University of Limerick Campus Trails
Art Trail and Flora and Fauna Trail

Yuki Jiang

	
  
Table	
  of	
  Contents	
  
Abstract	
  .....................................................................................
4.2	
  Connect	
  Homepage	
  with	
  Art	
  Trail	
  and	
  Flora	
  &	
  Fauna	
  Trail	
  ................................
Figure	
  22:	
  Interface	
  Design	
  Ideas	
  ............................................................................
Abstract	
  
	
  
	
  
This	
   thesis	
   is	
   about	
   my	
   final	
   project	
   as	
   a	
   postgraduate	
   of	...
 

1.Introduction	
  
1.1	
  Introduction	
  
This	
   report	
   documents	
   the	
   research	
   and	
   development	
...
1.2.2 Why is it important?
This	
   project	
   will	
   investigate	
   and	
   explore	
   relations	
   between	
   mod...
2	
  Research	
  	
  
2.1Introduction	
  
The	
   literature	
   review	
   addressed	
   two	
   main	
   issues:	
   mob...
the	
   students,	
   staff	
   or	
   visitors	
   on	
   campus,	
   though	
   there	
   are	
   lots	
   of	
   learni...
visitors	
  to	
  do	
  a	
  pre-­‐visit.	
  	
  Adding	
  those	
  features	
  that	
  can	
  guide	
  users,	
  educate	...
with	
  good	
  accuracy	
  but	
  high	
  cost	
  to	
  deploy;	
  not	
  suitable	
  for	
  campus.	
  	
  
	
  
•

Radi...
the	
   My	
   Tour,	
   and	
   the	
   app	
   will	
   then	
   show	
   user	
   the	
   direction	
   from	
   one	
 ...
additional	
   forms	
   of	
   information	
   should	
   be	
   provided	
   to	
   help	
   users	
   to	
   find	
   t...
based	
   notification	
   system	
   (LBNS),	
   so	
   that	
   visitors	
   may	
   see,	
   hear,	
   touch	
   and	
 ...
(Kenteris	
   et	
   al.	
   2011).	
   The	
   alumnus	
   group	
   is	
   a	
   good	
   example	
   for	
   this:	
   ...
 
Figure	
  2:	
  The	
  Babble	
  interface	
  from	
  Book	
  "Interaction	
  Design"	
  

This	
   idea	
   can	
   be	...
2.3	
  Related	
  Projects	
  
	
  
The	
  project	
  examples	
  listed	
  below	
  are	
  all	
  about	
  mobile	
  guid...
 

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	...
2.3.2 Tree Tour in Oregon State University
OSU	
  designed	
  and	
  developed	
  this	
  application	
  to	
  promote	
  ...
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	
  

Figure	
  6:	
  O...
2.3.3 Ennis Walking Trails
	
  
	
  

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  ...
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	...
 
MIT	
  mobile	
  campus	
  guide	
  is	
  the	
  project	
  that	
  has	
  some	
  similar	
  ideas	
  to	
  this	
  pro...
2.3.5 Explorer
Tsai	
   and	
   Sung	
   (2012)	
   argue	
   in	
   their	
   article	
   Mobile	
   Applications	
   and...
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	...
home	
   screen	
   to	
   meet	
   the	
   users’	
   requirement	
   is	
   quite	
   important.	
   They	
   add	
   a	...
After	
   the	
   prototype	
   is	
   satisfactorily	
   developed,	
   the	
   application	
   can	
   then	
   be	
  
d...
 
Figure	
  14	
  The	
  User	
  Centered	
  Design	
  Process	
  

	
  
3.3	
  Understand	
  Users	
  
	
  
In	
   order	...
and	
   how	
   they	
   would	
   prefer	
   to	
   use	
   mobile	
   app	
   to	
   visit	
   UL	
   campus.	
   User1	...
wants	
  to	
  share	
  these	
  information	
  on	
  social	
  networks	
  and	
  let	
  her	
  friends	
  know	
  what	
...
Located	
  at	
  the	
  Main	
  entrance:	
  
Gate	
  Masts	
  
Crann	
  Saoilse	
  
	
  
Located	
  in	
  and	
  outside	...
These	
  POIs	
  are	
  mainly	
  located	
  through	
  the	
  campus	
  not	
  far	
  from	
  each	
  other.	
  Lots	
  o...
Tree	
  Trail	
  
The	
   interview	
   I	
   did	
   with	
   Yvonne	
   Davis	
   in	
   the	
   visual	
   art	
   offi...
3.5.2 Problems I met
1. Detailed	
  Map	
  of	
  UL	
  campus	
  in	
  PDF	
  and	
  PSD	
  format	
  is	
  needed.	
  
2....
 

3.5.2 Paper Prototyping

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  

	
  

	
  	
  Fi...
 

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
 ...
 
When	
   the	
   user	
   clicks	
   into	
   the	
   art	
   trail,	
   the	
   following	
   screen	
   displays	
   a...
 
3.5.3 User Test and Improvement

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Figure	...
 
•

The	
  distance	
  needs	
  to	
  change	
  from	
  miles	
  to	
  kilometers,	
  it	
  is	
  easier	
  for	
  user	
...
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App designprocess(yukijiang)

  1. 1. University of Limerick Campus Trails Art Trail and Flora and Fauna Trail Yuki Jiang  
  2. 2. Table  of  Contents   Abstract  ....................................................................................................................  5   1.Introduction  ...........................................................................................................  6   1.1  Introduction  .......................................................................................................................................................  6   1.1.1   Project  Idea   ................................................................................................................................................  6   1.1.2  Motivation  ......................................................................................................................................................  6   1.1.3  Structure  .........................................................................................................................................................  6   1.2  The  project  .........................................................................................................................................................  6   1.2.1  What  is  it?  .......................................................................................................................................................  6   1.2.2  Why  is  it  important?   ...................................................................................................................................  7   1.2.2  Who  is  it  for?  ..................................................................................................................................................  7   1.2.3  Where  will  it  be  used?  ................................................................................................................................  7   1.2.4  How  will  it  be  made?  ..................................................................................................................................  7   2  Research  ................................................................................................................  8   2.1Introduction  ........................................................................................................................................................  8   2.1.1  Research  questions  .....................................................................................................................................  8   2.2  Background  literature  ...................................................................................................................................  8   2.2.1  Using  Mobile  Technology  for  guidance   ..............................................................................................  8   2.2.2  Google  Maps  in  the  campus  mobile  guide  ........................................................................................  9   2.2.3  Localization  and  guidance  for  indoor  and  outdoor  using  smart  phone  ...........................  10   2.2.4  Evaluation  criteria   ....................................................................................................................................  12   2.2.5  How  to  do  the  guidance  ..........................................................................................................................  13   2.2.6  Notification  system  ...................................................................................................................................  13   2.2.6  Interact  with  users  ....................................................................................................................................  14   2.3  Related  Projects  ............................................................................................................................................  17   2.3.1  Harvard  Guide  ............................................................................................................................................  17   2.3.2  Tree  Tour  in  Oregon  State  University   ...............................................................................................  19   2.3.3  Ennis  Walking  Trails   ................................................................................................................................  21   2.3.4  MIT  campus  tour  .......................................................................................................................................  22   2.3.5  Explorer  .........................................................................................................................................................  24   2.4  Methodology/  User  studies  ......................................................................................................................  26   2.5  Prototypes  .......................................................................................................................................................  26   2.6  Technologies  involved  ................................................................................................................................  27   3  Design  Process  .....................................................................................................  27   3.1  Introduction  ....................................................................................................................................................  27   3.2  Methodology  ...................................................................................................................................................  27   3.3  Understand  Users  .........................................................................................................................................  28   3.4  Drawing  Requirements  ..............................................................................................................................  30   3.5  Prototyping  .....................................................................................................................................................  30   3.5.1  Organizing  the  Information  .................................................................................................................  30   3.5.2  Problems  I  met  ............................................................................................................................................  34   3.5.2  Paper  Prototyping   .....................................................................................................................................  35   3.5.3  User  Test  and  Improvement  .................................................................................................................  38   3.6  User  Interface  Design   ..................................................................................................................................  39   3.6.1  UI  Design  Idea  .............................................................................................................................................  39   3.6.2  Overall  Interface  Demo  ...........................................................................................................................  42   4  Development  Process  ...........................................................................................  44   4.1  Introduction  ....................................................................................................................................................  44    
  3. 3. 4.2  Connect  Homepage  with  Art  Trail  and  Flora  &  Fauna  Trail  ......................................................  44   4.3  Switch  Between  Screens  ............................................................................................................................  46   4.4  Connect  “Like”  Button  with  Facebook  Campus  Trails  Page  .......................................................  47   4.4.1  Set  up  Facebook  Page  for  UL  campus  trails  ..................................................................................  47   4.4.2  Connect  “like’’  button  to  the  relevant  photo  on  Facebook  ......................................................  48   4.5  Connect  “  share”  Button  with  Social  Network  .................................................................................  49   4.6  Location  Service  ............................................................................................................................................  50   4.6.1  Create  Art  Trail  and  Flora  and  Fauna  Trail  map  in  Google  Maps  .......................................  51   4.6.2  Connect  “  Location”  Button  with  Google  Map  ..............................................................................  52   5  Evaluation  ............................................................................................................  55   5.1  Task  List   ............................................................................................................................................................  55   5.2  Conditions  of  Testing  ..................................................................................................................................  56   5.3  Recruitment  of  Users  ..................................................................................................................................  56   5.4  Observation  Notes  ........................................................................................................................................  57   5.5  Result  of  Observation  .................................................................................................................................  63   5.6  Improvement  after  evaluation  ................................................................................................................  64   6  Project  Plan  Timeline   ............................................................................................  65   7  Conclusion  and  Future  Plans  .................................................................................  66   References  ..............................................................................................................  68   Appendix  n.  1  Questions  for  Interview  .......................................................................................................  71   Appendix  n.  2  Task  List  .....................................................................................................................................  72   Appendix  n.  3  Key  Codes  ...................................................................................................................................  74   Appendix  n.  3  Project  Timeline  ......................................................................................................................  84     Table  of  Figures   Figure  1:  Evaluation  criteria  used  to  review  mobile  guide  projects(Kenteris  et  al.   2011)  ....................................................................................................................................................................  12   Figure  2:  The  Babble  interface  from  Book  "Interaction  Design"  ................................................  16   Figure  3:  Harvard  University  App  Screenshot  1  ................................................................................  17   Figure  4:  Harvard  University  App  Screenshot  2  ................................................................................  18   Figure  5:  OSU  App  Screenshot  1  ...............................................................................................................  19   Figure  6:  OSU  App  Screenshot  2  ...............................................................................................................  20   Figure  7:  Ennis  App  Screenshot  1  ............................................................................................................  21   Figure  8:  Ennis  App  Screenshot  2  ............................................................................................................  22   Figure  9:  MIT  App  Screenshot  1  ...............................................................................................................  22   Figure  10:  MIT  App  Screenshot  2  .............................................................................................................  23   Figure  11:  Explorer  Screenshot  1   .............................................................................................................  24   Figure  12:  Explorer  Screenshot  2   .............................................................................................................  25   Figure  13:  Explorer  Screenshot  3   .............................................................................................................  25   Figure  14  The  User  Centered  Design  Process  .....................................................................................  28   Figure  15:  Information  for  North  Bank  Trail  and  for  Art  Trail  ...................................................  35   Figure  16:    Information  for  South  Bank  Trail  .....................................................................................  35   Figure  17:  Paper  prototype  screen1  and  screen2  .............................................................................  36   Figure  18:  Paper  prototype  screen3  and  screen4  .............................................................................  36   Figure  19:  Paper  prototype  screen5  and  screen6  .............................................................................  37   Figure  20:  User  Testing1  and  User  Testing2  .......................................................................................  38   Figure  21:  Art  Trail  Screens  ........................................................................................................................  39     3  
  4. 4. Figure  22:  Interface  Design  Ideas  ............................................................................................................  41   Figure  23:  Flora  and  Fauna  Trail  Screens  Demo  ...............................................................................  42   Figure  24:  Art  Trail  Screens  Demo  ..........................................................................................................  43   Figure  25:  Click  Effect  Screens  Demo  .....................................................................................................  43   Figure  26:  Connecting  buttons  with  each  page  ..................................................................................  45   Figure  27:  Relevant  codes  for  connecting  buttons  with  each  page  ...........................................  45   Figure  28:  Switch  Between  Screens  ........................................................................................................  46   Figure  29:  Relevant  codes  for  switching  Between  Screens  ..........................................................  47   Figure  30:  UL  campus  Trails  Facebook  Page  .......................................................................................  47   Figure  31:  Like  Button  ..................................................................................................................................  48   Figure  32:  Relevant  Codes  for  Like  Button  (Stackoverflow  Question   4810803(2013))  ..............................................................................................................................................  49   Figure  33:  Share  Button  ...............................................................................................................................  49   Figure  34:  Relevant  codes  for  Share  Button  ........................................................................................  50   Figure  35:  Create  Art  Trail  Map  ................................................................................................................  51   Figure  36:  Create  Flora  and  Fauna  Trail  Map  .....................................................................................  51   Figure  37:  Turn  on  Google  Maps  Android  API  v2  service  ..............................................................  52   Figure  38:    Creating  Android  Key  for  API  Project  .............................................................................  52   Figure  39:  Android  Key  for  API  Project  is  created  ............................................................................  53   Figure  40:  “Location  me”  button  ..............................................................................................................  53   Figure  41:    Relevant  code  for  “Location”  button  ...............................................................................  54   Figure  42:  User  2  following  the  app  arriving  at  the  Chancellor’s  Walk  ...................................  61   Figure  43:  User  1  was  reading  the  introduction  at  the  stop  of  The  Water  Colour   Society  of  Ireland  National  Collection  ....................................................................................................  61   Figure  44:  User  1  was  using  “locate  me”  feature  and  following  the  map  to   Foundation  Building  ......................................................................................................................................  62   Figure  45:  User  3  was  following  the  direction  sign  to  the  Bourn  Vincent  Gallery  in   the  Foundation  Building   ...............................................................................................................................  62         4  
  5. 5. Abstract       This   thesis   is   about   my   final   project   as   a   postgraduate   of   Interactive   Media   in   University   of   Limerick.   This   project   documents   the   design   and   development   of   University  of  Limerick  Campus  Trails.  The  aim  of  this  project  is  to  build  a  mobile   guide   application   to   guide   users   on   campus;   to   investigate   the   information   required  by  students,  staff  and  visitors;  and  to  explore  the  technologies  involved  in   the  project.                                                                         5  
  6. 6.   1.Introduction   1.1  Introduction   This   report   documents   the   research   and   development   of   my   final   year   project   investigating  mobile  guides  on  campus,  with  the  focus  on  walking  and  art  trails.       1.1.1 Project Idea The  aim  of  this  project  is  to  build  a  mobile  guide  application  to  guide  users  for  a   walking  trail  and  art  trail  on  campus;  to  investigate  the  information  required  by   students,  staff  and  visitors;  and  to  explore  the  technologies  involved  in  the  project.   1.1.2 Motivation Because   modern   lifestyle   highly   relies   on   the   smart   phone,   the   motivation   of   the   project   is   to   explore   the   technology   and   process   of   how   modern   lifestyle   corresponds   with   personal   smart   phone   device   and   make   good   use   of   the   information  on  campus,  in  order  to  self-­‐guide  and  educate  visitors  in  both  indoor   and  outdoor  environment  for  walking  trail  and  art  trail.   1.1.3 Structure The   project   main   consists   of   two   parts:     the   academic   research   and   the   design   &   develop  process.     1.2  The  project   1.2.1 What is it? This  project  concerns  the  design  and  development  of  a  mobile  guide  based  on  the   Android  system  for  visitors  to  explore  a  self-­‐guided  walking  trail  and  art  trail  in   university.     6  
  7. 7. 1.2.2 Why is it important? This   project   will   investigate   and   explore   relations   between   modern   lifestyle   and   popular   smart   phones   (Android   platform   in   this   case),   and   how   they   correspond   with   each   other.   And   apply   these   techniques   and   process   on   mobile   guides   on   campus  to  guide  visitors.   1.2.2 Who is it for? This   project   is   mainly   designed   for   student,   staff   on   campus,   visitors   and   alumni   who  wish  to  do  a  self-­‐guided  walking  trail  or  art  trail.   1.2.3 Where will it be used? This  application  is  designed  for  the  university  campus;  it  can  be  used  in  a  variety  of   places   on   and   around   campus.   For   instance   it   can   be   used   to   guide   people   when   exploring  walking  trails  on  campus,  show  them  around  the  art  gallery,  visit  some   sculptors   and   arboretum   around   campus,   guide   people   to   different   buildings  and   also  help  them  learn  more  about  the  campus.     1.2.4 How will it be made? The  process  of  making  such  an  Android  mobile  application  mainly  consists  of  two   parts,  the  interface  design  and  the  implementation  (coding).   To   design   the   interface   Adobe   Photoshop   will   be   used;   Axure   or   other   prototype   tools12  will  be  required  for  prototyping  work.     To  implement  the  mobile  application,  Eclipse  platform  &  Android  SDK  will  be  used   with  some  supplementary  APIs  (e.g.,  Google  Map  API)  as  well.                                                                                                                       1  http://www.fluidui.com/demos/   2  https://proto.io/en/signup/       7  
  8. 8. 2  Research     2.1Introduction   The   literature   review   addressed   two   main   issues:   mobile   application   design   principles  for  the  mobile  guide  on  campus  and  related  technological  choices  during   the  design  process  in  this  area.     2.1.1 Research questions • How   to   promote   multi-­‐dimensional   interactions   when   self-­‐guiding   users   on   campus?  (Millard  et  al.  2008)   • What  problems  should  be  taken  into  consideration  on  both  the  app  design   process  and  develop  process?  (Kenteris  et  al.  2011)   • What  kind  of  positioning  technologies  and  map  technologies  should  be  used   to   apply   on   indoor   and   outdoor   guidance,   and   also   how   to   do   the   self-­‐ guidance?  (Hammadi  et  al.  2012)     2.2  Background  literature     In  the  next  few  pages  I  will  review  some  of  the  key  contribution  in  the  area  of  using   mobile  and  localization  technologies  in  guidance.     2.2.1 Using Mobile Technology for guidance “Mobile  technology  presents  the  opportunity  to  support  educational  visits  by   providing  both  location-­‐based  information  and  guidance  through  this  information   based  on  the  visitor’s  interests  and  needs.”   (Naismith  et  al.  2005)   In   their   project,   they   use   a   multimedia   context   to   help   users   read,   listen,   see   and   explore  more  about  the  garden  tour.  They  stated  that  the  two  ideas  of  user  interests   and  user  needs  are  very  important  in  mobile  guide  design.  It  is  very  common  that   many  of  the  interesting  sites  or  collections  on  the  campus  may  not  be  noticed  by     8  
  9. 9. the   students,   staff   or   visitors   on   campus,   though   there   are   lots   of   learning   opportunities  within  these  places.  To  avoid  this,  the  mobile  guide  can  make  a  good   use  of  this  information  to  guide  and  assist  visitors.   Many  universities  or  national  galleries  have  lots  of  art  collections  in  their  own  art   gallery.  To  connect  the  mobile  guide  with  social  media  (e.g.,  Facebook  or  Instagram)   will   enrich   the   multi-­‐dimensional   interaction(Petrelli   and   Not   2005)   between   visitors   and   information   of   the   on-­‐campus   art   collections   and   popular   visiting   places  through  this  platform.     2.2.2 Google Maps in the campus mobile guide Kenteris(2011)argued   in   their   paper   that   the   map   usually   is   the   most   basic   and   essential  part  in  mobile  tour  guide.  Most  of  the  similar  systems  use  maps  as  their   central  part,  and  then  use  navigational  services  and  routing  services  based  on  the   map.   Among   those   systems   some   of   the   campus   maps   were   designed   like   an   infographic  to  show  information  around  campus,  this  kind  of  map  will  not  be  able   to  interact  with  users;  some  of  the  maps  were  based  on  Google  Maps,  which  enable   the  users  to  search  and  explore  on  it.     Most   of   the   maps   that   connect   to   Google   maps   in   the   mobile   guides   provide   the   overview   and   detail   zoom   levels   features.   The   paper   Designing   LoL@,   a   Mobile   Tourist  Guide  for  UMTS   presented   these   two   levels   by   giving   the   case   of   a   tourist   map   guide   in   the   city   of   Vienna:   include   an   overview   map   of   walking   tour   in   the   city,   and   related   sight-­‐seeing   information   on   some   view   point.   For   example,   the   tourists  would  have  a  prior  experience  by  accessing  sightseeing  information  from   the  mobile  guide  even  when  they  were  in  the  hotel,  and  during  visiting,  the  voice   routing  service  will  read  the  step-­‐by-­‐step  routing  instructions  so  the  tourists  can   concentrate   on   the   view/scenery.   They   are   also   capable   to   upload   photographs   retrieved  from  the  built-­‐in  digital  camera  on  their  mobile  device  (Pospischil  et  al.   2002).   These   kinds   of   features   can   be   applied   on   the   mobile   guide   on   campus   as   well,   use   Google  Maps  on  campus  as  the  central  part,  highlighting  some  popular  routes  for     9  
  10. 10. visitors  to  do  a  pre-­‐visit.    Adding  those  features  that  can  guide  users,  educate  users   and  promote  interactions  between  users  and  POIs.       2.2.3 Localization and guidance for indoor and outdoor using smart phone Background     The   positioning   technology   for   localization   can   roughly   be   divided   into   indoor   and   outdoor  two  kinds  of  technology.     Google   Maps   is   being   used   in   most   mobile   apps   for   localization   or   positioning   along   with   GPS   to   improve   accuracy,   and   Bolic   and   Donko   (2012)   pointed   out   OpenStreetMap   as   an   alternative   of   Google   Maps,   OpenStreetMap   maps   are   from   open  source  community,  though  it’s  not  as  common  as  Google  Maps,  but  it  allows   offline  map  cache  and  customization.     Among  all  maps  in  todays’  mobile  guides,  there  are  raster-­‐based  maps,  which  are   used   to   display   the   location   of   POIs;   another   one   is   the   GIS-­‐based   vector   map,   which   is   used   for   routing   and   guidance   services.   If   concerned   about   the   outdoor   positioning   and   the   reliability   of   the   technology,   GPS   is   the   better   technology.   (Kenteris   et   al.   2011).“With   only   a   few   exceptions,   GPS   has   been   the   standard   choice   as   outdoor   positioning   technology.”   (Kenteris   et   al.   2011)   But   sometimes,   GPS   cannot   work   very   well   in   an   indoor   environment   and   urban   places,   Shang  argued  in  their  articles.   Hammadi  (2012)  gave  an  introduction  about  those  common  technologies  that  have   been   used   for   nowadays’   indoor   environment   guidance.     Most   of   those   are   listed   below:       • Global   Positioning   System   (GPS):   Based   on   the   global   satellite   positioning   system   (it   is   more   suitable   for   outdoor   environment   to   work   with   Google   maps  or  OpenStreetMap  (OSM)),  suitable  for  outdoor  environment.     •   Bluetooth:   Bluetooth   is   used   as   a   short-­‐range   communication   technology,   10  
  11. 11. with  good  accuracy  but  high  cost  to  deploy;  not  suitable  for  campus.       • Radio  Frequency  Identification  (RFID):  expensive  to  deploy;  not  suitable  for   campus  in  this  case  (Sieck  2012).     • Ultra   Wide   Band   (UWB):   it   is   accurate;   however   the   cost   is   so   high;   Not   suitable  for  campus  in  this  case  (Jianga  et  al.  2011).         • Near   Field   Communication   (NFC):   Compared   to   above,   may   be   a   suitable   technology  to  use  with  its  high  accuracy  and  low  cost  on  implement.       Localization  and  guidance  for  indoor     For   indoor  environment,   Hammadi(2012)   also   mentioned   that   most   mobile   guide   systems   utilize   NFC   (Near   Field   Communication)   technology   and   QR   (Quick   Response)   Codes,   which   are   low   cost,   to   determine   the   location   as   well   as   to   provide   navigation.   Then   with   the   help   of   the   map   to   determine   the   destination,   calculate   shortest   path,   store   car   parking   location,   give   feedback   to   building   management,   enter   surveys   for   restaurants   and   coffee   shops,   find   nearest   toilet   and  make  donations(Saranyaraj  2013).   It   is   a   very   common   phenomenon   that   many   of   the   relatively   larger   national   galleries,   and   museums   may   lack   tour   guides   to   guide   and   assist   visitors,   way   finding   is   a   particular   challenge   (Tsai   and   Sung   2012).   In   some   of   the   museums,   “diverse   mobile   service   robots”   have   been   employed   as   tour   guides   to   show   the   visitors   around   in   the   exhibition   in   the   museums   and   galleries   (Stricker   et   al.   2012).   It   is   really   interesting   and   attractive,   however   they   cannot   hire   many   robots,  and  visitors  sometimes  tend  to  have  an  individual  or  self-­‐guided  tour.   The   example   Tsai   and   Sung   gave   in   their   paper   that   the   American   Museum   of   Natural   History   designed   a   mobile   guide   Explorer   and   provide   the   feature   “My   Tours”  in  it.  This  enables  user  to  pick  their  own  points  of  interests  and  add  them  in     11  
  12. 12. the   My   Tour,   and   the   app   will   then   show   user   the   direction   from   one   location   to   another.     Not   only   the   larger   galleries(Fevgas   et   al.   2011),   some   of   the   relatively   smaller   ones   may   also   need   this   kind   of   application   to   guide   visitors,   they   usually   do   not   have   a   tour   guide   because   they   don’t   have   a   large   number   of   visitors   and   also   visitors  may  come  individually  and  they  may  visit  at  an  uncertain  time.  Using  the   mobile   guides   to   do   a   self-­‐guided   tour   is   thus   becoming   necessary   and   getting   more  and  more  popular  in  recent  years.     2.2.4 Evaluation criteria Kenteris(2011)  argued  in  their  survey  of  electronic  mobile  guides  for  application   designers  that  the  designers  should  consider  the  information  model  in  their  design,   the   types   of   input   and   output   modalities   and   how   the   unique   services   be   implemented;  technology  developers  should  consider  the  platform  they  choose  to   implement   (Android   platform   in   this   case),   the   type   of   network   infrastructure   (both   Wi-­‐Fi   and   3G   in   this   case)   and   also   the   positioning   and   map   technologies(GPS  and  Google  Maps  or  OpenStreetMap)  during  evaluation  criteria.   They  explain  their  idea  of  evaluation  criteria  in  the  figure  below:     Figure  1:  Evaluation  criteria  used  to  review  mobile  guide  projects(Kenteris  et  al.  2011)   Users  have  different  ability  of  recognizing  the  navigation  on  the  map:  some  of  the   users   may   good   at   using   looking   at   map;   some   may   not.   To   avoid   the   problem,     12  
  13. 13. additional   forms   of   information   should   be   provided   to   help   users   to   find   their   way   when  they  are  unsure  about  certain  trails.   2.2.5 How to do the guidance Navigation  is  also  very  important.  Thus  design  of  additional  elements  for  the  POIs   on   the   map   may   help   visitors   find   the   right   position,   for   instance   adding   audio   notification,   when   users   are   getting   close   to   the   points   of   the   interests.   The   notification   will   inform   and   attract   a   visitor   to   focus   on   some   certain   feature.   In   comparison  with  text  or  message  notification,  audio  notification  may  also  be  very   suitable   for   outdoor   environment,   since   Naismith   (2005)   described   that   one   of   their   participants   complained   about   the   sunshine   is   so   bright   in   some   situations   that   the   user   would   not   be   able   to   see   the   screen   clearly,   in   this   case   audio   notification  would  help  to  avoid  the  problem.     Taher   and   Cheverst   (2011)   did   the   study   of   user   preference   for   fixed   displays.   They  added  graphical  direction  arrows  on  fixed  displays  along  the  user’s  route,  and   most   users   preferred   the   way   they   did   this.   They   considered   it   was   useful   because   they  needed  things  on  the  map  to  reinforce  the  fact  that  they  were  going  the  right   way.   There   are   also   possibilities   to   document   the   traveling   experience   in   a   more   convenient   way.   Abowd   (1997)   gave   an   example   of   a   user   driving   through   a   country  and  result  in  a  trail,  the  trail  will  be  upload  on  a  map  and  if  the  user  click   the  trail  on  the  map  the  revealed  image  will  show  up  to  document  this  driving  trail   memory.   This   is   not   suitable   for   this   project   since   most   of   the   POIs   are   not   reachable  by  driving  but  walking.     2.2.6 Notification system Guided   by   the   mobile   guide,   when   the   visitors   arrive   at   certain   points,   the   notification   system   should   be   able   to   recognize   the   place   and   send   a   notification   regarding   the   place;   more   specific   and   related   information   about   the   interest   should   be   displayed   behind   it   (the   notification   may   include   the   building   detail,   points  of  interests  in  this  part  and  the  notes  left  by  other  visitors,  etc).  (Nair  et  al.   2006)   mentioned   the   idea   of   putting   into   the   fourth   dimension   into   the   location-­‐   13  
  14. 14. based   notification   system   (LBNS),   so   that   visitors   may   see,   hear,   touch   and   feel   when   they   arrived   some   certain   points.   Visitors   have   the   option   to   pick   up   some   points  of  interests  which  they  preferred,  and  then  the  system  will  generate  a  route   for  visitor  to  walk  through.  The  option  of  clicking  certain  point  of  interest  enables   user  to  access  those  more  specific  information  about  the  POIs.       2.2.6 Interact with users 2.2.6.1  User  Interaction  in  Museum  Learning  Scenario     Bring  in  high  technology  to  help  promote  user  interaction  is  also  very  important.   Binyue   and   Yokoi   (2012)   mentioned   in   their   paper   about   interaction   between   visitors   and   those   museum   object   information   via   smart   devices.   The   embedded   RFID   in   collection   showcase   allows   visitors   to   get   information   onsite   via   smart   phone   or   other   mobile   devices,   which   visitors   outside   will   not   be   able   to   access.   And   by   providing   Wi-­‐Fi   it   enables   visitors   to   access   more   related   background   knowledge   online   while   they   are   interested   in   some   art   objects   in   the   museum.   This   way   of   interaction   between   each   other   will   also   enrich   the   concept   of   the   objects   in   the   collection   and   promote   interaction   between   visitors   online   and   onsite.   When   onsite   visitors   visit   these   objects   they   are   able   to   share   those   information,   visual   knowledge   and   the   ‘real’   experience   via   their   smart   devices   (e.g.,   smart   phones)   with   visitors   who   are   also   curious   this   about   the   collections   but  will  not  be  able  to  attend  physically.  After  the  visit,  the  smart  device  is  also  a   very   good   platform   for   visitors   to   ask   questions,   put   up   ideas,   photos   and   comments;  this  is  also  a  way  of  transfer  their  onsite  visual  knowledge  into  online   knowledge(Cheverst  et  al.  2000).       2.2.6.2  User  Interaction  in  Campus  Learning  Scenario     How   to   meet   the   requirements   of   users   is   always   very   important.   We   can   regard   the   some   certain   type   of   group   people   as   a   certain   type   of   information   model,     14  
  15. 15. (Kenteris   et   al.   2011).   The   alumnus   group   is   a   good   example   for   this:   analyzing   their  unique  requirements,  providing  certain  type  of  information  they  really  need   during   their   re-­‐visit   to   campus.   Some   applications   for   campus   need   to   take   information   models   into   consideration,   some   may   not.   (Nair   et   al.   2006)   also   argued  in  their  paper  that  they  are  more  focused  on  the  feeling  of  the  visitors,  they   put   specific   information   in   the   application   for   this   group,   they   may   want   to   see   how   the   campus   has   changed   compared   to   before,   the   building   details.   Using   multimedia  methods  to  show  them  may  be  what  they  really  want.  Things  like  slide   shows  to  document  the  changes  of  a  place,  video  or  audio  to  tell  the  story  at  some   place  in  the  history  when  alumni  walk  by,  they  want  their  memory  to  be  re-­‐called   at   that   moment.   When   alumni   walk   around   the   campus   the   system   shall   be   able   to   locate   the   current   position.   This   enables   the   system   to   play   a   slide   show   of   this   place,   tell   alumni   what   changes   have   been   made   in   this   place.   The   system   also   enables   the   alumni   to   leave   a   note   or   comment   and   review   other   alumni’s   notes   as   well.  Another  attractive  function  is  they  can  view  the  slide  show  of  the  place.  It  is   the  way  of  “promoting  a  sense  of  time”  in  the  system.  Functions  like  documenting   routes  that  visitors  have  already  finished,  and  giving  the  feedback  of  the  distance   and  time  on  the  map  may  be  another  feature  if  there  are  lots  of  options  for  visitors   to   choose   to   walk.   Visitors   shall   also   be   able   to   upload   images   of   their   interests   during   visit   or   post-­‐visit(Kuflik   et   al.   2011),   these   can   be   part   of   their   memory   saved  on  the  system  which  can  be  re-­‐accessed  by  themselves  or  others  who  want   to  do  a  pre-­‐visit  through  the  mobile  phone.     2.2.6.3  The  Babble  Interface     Rogers  (2011)3  gives  an  interesting  example  in  the  collaborative  technologies  design   chapter   of   the   book   to   support   awareness.   In   order   to   present   information   awareness,   the   book   displayed   a   communication   tool   called   Babble  shows   as   in   the   image   below.   The   numbers   of   the   babble   represent   the   number   of   the   participants   in   the   conversation,   the   more   active   a   participant   is   in   the   conversation,   the   closer   the  babbles  towards  to  the  center  of  the  circle.                                                                                                                     3  In  pp.  128  of  the  book     15  
  16. 16.   Figure  2:  The  Babble  interface  from  Book  "Interaction  Design"   This   idea   can   be   applied   on   campus   guides   as   well.   The   points   of   interest   (POIs)   can  be  shown  as  many  small  circles  on  the  overview  level  of  the  map.  As  long  as   the  features    Like   visitors   check-­‐in,   leave   a   note,   comment,   upload   photographs   are   added   in   the  mobile  guide  system,  the  more  interaction  one  place  get  from  the  visitors,  the   more   popular   the   place   will   be.   The   system   can   use   a   red   circle   to   represent   the   popular  POIs,  use  green  or  other  colors  to  represent  the  less  popular  places.  It  is   much  easier  for  the  future  visitors  to  pick  the  points  of  interest  especially  when  the   visitors   may   only   have   limited   time   to   visit   the   campus;   they   may   prefer   to   pick   those  most  popular  places  to  go.     2.2.6.4  User  Interactions  in  Indoor  Environment     For   indoor   environment   such   as   art   galleries   on   campus,   some   collections   and   artifacts  may  have  significant  meaning  for  the  university.  These  collections  can  be   picked   out   from   many   other   collections   and   put   in   a   specific   category   such   as   “Highlight  art  trail  on  campus”,  multimedia  contents  can  be  added  into  the  system   as   well.   (Proctor   and   Burton   2004)   did   an   initial   evaluation   of   the   multimedia   tour   in   their   gallery:   “With   87   percent   saying   that   the   tour   improved   their   visit.   The   most  popular  types  of  content  were  interviews  with  artists  and  videos  of  the   artist   at  work,  and  audio  commentaries  accompanied  by  images.”  Casual  games  relevant   to   the   museum   collections   are   also   a   popular   way   for   promoting   interactions   between   art   collections   and   the   visitors.   It   also   plays   an   educational   role   for   the   visitors  after  visiting  the  museum.     16  
  17. 17. 2.3  Related  Projects     The  project  examples  listed  below  are  all  about  mobile  guides.  Some  of  them  are   mobile   campus   guides   which   is   relevant   to   this   project,   some   of   them   are   more   about   mobile   guides   for   exhibitions   in   museums,   mobile   guides   for   the   walking   trails   in   a   certain   city…   However,   most   of   these   projects   have   really   good   user   interface   design   and   focused   on   promoting   user   interaction   during   the   visiting.   Although  not  all  of  them  have  the  same  idea  as  this  project,  their  ideas  and  designs   all  inspired  this  project  –mobile  guides  on  campus.   2.3.1 Harvard Guide                                                               Figure  3:  Harvard  University  App  Screenshot  1                 University   of   Harvard   developed   this   application   Harvard   Guide   for   visitors   to   explore  this  university’s  long  history  and  beautiful  campus;  the  home  screen  was   designed   with   the   image   of   the   main   gate   of   Harvard   University.   A   simple   guide   explains   the   button   function;   the   starting   points   similar   to   other   guiding   apps,   shown  as  a  list  menu  enable  users  to  pick  up  by  themselves.  After  users  click  in,  the   following  screen  shows  directions  on  the  map  and  a  half  screen  size  image  of  the   points   of   interest.   Once   user   finished   the   POI,   there   will   be   a   sign   on   the   map   showing  that  the  user  have  done  this  POI.  And  the  arrow  button  leads  the  user  to   go  to  next  step;  more  detailed  information  is  showed  behind  this  place.     17  
  18. 18.                                                               Figure  4:  Harvard  University  App  Screenshot  2       • The  info  button  shows  the  general  description  of  the  POI;     • The   inside   and   out   button   shows   an   insider’s   view   of   Harvard,   this   is   a   really  good  feature  and  other  applications  usually  do  not  this  function.  The   university   is   a   typical   place   that   some   of   areas   may   not   have   open   to   the   public;  this  feature  is  very  useful  for  the  visitors  who   cannot  access  to  the   inside  area.   • The  Fast  facts  button  documents  interesting  facts  and  trivia  that  happened   in   this   place.   Many   of   them   have   an   interesting   image   to   explain   the   moment   as   well.   It   recalls   alumni’s   memory   and   help   new   students   learn   better  about  the  place.   • Documenting  big  events  once  happened  here,  help  user  to  understand  more   about  some  significance  place.   • History  is  there  to  tell  visitors  highlights  and  stories.     A   lot   of   videos   were   put   into   these   functions;   many   of   them   have   background   music  to  help  users  have  a  nice  experience  of  the  certain  moment  and  certain  place.     18  
  19. 19. 2.3.2 Tree Tour in Oregon State University OSU  designed  and  developed  this  application  to  promote  awareness  of  the  variety   of   trees   on   campus;   the   interface   is   clean   and   tidy   with   green,   white   and   grey   as   their  basic  three  colors,  very  close  to  natural  forest  color.                                                               Figure  5:  OSU  App  Screenshot  1   The   tour   consists   of   two   separate   tours:   the   longer   one   MU   Grand   Tour   takes   45   minutes   and   the   MU   short   Tour   15   minutes.   Once   the   visitor   starts   the   tour,   the   detailed  information  such  as  10  stops,  797  ft.  distance  will  be  shown  on  the  screen.   The  app  lead  visitors  step  by  step;  two  buttons  Tour  and  Map  enable  the  user  to   switch   between   direction   to   get   to   the   points   of   interest   and   the   description   of   the   tree.  The  map  shows  an  overview  position  of  trees  with  number  and  stops  to  help   visitors  find  the  place.           19  
  20. 20.                                                   Figure  6:  OSU  App  Screenshot  2     The   main   menu   consists   of   three   parts:   the   Tree   Tour   which   is   mentioned   above   and  the  open  map,  displayed  as  a  sidelight  map  for  campus  with  small  tree  icons   located  in  it.  Each  small  icon  enable  visitor  to  click  and  learn  more  since  they  are   all  connected  to  the  information  page.     The   third   one   Reference   enables   visitors   to   search   and   learn   the   common   name   and  the  botanical  name  of  these  trees.  Detailed  information  include  the  leaf  type,   the  flower  information  and  whether  native  to  Oregon  or  not.           20  
  21. 21. 2.3.3 Ennis Walking Trails                                                                                               Figure  7:  Ennis  App  Screenshot  1       The   town   of   Ennis   is   full   of   marvelous   public   sculptures   and   works   of   art.   This   application   contains   a   large   amount   of   information   about   Ennis   to   help   visitors   learn  and  explore  this  town.     This  walking  trail  guide  consists  of  four  historical  walking  tours,  and  categorized   into  different  colors.  Each  of  them  has  an  introduction  about  the  history  and  story   information   behind,   as   well   as   the   distance   and   time   it   will   need   to   finish   the   walking  trail.           21  
  22. 22.                                                                                                 Figure  8:  Ennis  App  Screenshot  2     Clicking   into   the   points   of   interest,   the   user   will   see   the   number   of   POIs   in   the   walking   trail,   users   can   choose   take   me   to   this   point   to   get   the   directions   to   the   place  through  GPS  map,  sharing  the  point  of  interest  to  friend  on  Facebook,  or  take   a  photo  to  send  by  email,  some  of  the  interest  have  audio  guide.         2.3.4 MIT campus tour                                                             Figure  9:  MIT  App  Screenshot  1     22  
  23. 23.   MIT  mobile  campus  guide  is  the  project  that  has  some  similar  ideas  to  this  project   especially   for   some   walking   trails   on   campus.   It   aims   to   let   visitors   have   a   nice   experience   and   learn   the   history   of   different   parts   of   the   MIT   campus;   the   information   includes   MIT’s   architecture,   artwork,   facilities   etc.   Self-­‐guided   tour   and   guided   tours   are   both   provided   on   the   home   screen.   Guided   tours   are   connected   to   the   home   page   of   MIT   website,   and   include   information   about   the   pickup  points  on  campus  and  tour  guide  meet  up  time.   Self-­‐guided  tour  enables  visitor  to  pick  up  starting  point,  the  app  will  include  some   recommend  points  to  show  visitors  and  step-­‐by-­‐step  guidance  to  guide  them.                                                           Figure  10:  MIT  App  Screenshot  2     Once  the  visitor  starts  the  tour,  detailed  information  will  be  shown  on  the  screen   step   by   step,   leading   visitors   to   the   direction   of   next   stop.   The   timeline   at   the   bottom   of   the   screen   shows   the   number   of   places   that   have   been   visited   and   there   is  a  button  in  the  middle  of  the  timeline  to  enable  user  to  switch  between  the  real   map  and  the  detailed  information.  Some  side  trips  are  also  shown  in  the  detailed   information.   Visitors   can   have   their   own   flexible   walking   trails.   When   the   tour   ends,  the  last  screen  shows  the  visitor  the  campus  information,  enabling  visitor  to   send   feedback   through   their   smart   phone,   and   also   helps   visitors   to   find   a   place   to   eat.       23  
  24. 24. 2.3.5 Explorer Tsai   and   Sung   (2012)   argue   in   their   article   Mobile   Applications   and   Museum   Visitation  that  way  finding  in  the  large  museum  is  a  particularly  big  challenge  for   visitors.  Many  visitors  these  years  have  the  tendency  to  plan  their  visit  before  they   arrive.     They   may   pick   up   some   points   if   those   POIs   really   attract   them.   But   the   problem  is  imagine  if  they  pick  up  two  points  and  they  are  not  sure   the  amount  of   time  they  will  spend  there,  how  they  will  get  from  one  exhibition  to  another  one.   What   can   they   do   except   ask   the   staff   in   the   museum   or   to   find   the   way   by   themselves.     They   gave   an   example   of   American   Museum   of   Natural   History.   In   order   to   help   visitors   solve   these   problems:   they   developed   a   mobile   application   explorer,   and   add  the  feature  “My  Tour”.                                                                                                 Figure  11:  Explorer  Screenshot  1   The  interface  above  is  the  application  Explorer;  the  first  screen  contains  four  parts   of  information:  find  exhibition,  museum  tours,  food  &  shops  and  restroom  &  exit.   The   list   menus   under   the   popular   category   list   all   the   popular   exhibitions.   They   all   contain   the   feature   of   locating   your   current   place   and   then   sharing   to   friends,   adding  the  bookmark  and  mark  as  visited.     The  interface  list  below  is  the  map  function.  All  the  exhibition  information  shows   by   different   floors;   the   infographic   tells   visitors   the   overview   location   of   in   the   museum.     24  
  25. 25.                                                                                         Figure  12:  Explorer  Screenshot  2   The   following   interface   shows   the   feature   “My   Tour”.   The   add   Exhibit   button   enables   visitors   to   add   their   preferred   exhibit   from   all   the   exhibits   in   the   museum,   in  this  way  visitors  build  up  their  personal  tour.   This   feature   uses   location-­‐aware   mobile   technologies   to   provide   turn-­‐by-­‐turn   instructions   between   two   points   within   the   museum,   allowing   visitors   to   design   their  own  visitation  routes.  (Tsai  and  Sung,  2012)                                                                                           Figure  13:  Explorer  Screenshot  3                                                                                                               Although  the  Explorer  was  designed  for  a  museum,  many  of  the  design  ideas  still   inspired   this   project.   For   instance:   how   they   allocate   their   information   on   the     25  
  26. 26. home   screen   to   meet   the   users’   requirement   is   quite   important.   They   add   a   category   named   ‘popular’   to   list   all   the   popular   exhibits   enable   visitors   to   find   them  easily,  they  promoted  user  interaction  very  well  because  they  enable  visitors   to  build  their  own  tours.       2.4  Methodology/  User  studies       The   design   process   will   include   academic   research   of   previous   projects   and   relevant  articles,  scenarios,  building  tasks  and  the  first  design  prototype.   Many   iterations   of   the   design   are   necessary.   It   is   important   to   test   users   with   a   low-­‐  fidelity  prototype  and  get  feedback  from  them.  Try  to  understand  more  about   the   user,   make   the   design   character   attractive   to   users,   and   at   the   end   build   up   the   high-­‐fidelity  prototype,  and  finish  the  final  design.   The   evaluation   methods   include   analysis,   observation,   interviews,   and   questionnaires;   a   video   camera   will   be   used   to   record   participants   so   that   it   is   enable   to   observe   the   user   reaction   when   they   interact   with   mobile   guide   on   campus.   2.5  Prototypes     Prototypes   are   very   important   in   this   project,   low-­‐fidelity   prototype,   mid-­‐fidelity   prototype   and   high-­‐fidelity   prototype   are   needed   during   the   design   process   of   this   project.     Low-­‐fidelity  prototype—Interface  sketch  and  paper  prototype   Sketch   the   mobile   interface   after   the   initial   research   and   analyze,   get   the   user   feedback,  keep  sketching,  evaluate  and  revise  the  project.     High  Fidelity—Axure  and  Eclipse     After  user  evaluation,  the  prototype  is  revised  enough  for  users  to  use,     The  interface  of  the  application  will  be  designed  in  Adobe  Photoshop  and  mock-­‐up   in   Axure.   Then   continue   to   do   user   valuation,   testing   and   iteration   until   arriving   at   a  satisfied  prototype.     26  
  27. 27. After   the   prototype   is   satisfactorily   developed,   the   application   can   then   be   developed   in   Eclipse   with   Android   SDK   platform,   to   implement   the   features   implied  by  the  design  process.       2.6  Technologies  involved       To  design  and  develop  the  Android  mobile  app  as  described  above,  the  following  is   list  of  the  technologies/software  involved:     • Prototype  tools:  Adobe  Photoshop,  Axure,  etc.   • Eclipse  with  Android  SDK:  Java  as  the  programming  language   • SQLite:  store  information  in  mobile  phone   • Google  Map  APIs:  outdoor  localization         • Web  Server:  store  images  etc.  to  save  space  in  phone   3  Design  Process   3.1  Introduction     The   aim   of   this   chapter   is   to   describe   the   design   process   and   the   research   methodology  of  this  project.   3.2  Methodology       User-­‐centered   Design   was   undertaken   in   the   development   of   this   project.   The   manager  of  art  office  was  involved  through  interviews  and  a  group  of  users  were   involved  through  prototype  testing  and  evaluation.  The  design  and  development  is   iterative,  follows  the  cycle  below.       27  
  28. 28.   Figure  14  The  User  Centered  Design  Process     3.3  Understand  Users     In   order   to   understand   potential   users,   the   manager   of   the   art   office   was   interviewed.   The  potential  users  are  aged  between18  to   60;  there  will  be  students,   especially   large   numbers   of   Erasmus   students   who   come   to   study   here   every   year,   and   also   summer   camp   students   and   visitors.   A   mobile   application   is   strongly   needed   for   UL   Art   Trail   and   Flora   and   Fauna   Trails   in   the   art   office,   for   instance,   the   teacher   in   the   summer   camp   can   download   the   app   and   guide   the   students   around  campus.  Many  visitors  come  and  ask  about  the  trees  in  UL.  There  are  many   visitors  curious  about  the  art  and  arboretum  in  UL.     A   number   of   candidates   were   recruited   to   form   a   group,   User   1   is   a   Masters   student   from   Romania;   User   2   is   a   Japanese   student   at   UL   to   learn   English   for   6   mouths;   User   3   is   a   Chinese   student   just   arrived   Ireland   and   will   study   here   for   next  year.  Two  of  them  are  female,  and  one  of  them  is  male.  They  are  aged  between   22-­‐31.  They  were  interviewed  to  get  an  idea  of  their  understand  of  mobile  guides     28  
  29. 29. and   how   they   would   prefer   to   use   mobile   app   to   visit   UL   campus.   User1   has   a   Samsung  mobile  phone  with  Android  system,  User  2  has  a  Japanese  AU  phone,  and   User  3  has  an  iPhone.     User  1  was  very  interested  in  both  trails:  she  noticed  that  even   though   she  already   stayed  here  for  a  year,  there  are  so  many  nice  places  she  has  not  been  to  yet.  She   did   not   get   a   brochure   of   the   trails   and   she   did   not   see   any   information   on   the   social  network  about  these   trials  before.  She  said  she  would  prefer  to  use  it  during   the   first   three   weeks   to   walk   around   campus   and   get   familiar   with   it.   Both   her   mum  and  her  friends  came  to  visit  during  her  study  this  year.  She  felt  that  if  she   could  download  a  mobile  guide,  she  would  have  more  ideas  of  how  to  show  them   around   campus.   About   the   question   what   she   would   expect   the   mobile   guides   like,   she   said   she   would   prefer   it   has   a   very   clear   location   service   instead   of   a   boring   map;   she   is   not   good   at   looking   at   maps.   She   thinks   if   the   guided   trip   can   be   finished  in  30  minutes,  it  would  be  perfect,  and  she  hope  every  stop  has  a  rating   feature  so  that  she  would  know  which  one  is  more  popular.  She  also  hopes  that  the   mobile   guide   will   be   free   and   this   app   should   represent   the   UL   campus   and   be   promoted  on  the  main  UL  websites  so  that  all  the  students  who  will  come  here  can   download  and  have  a  prior  experience.       User  2  thinks  he  would  more  interested  looking  at  this  information  when  he  just   arrived.  He  would  like  to  spend  1-­‐2hours  to  walk  around  with  this  guide,  he  thinks   if   the   app   has   a   location   service   that   will   be   very   good   and   he   hopes   every   point   of   interest  on  the  map  has  a  small  image,  this  made  it  easier  for  him  to  find,  and  he   wants   to   see   some   recommend   places,   it   could   save   time   for   him.   He   mentioned   that   if   this   application   would   recommend   some   restaurants   around   the   points   of   interests,  that  will  be  so  helpful,  some  visitors  may  feel  hungry  or  want  a  cup  of  tea   or  coffee  during  their  visit.       User   3   feels   she   really   wants   to   see   more   on   campus,   but   she   mentioned   that   if   the   application   could   have   more   than   one   language   it   would   be   better   since   she   just   came   to   Ireland,   and   there   are   many   English   words   she   does   not   know.   And   she   hopes   the   mobile   guides   can   show   her   some   very   popular   places   in   UL,   and   she     29  
  30. 30. wants  to  share  these  information  on  social  networks  and  let  her  friends  know  what   her  university  looks  like.     3.4  Drawing  Requirements     After   interviewing   the   participants,   it   became   clear   what   kind   of   mobile   guides   both  users  and  art  office  were  expecting.  The  lists  below  are  the  conclusion  of  the   features  they  want  to  put  in  the  UL  Art  Trail  and  Flora  and  Fauna  Trail.     • A  high-­‐quality  location  service,  telling  users  their  current  location  and  how   to  get  to  the  next  stop.     • A  rating  feature  helping  users  to  say  “like”  on  the  app  and  users  could  pick   the  most  popular  one  to  visit.     • A  social  network  to  connect  it,  easy  to  find  and  free  to  download.     • All   the   points   of   interests   have   an   image   view;   it   is   easier   for   users   to   recognize  the  place.       3.5  Prototyping   3.5.1 Organizing the Information All   the   listed   points   of   interests   listed   below   are   organized   on   the   map,   and   the   information  was  planned  into  one  art  trail  and  two  flora  and  fauna  trails.     Art  Trail:     In   the   Art   Trail   all   these   information   were   re-­‐arranged   and   allocated   by   the   location,  they  are  11  places,  19  points  of  interests  in  total:       30  
  31. 31. Located  at  the  Main  entrance:   Gate  Masts   Crann  Saoilse     Located  in  and  outside  the  Glucksman  Library:   Leaf  Litany   Helen  hooker  O’  Malley  Poelofs  Sculpture  Trust   The  Conlan  Collection  of  the  Irish  Coins,  Tokens  and  Ring-­‐  Money     Located  at  the  Central  Plaza:   Together  and  Apart     Located  at  the  Millstream  Courtyard:   Chancellor’s  Walk     Located  at  the  Reflecting  Pool,  Foundation  Building:   Silver  Pencils   Bourn  Vincent  Gallery  (create  a  page  on  Facebook,  Google  or  Microsoft  blog  to  help   update  the  upcoming  event)   The  National  Self-­‐Portrait  Collection  of  Ireland   The  Water  Color  Society  of  the  National  Collection     Located  in  and  around  Plassey  House:   The  University  of  Limerick  Mace   The  National  Self-­‐Portrait  Collection  of  Ireland   The  Irish  American  Cultural  Institute’s  O’  Malley  Collection   Salmon  Fall     Located  at  the  Main  building  and  throughout  the  campus:   The  University  of  Limerick  Art  Collection   Loans  and  Donations     Located  in  the  Irish  World  Academy:   Desmond  Kinney  Mosaic     Located  to  the  left  of  the  Schrodinger  Building:   Resurgence     Located  between  the  Stables  Courtyard  and  the  main  building:   Sundial   Located  in  the  Kilmurry  village:     Swimmer   31  
  32. 32. These  POIs  are  mainly  located  through  the  campus  not  far  from  each  other.  Lots  of   places  have  more  than  one  POI  to  visit,  and  visitor  can  pick  their  favorite  ones  to   visit.   Some   of   the   POIs   like   the   Swimmer   is   relatively   farther   compared   to   other   POIs,  so  it  is  listed  into  a  side  trip,  in  this  way  the  trail  is  flexible  for  users  to  pick   whether  to  go  or  not.       Flora  and  Fauna  Trails:     This  one  was  divided  into  2  different  trails  as  there  are  large  numbers  of  POIs  to   see,  and  the  distance  is  relatively  longer.   North  Bank  Trail  (7  points  of  interests):   .   • The  Living  Bridge  (side  by  view  from  the  bridge  is  the  Plassey  House)   • Irish  World  Academy  (Desmond  Kinney  Mosaic)   • The  Riparian  Woodland   • The  Sports  Pavilion     • Erina  Canal   • Ruined  Bridge   • Shannon  River   • Birds,  Animals  and  insects     South  Bank  Trail  (7  points  of  interests)   • Plassey  Millrace   • Notable  Trees  (Salmon  Fall,  Plassey  House)   • Living  Bridge   • The  Ruined  Bridge   • University  Bridge   • Castle  Troy  Castle   • Swimmers  (Located  in  the  Kilmurry  student  village)       32  
  33. 33. Tree  Trail   The   interview   I   did   with   Yvonne   Davis   in   the   visual   art   office   shows   that   many   people  are  interested  in  the  trees  in  UL,  so  the  art  office  wants  to  have  a  specific   area  in  this  application  for  these  trees.  This  is  the  reason  for  designing  a  trail  for   these   trees.   There   are   altogether   33   kinds   of   trees   mainly   located   around   the   Main   Building  and  Plassey  House.  These  trees  were  planed  as  one  notable  tree  trail  and   also  this  trail  is  added  into  a  side  trip  in  the  south  bank  trail  as  well.             33  
  34. 34. 3.5.2 Problems I met 1. Detailed  Map  of  UL  campus  in  PDF  and  PSD  format  is  needed.   2. Images  of  all  the  Art  trails  and  Flora  and  Fauna  Trails  are  needed.     3. Detailed  information  for  the  10  outdoor  sculptures  is  needed.   4. The  availability  of  the  two  POIs  in  Glucksman  Library  and  two  in  Plassey   House,  the  opening  hours  whether  it  is  available  to  visit.     5. The  location  of  Armitage  Collection,  University  of  Limerick  Art  Collection,   Loans  and  Donations  (whether  need  to  include  in  this  trip).   6. Sign  up  a  Facebook  page,  Google+  page  or  Blog  to  enable  visitors  share  and   comment  interact  with  other  visitors.   7. Icon  PNG  file  may  needed.                       34  
  35. 35.   3.5.2 Paper Prototyping                                            Figure  15:  Information  for  North  Bank  Trail  and  for  Art  Trail         Figure  16:    Information  for  South  Bank  Trail                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37                                                            
  36. 36.                                                                 Figure  17:  Paper  prototype  screen1  and  screen2         The   home   screen   displays   the   information   of   University   of   Limerick   logo   and   the   campus   trails   logo.   This   enables   the   user   to   understand   the   function   of   this   mobile   application.   The   second   screen   displays   the   information   of   the   campus   trails   consisting  of  two  kinds  of  trails:  the  Campus  Art  Trail  and  Flora  &  Fauna  Trail;  this   enable  the  user  to  have  a  brief  idea  of  the  information  behind  these  two  trails.                                                                                 Figure  18:  Paper  prototype  screen3  and  screen4         36  
  37. 37.   When   the   user   clicks   into   the   art   trail,   the   following   screen   displays   a   brief   and   useful   information   about   the   number   of   stops,   the   approximate   time   and   the   distance   in   this   trail.   The   category   view   of   the   trail   allows   the   user   to   pick   a   starting   point,   which   is   suitable   for   them.   The   navigation   back   button   brings   the   user   back   to   the   last   screen   if   the   user   wants   to   switch   to   another   campus   trail   routine.                                                                                             Figure  19:  Paper  prototype  screen5  and  screen6       When   the   user   clicks   into   each   detailed   (POI),   the   four   buttons   below   the   POI’s   image/icon  allow  the  user  to  locate  current  location  and  find  the  direction  to  the   next   POI,   share   their   personal   views   and   comments   of   a   certain   sculpture   or   art   collections,   and   also   clicking   “like”   button   will   directly   connect   to   the   Campus   Trails   Facebook   Page.   The   more   information   button   is   mainly   designed   for   some   POIs   which   have   more   information   to   show   to   the   user,   for   example,   the   Bourn   Vincent  Gallery  has  a  dedicated  web  page  to  show  the  public  visitors  the  up  coming   event,  this  button  can  bring  the  user  to  the  link:  the  information  of  current  show  .             37  
  38. 38.   3.5.3 User Test and Improvement                                        Figure  20:  User  Testing1  and  User  Testing2                                                                       All   the   participants   were   involved   in   the   user   test.   Several   typical   tasks   were   measured   and   all   the   errors   they   made   are   observed   and   written   on   the   notes.   Several   questions   were   asked   after   testing.   The   existing   problems   and   suggestions   are  listed  below:     • The  font  size  is  a  little  bit  small:  it  is  different  for  users  to  pick  a  starting  point   and  press  the  buttons.     • The  map  view  is  not  clear  enough  for  users  to  find  the  location.       • The   Tree   Trail   was   put   in   one   of   the   Flora   and   Fauna   Trails,   and   is   not   easy   for   users  to  find.     • The  prototype  is  the  Samsung  Galaxy  Nexus;  one  user  was  confused  about  the   back  button  on  the  navigation  bar.       38  
  39. 39.   • The  distance  needs  to  change  from  miles  to  kilometers,  it  is  easier  for  user  to   understand  the  distance.         3.6  User  Interface  Design   3.6.1 UI Design Idea The  Interface  is  mainly  designed  with  two  colours:  orange  and  green,  representing   Art   Trail   and   Flora   and   Fauna   Trail,   these   two   colours   are   very   easy   to   be   recognized  and  the  font  can  stand  out  from  the  background  colour.  White  is  used   for  the  titles  of  each  POI;  dark  grey  is  used  for  the  titles  to  describe  each  POI;  the   size  of  the  font  and  buttons  were  tested  and  suitable  for  the  size  of  the  user’s  finger.   All  the  interfaces  are  designed  in  Photoshop  and  Illustrator.  Most  of  the  photos  in   this   application   were   provided   by   University   of   Limerick   Arts   Office,   several   of   the   photos   were   downloaded   from   http://www.all-­‐free-­‐download.com.   It   allows   public   to   copy,   modify,   distribute   and   perform   the   work,   even   for   commercial   purposes,  all  without  asking  permission.  The  rest  of  photos  were  taken  by  me.       Figure  21:  Art  Trail  Screens     39  

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