning and the reliability of the technology, GPS is the better technology. (Kenteris et al. 2011).“With only a few exceptions, GPS has been the standard choice as outdoor positioning technology.” (Kenteris et al. 2011) But sometimes, GPS cannot work very well in indoor environment and urban places, Shang argued in their articles. (Hammadi et al. 2012) gave an introduction about those common technology that has been used for nowadays’ indoor environment guidance. Most of those are listed as below: • Global Positioning System (GPS): Based on the global satellite positioning system (it is more suitable for outdoor environment to work with Google Maps or OpenStreetMap (OSM)), suitable for outdoor environment. • Bluetooth: Bluetooth is used as a short-‐range communication technology, with good accuracy but high cost to deploy; not suitable for campus. • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): expensive to deploy, not suitable for campus in this case (Sieck 2012). • Ultra Wide Band (UWB): it is accurate; however the cost is so high. Not suitable for campus in this case (Jianga et al. 2011). • Near Field Communication (NFC): Compared to above, may be a suitable technology to use with its high accuracy and low cost on implement.
8 Localization and guidance for indoor For indoor environment, (Hammadi et al. 2012) also mentioned that most mobile guide systems utilize NFC (Near Field Communication) technology and QR (Quick Response) Codes, which are low cost, to determine the location as well as to provide navigation. Then with the help of the map to determine the destination, calculate shortest path, store car parking location, give feedback to building management, enter surveys for restaurants and coffee shops, find nearest toilet and make donations(Saranyaraj 2013). It is a very common phenomenon that many of the relatively larger national galleries, and museums may lack of tour guides to guide and assist visitors, way finding is a particular challenge (Tsai and Sung 2012). In some of the museums, “diverse mobile service robots” have been employed as tour guides to show the visitors around in the exhibition in the museums and galleries (Stricker et al. 2012). It is really interesting and attractive, however they cannot hire many robots, and visitors sometimes tend to have an individual or self-‐guided tour. The example Tsai and Sung gave in their paper that the American Museum of Natural History designed a mobile guide Explorer and provide the feature “My Tours” in it, this enables user to pick their own points of interests and add them in the My Tour, and the app will then show user the direction from one location to another. Not only the larger galleries(Fevgas et al. 2011), some of the relatively smaller ones may also need this kind of application to guide visitors, they usually do not have a tour guide because they don’t have a large number of visitors occasionally and also visitors may come individually and they may visit at an uncertain time. Using the mobile guides to do a self-‐guided tour is thus becoming necessary and getting more and more popular in recent years. Evaluation criteria (Kenteris et al. 2011) Argued in their survey of electronic mobile guides for application designers that the designers should consider the information model in their design, the types of input and output modalities and how the unique services be implemented; technology developers should consider the platform they choose to implement (Android platform in this case), the type of network infrastructure (both Wi-‐Fi and 3G in this case) and also the positioning and map technologies(GPS and Google Map or OpenStreetMap for this) during evaluation criteria. They explain their idea of evaluation criteria in the figure below:
9 Figure 1 Evaluation criteria used to review mobile guide projects(Kenteris et al. 2011) Users have different sensibility of recognition the navigation on the map: some of the users may good at using looking at map; some may not. To avoid the problem, additional form of information should be provided to help users to find their way when they are unsure about certain trails. How to do the guidance Navigation is also very important, thus design additional elements for the POIs on the map may help visitors find the right position, for instance add the audio notification, when users getting close to the points of the interests, the notification will inform and attract visitor to focus on some certain interest. In comparison with text or message notification, audio notification may also be very suitable for outdoor environment, since (Naismith et al. 2005) described that one of their participants complained about the sunshine is so bright in some situations that the user would not be able to see the screen clearly, in this case audio notification would help to avoid the problem. (Taher and Cheverst 2011) did the study of user preference for fixed display, they add the graphical direction arrows on fixed displays along the user’s route, and most of users prefer the way they did this, they think it is useful because they need things on the map to reinforce the fact that they were going right way. There are also possibilities to document the traveling experience in a more convenient way. (Abowd et al. 1997) gave an example of a user driving through a country and result in a trail, the trail will be upload on a map and if the user click the trail on the map the revealed image will show up to document this driving trail memory. This is not suitable for this project since most of the POIs are not reachable by driving but walking.
10 Notification system Guided by the mobile guide, when the visitors arrive at certain points, the notification system should be able to recognize the place and send notification regarding the place; more specific and related information about the interest should be displayed behind it (the notification may include the building detail, points of interests in this part and the notes left by other visitors, etc). (Nair et al. 2006) mentioned the idea of putting into the fourth dimension into the location-‐based notification system (LBNS), so that visitors may see, hear, touch and feel when they arrived some certain points, visitors have the option to pick up some points of interests which they preferred, and then the system will generate a route for visitor to walk through. The option of clicking certain point of interest enables user to access those more specific information about the POIs. Interact with users User Interaction in Museum Learning Scenario Bring in high technology to help promote user interaction is also very important. Binyue and Yokoi mentioned in their paper Promote Visitor Interactions by Smart Devices in Museum Learning Scenario (Binyue and Yokoi 2012) about interaction between visitors and those museum object information via smart devices. The embedded RFID in collection showcase allows visitors to get information onsite via smart phone or other mobile devices, which visitors outside will not be able to access those information. And by providing Wi-‐Fi it enables visitors to access more related background knowledge online while they are interested in some art objects in the museum. This way of interactions between each other will also enrich the concept of the objects in the collection and promote interacts between visitors online and onsite, when onsite visitors visit these objects they are able to share those information, visual knowledge and the ‘real’ experience via their smart devices (e.g., smart phones) to the visitors who are also curious in the collections but will not be able to attend physically. After the visit, the smart device is also a very good platform for visitors to ask questions, put up ideas, photos and comments; this is also a way of transfer their onsite visual knowledge into online knowledge(Cheverst et al. 2000). User Interaction in Campus Learning Scenario How to meet the requirement of users is always very important, we can regard
11 the some certain type of group people as certain type of information model, (Kenteris et al. 2011). The alumnus group is a good example for this, analyzing their unique requirements, put certain type of information they really need during their re-‐visit to campus. Some applications for campus need to take information models into consideration, some may not. (Nair et al. 2006) also argued in their paper that they are more focused on the feeling of the visitors, they put specific information in the application for this certain group-‐alumni, they may want to see how the campus has changed compared to before, the building details, use multimedia method to show them may be want they really want, things like slide show to document the changes of a place, video or audio to tell the story at some place in the history when alumni walk by, they want their memory to be re-‐called at that moment. When alumni walk around the campus the system shall be able to locate the current position, this enables the system to play a slide show of this place, tell alumni what changes have been made in this place. The system also enables the alumni to leave a note or comment and review other alumni’s notes as well. Another attractive function is they can view the slide show of the place it is the way of “promoting a sense of time” in the system. Functions like document routes that visitors have already finished, and give the feedback of the distance and time on the map may be another feature if there are lots of options for visitors to choose to walk. Visitors shall also be able to upload images of their interests during visit or post-‐visit(Kuflik et al. 2011), these can be part of their memory saved on the system which can be re-‐accessed by themselves or others who want to do a pre-‐visit through the mobile phone. The Babble Interface (Rogers et al. 2011)3 gave an interesting example in the design collaborative technologies chapter of the book to support awareness, in order to presenting the information awareness, the book displayed a communication tool called Babble shows as in the image below, the numbers of the babble represent the number of the participants in the conversation, the more active a participant is in the conversation, the closer the babbles towards to the center of the circle. 3 In pp. 128 of the book
12 Figure 2 The Babble interface from Book "Interaction Design" This idea can be applied on campus guides as well, The points of interest (POIs), can be shown as many small circles on the overview level of the map, as long as the features like visitors check-‐in, leave a note, comment, upload photographs are added in the mobile guide system, the more interaction one place get from the visitors, the more popular the place will be, and the system can use a red circle to represent the popular POIs, use green or other colors to represent the less popular places. It is much easier for the future visitors to pick the point of interests especially when the visitors may only have limited time to visit the campus, they may prefer to pick those most popular places to go. User Interactions in Indoor Environment For indoor environment such as art gallery on campus, some collections and artifacts may have significant meaning for the university, these collections can be picked out from many other collections and put them in a specific category such as “Highlight art trail on campus”, multimedia contents can be added into the system as well. (Proctor and Burton 2004) did an initial evaluation about the multimedia tour in their gallery: “With 87 percent saying that the tour improved their visit. The most popular types of content were interviews with artists and videos of artist at work, and audio commentaries accompanied by images.” Casual games relevant to the museum collections are also a popular way for promoting interactions between art collections and the visitors. It also plays an education role for the visitors after visiting the museum.
13 Related Projects The projects examples listed below are all about mobile guides, some of them are mobile campus guides which is relevant to this project, some of them are more about mobile guides for exhibitions in museums, mobile guides for the walking trails in a certain city… however, Most of these projects have really good user interface design and focused on promoting user interaction during the visiting, although not all of them have similar idea as this project, their ideas and designs all inspired this project –mobile guides on campus. Harvard Guide Figure 3 Harvard University App Screenshot 1 University of Harvard developed this application Harvard Guide for visitors to explore this university’s long history and beautiful campus; the home screen was designed with the image of the main gate of Harvard University. And a simple guide to explain the button function, the starting points similar to other guiding apps, shown as a list menu enable users to pick up by themselves, after user click in, the following screen show the direction on the map and a half scree size image of the points of interest, once user finished the point, there will be a sign on the map shown that user have done this point. And the arrow button leads user to go to next step, more detailed information showed behind this place.
14 Figure 4 Harvard University App Screenshot 2 • The info button shows the general description of the stop; • The inside and out button shows an insider’s view of Harvard, this is a really good feature and other application usually do not this function, university is a typical place that some of the area may not open to the public, this feature is very useful for the visitors who cannot access to the inside area. • The Fast facts button documents the interesting facts and trivia once happened in this place, many of them have an interesting image to explain the moment as well, it calls back alumni’s memory and help new students learn better about the place. • Innovation also for documenting big events once happened here, help user to understand more about some significance place. • History is there to tell visitors highlights and stories. A lot of videos were put into these functions; many of them have back ground music help users to have a nice experience of the certain moment and certain place. Tree Tour in Oregon State University OSU designed and developed this application to promote the awareness of the variety kind of trees on campus; the interface is clean and tidy with green, white and grey as their basic three colors, very close to nature forest color.
15 Figure 5 OSU App Screenshot 1 The tour consists of two separate tours: the longer one MU Grand Tour takes 45 minute and the MU short Tour 15 minutes. Once visitor start the tour, the detailed information such as 10 stops, 797 ft. distance will be shown on the screen, the app lead visitors step by step, two buttons Tour and Map enable user to switch between direction to get to the points of interest and the description of the tree. The map shows an overview position of trees with number and stops to help visitors find the place. Figure 6 OSU App Screenshot 2 The main menu consists of three parts, the Tree Tour which is mentioned above and the open map, displayed a sidelight map for campus with small tree icons located in it, each small icons enable visitor to click and learn more since they all connected to the information page.
16 Reference enables visitors to search and learn the common name and the botanical name of these trees, detailed information include the leaf type the flower information and whether native to Oregon or not. Ennis Walking Trails Figure 7Ennis App Screenshot 1 The town of Ennis is full of marvelous public sculptures and works of art. This application contains large amount of information about Ennis to help visitors learn and explore this town. This walking trail guide consists of four historical walking, and categorized into different colors, each of them has an introduction about the history and story information behind, as well as the distance and time it will need to finish the walking trail.
17 Figure 8 Ennis App Screenshot 2 Clicking into the points of interest may be able to see the number of interests in the walking trail, users can choose take me to this point to get the directions to the place through GPS map, sharing the point of interest to friend on Facebook, or take a photo to send by email, some of the interest have audio guide. MIT campus tour Figure 9 MIT App Screenshot 1 MIT mobile campus guide is the project that has some similar ideas to this project especially for some walking trails on campus. It aims to let visitors have a nice experience and learn the history of different parts on MIT campus; the information includes MIT’s architecture, artwork, facilities etc. Self-‐guided tour
18 and guided tours are both provide on the home screen, guided tours connected to the home page of MIT website, include information about the pickup points on campus and tour guide meet up time. Self-‐guided tour enables visitor to pick up starting point, the app will include some recommend points to show visitors and step-‐by-‐step guidance to guide them. Figure 10 MIT App Screenshot 2 Once visitor start the tour, detail information will be shown on the screen step by step, leading visitors the direction to the next stop, the timeline at the bottom of the screen shows the number of places have been visited and there is a button in the middle of the timeline enable user to switch between the real map and the detailed information. Some side trips are also shown in the detailed information, visitors can have their own flexible walking trails. When the tour ended, the last screen shows visitor the campus information, enable visitor to send feedback through their smart phone, and also help visitors to find a place to eat. Explorer Tsai and Sung (2012) argues in their article Mobile Applications and Museum Visitation that way finding in the large museum is a particular big challenge for visitors, many visitors these years have the tendency to plan their visit before they arrive. They may pick up some points if those POIs really attract them, but the problem is imagine if they pick up two points and they are not sure the amount of time they will spend there, and the way they will get from one exhibition to another one, what can they do except ask the staffs in the museum or find the way by themselves.
19 They gave an example of American Museum of Natural History, in order to help visitors solve this problem: they developed a mobile application explorer, and add the feature “My Tour”. Figure 11 Explorer Screenshot 1 The interface above is the application Explorer; the first screen contains four parts of information: find exhibition, museum tours, food & shops and restroom & exit. The list menus under the popular category list all the popular exhibitions. They all contain the feature of locating current place and then sharing to friends, add the bookmark and mark as visited. The interface list below is the map function. All the exhibition information shows by different floors, the infographic tells visitors the overview location of in the museum. Figure 12 Explorer Screenshot 2 The following interface shows the feature “My Tour”, the add Exhibit button enables visitors to add their preferred exhibit from all the exhibits in the museum, in this way visitors build up their personal tour.
20 This feature uses location-‐aware mobile technologies to provide turn-‐by-‐turn instructions between two points within the museum, allowing visitors to design their own visitation routes. Tsai and Sung (2012) Figure 13 Explorer Screenshot 3 Although the Explorer was designed for the museum, many of the design ideas still inspired this project, for instance: how they allocate their information on the home screen to meet the users’ requirement is quite important, they add a category named ‘popular’ to list all the popular exhibits enable visitors to find them easily, they promoted user interaction very well because they enable visitors to build their own tours. Methodology/ User studies The design process will include academic research of previous projects and relevant articles, scenarios, building tasks and the first design prototype. Many iterations of the design are necessary. It is important to test users by the low fidelity-‐prototype and get feedback from them. Try to understand more about the user, make the design character attractive to users, and at the end build up the high-‐fidelity prototype, and finish the final design. The evaluation methods include analysis, observation, interviews, and questionnaires; a video camera will be used to record participants so that it is enable to observe the user reaction when they interact with mobile guide on campus.
21 Prototypes Low-‐fidelity prototype—Interface sketch and paper prototype Sketch the mobile interface after the initial research and analyze, get the user feedback, keep sketching, evaluate and revise the project. High Fidelity—Axure and Eclipse After the user evaluation, the prototype is revised enough for users to use, The interface of the application will be designed in the Adobe Photoshop and mock up in the Axure. Then continue to do user valuation, testing and iteration until get a satisfied prototype. After the prototype is highly developed, the application can then be developed in Eclipse with Android SDK platform accordingly to implement features implied by the design process. Technologies involved To design and develop the Android mobile app as described above, following is list of the technologies/software involved: • Prototype tools: Adobe Photoshop, Axure, etc • Eclipse with Android SDK: Java as the programming language • SQLite: store information in mobile phone • Google Map APIs: outdoor localization • Web Server: store images etc to save space in phone Plans for the summer semester See appendix
22 Conclusion This project documents the design process and implement ideas on the mobile guide on campus, explored the similar projects previously, analyzed the good features to promote user interaction, the literature review covered the information for application design process and technology develop process, these research all set a solid foundation for future work on this project.
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