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  • 1. Intensive Care Med (2013) 39:165–228DOI 10.1007/s00134-012-2769-8 GUIDELINESR. P. DellingerMitchell M. Levy Surviving Sepsis Campaign: InternationalAndrew Rhodes Guidelines for Management of Severe SepsisDjillali AnnaneHerwig Gerlach and Septic Shock, 2012Steven M. OpalJonathan E. SevranskyCharles L. SprungIvor S. DouglasRoman JaeschkeTiffany M. OsbornMark E. NunnallySean R. TownsendKonrad ReinhartRuth M. KleinpellDerek C. AngusClifford S. DeutschmanFlavia R. MachadoGordon D. RubenfeldSteven WebbRichard J. BealeJean-Louis VincentRui MorenoThe Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committeeincluding The Pediatric Subgroup* of Hospital Medicine, Surgical Infection R. P. Dellinger ())Received: 4 June 2012 Society, World Federation of Critical Care Cooper University Hospital,Accepted: 12 November 2012 Nurses, World Federation of PediatricPublished online: 30 January 2013 Camden, NJ, USA Intensive and Critical Care Societies; World e-mail: Dellinger-Phil@CooperHealth.eduÓ SCCM and ESICM 2013 Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine. Participation andSponsoring organizations: American endorsement: The German Sepsis Society M. M. LevyAssociation of Critical-Care Nurses, and the Latin American Sepsis Institute. Warren Alpert Medical School of BrownAmerican College of Chest Physicians, University, Providence, RI, USAAmerican College of Emergency * Members of the 2012 SSC GuidelinesPhysicians, American Thoracic Society, Committee and Pediatric Subgroup are A. RhodesAsia Pacific Association of Critical Care listed in Appendix 1 at the end of this St. George’s Hospital, London, UKMedicine, Australian and New Zealand article.Intensive Care Society, Brazilian Society of D. AnnaneCritical Care, Canadian Critical Care This article is being simultaneously ˆ ´ Hopital Raymond Poincare,Society, Chinese Society of Critical Care published in Critical Care Medicine andMedicine, Chinese Society of Critical Care Intensive Care Medicine. Garches, FranceMedicine—China Medical Association,Emirates Intensive Care Society, European For additional information regarding this H. GerlachRespiratory Society, European Society of article, contact R.P. Dellinger (Dellinger- ¨ Vivantes-Klinikum Neukolln,Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Berlin, GermanyDiseases, European Society of IntensiveCare Medicine, European Society of S. M. OpalPediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island,Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pawtucket, RI, USAIndian Society of Critical Care Medicine,International Pan Arabian Critical Care J. E. SevranskyMedicine Society, Japanese Association for Emory University Hospital,Acute Medicine, Japanese Society ofIntensive Care Medicine, Pediatric Acute Atlanta, GA, USALung Injury and Sepsis Investigators,Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, C. L. SprungSociety of Critical Care Medicine, Society Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
  • 2. 166I. S. Douglas Abstract Objective: To provide shock (1C) as the goal of therapy;Denver Health Medical Center, an update to the ‘‘Surviving Sepsis reassessment of antimicrobial therapyDenver, CO, USA daily for de-escalation, when appro- Campaign Guidelines for Manage-R. Jaeschke ment of Severe Sepsis and Septic priate (1B); infection source controlMcMaster University, Shock,’’ last published in 2008. with attention to the balance of risksHamilton, ON, Canada Design: A consensus committee of and benefits of the chosen method 68 international experts representing within 12 h of diagnosis (1C); initialT. M. Osborn 30 international organizations was fluid resuscitation with crystalloidBarnes-Jewish Hospital, convened. Nominal groups were (1B) and consideration of the additionSt. Louis, MO, USA of albumin in patients who continue assembled at key international meet-M. E. Nunnally ings (for those committee members to require substantial amounts ofUniversity of Chicago Medical Center, attending the conference). A formal crystalloid to maintain adequate meanChicago, IL, USA conflict of interest policy was devel- arterial pressure (2C) and the avoid- oped at the onset of the process and ance of hetastarch formulations (1B);S. R. Townsend enforced throughout. The entire initial fluid challenge in patients withCalifornia Pacific Medical Center, guidelines process was conducted sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusionSan Francisco, CA, USA and suspicion of hypovolemia to independent of any industry funding.K. Reinhart A stand-alone meeting was held for achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg ofFriedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, all subgroup heads, co- and vice- crystalloids (more rapid administra-Germany chairs, and selected individuals. tion and greater amounts of fluid may Teleconferences and electronic-based be needed in some patients (1C); fluidR. M. Kleinpell discussion among subgroups and challenge technique continued as longRush University Medical Center, among the entire committee served as as hemodynamic improvement isChicago, IL, USA based on either dynamic or static an integral part of the development.D. C. Angus Methods: The authors were advised variables (UG); norepinephrine as theUniversity of Pittsburgh, to follow the principles of the Grad- first-choice vasopressor to maintainPittsburgh, PA, USA ing of Recommendations Assessment, mean arterial pressure C65 mmHg Development and Evaluation (1B); epinephrine when an additionalC. S. Deutschman (GRADE) system to guide assessment agent is needed to maintain adequatePerelman School of Medicine at the of quality of evidence from high blood pressure (2B); vasopressinUniversity of Pennsylvania, (0.03 U/min) can be added to nor-Philadelphia, PA, USA (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as epinephrine to either raise meanF. R. Machado strong (1) or weak (2). The potential arterial pressure to target or toFederal University of Sao Paulo, drawbacks of making strong recom- decrease norepinephrine dose butSao Paulo, Brazil mendations in the presence of low- should not be used as the initial quality evidence were emphasized. vasopressor (UG); dopamine is notG. D. Rubenfeld Recommendations were classified recommended except in highlySunnybrook Health Sciences Center, selected circumstances (2C); dobuta-Toronto, ON, Canada into three groups: (1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; (2) those tar- mine infusion administered or addedS. Webb geting general care of the critically ill to vasopressor in the presence ofRoyal Perth Hospital, patient and considered high priority in (a) myocardial dysfunction as sug-Perth, Western Australia severe sepsis; and (3) pediatric con- gested by elevated cardiac filling siderations. Results: Key pressures and low cardiac output, orR. J. Beale recommendations and suggestions, (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusionGuy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospital Trust, despite achieving adequate intravas-London, UK listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic cular volume and adequate meanJ.-L. Vincent patient during the first 6 h after rec- arterial pressure (1C); avoiding use ofErasme University Hospital, ognition (1C); blood cultures before intravenous hydrocortisone in adultBrussels, Belgium antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging septic shock patients if adequate fluid studies performed promptly to con- resuscitation and vasopressor therapyR. Moreno firm a potential source of infection are able to restore hemodynamic sta- ˜ ´UCINC, Hospital de Sao Jose, Centro (UG); administration of broad-spec- bility (2C); hemoglobin target ofHospitalar de Lisboa Central, E.P.E.,Lisbon, Portugal trum antimicrobials therapy within 7–9 g/dL in the absence of tissue 1 h of the recognition of septic shock hypoperfusion, ischemic coronary (1B) and severe sepsis without septic artery disease, or acute hemorrhage
  • 3. 167(1B); low tidal volume (1A) and blood glucose management com- bolus of 20 mL/kg of crystalloids (orlimitation of inspiratory plateau mencing insulin dosing when two albumin equivalent) over 5–10 minpressure (1B) for acute respiratory consecutive blood glucose levels are (2C); more common use of inotropesdistress syndrome (ARDS); applica- [180 mg/dL, targeting an upper and vasodilators for low cardiac out-tion of at least a minimal amount of blood glucose B180 mg/dL (1A); put septic shock associated withpositive end-expiratory pressure equivalency of continuous veno- elevated systemic vascular resistance(PEEP) in ARDS (1B); higher rather venous hemofiltration or intermittent (2C); and use of hydrocortisone onlythan lower level of PEEP for patients hemodialysis (2B); prophylaxis for in children with suspected or provenwith sepsis-induced moderate or deep vein thrombosis (1B); use of ‘‘absolute’’’ adrenal insufficiencysevere ARDS (2C); recruitment stress ulcer prophylaxis to prevent (2C). Conclusions: Strong agree-maneuvers in sepsis patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in ment existed among a large cohort ofsevere refractory hypoxemia due to patients with bleeding risk factors international experts regarding manyARDS (2C); prone positioning in (1B); oral or enteral (if necessary) level 1 recommendations for the bestsepsis-induced ARDS patients with a feedings, as tolerated, rather than care of patients with severe sepsis.PaO2/FiO2 ratio of B100 mm Hg in either complete fasting or provision Although a significant number offacilities that have experience with of only intravenous glucose within aspects of care have relatively weaksuch practices (2C); head-of-bed ele- the first 48 h after a diagnosis of support, evidence-based recommen-vation in mechanically ventilated severe sepsis/septic shock (2C); and dations regarding the acutepatients unless contraindicated (1B); addressing goals of care, including management of sepsis and septica conservative fluid strategy for treatment plans and end-of-life plan- shock are the foundation of improvedpatients with established ARDS who ning (as appropriate) (1B), as early as outcomes for this important group ofdo not have evidence of tissue hypo- feasible, but within 72 h of intensive critically ill patients.perfusion (1C); protocols for weaning care unit admission (2C). Recom-and sedation (1A); minimizing use of mendations specific to pediatric Keywords Sepsis Á Severe sepsis Áeither intermittent bolus sedation or severe sepsis include: therapy with Septic shock Á Sepsis syndrome Ácontinuous infusion sedation target- face mask oxygen, high flow nasal Infection Á Grading ofing specific titration endpoints (1B); cannula oxygen, or nasopharyngeal Recommendations Assessment,avoidance of neuromuscular blockers continuous PEEP in the presence of Development and Evaluation criteria Áif possible in the septic patient with- respiratory distress and hypoxemia GRADE Á Guidelines Áout ARDS (1C); a short course of (2C), use of physical examination Evidence-based medicine Áneuromuscular blocker (no longer therapeutic endpoints such as capil- Surviving Sepsis Campaign Áthan 48 h) for patients with early lary refill (2C); for septic shock Sepsis bundlesARDS and a PaO2/FIO2 150 mm Hg associated with hypovolemia, the use(2C); a protocolized approach to of crystalloids or albumin to deliver aSepsis is a systemic, deleterious host response to infection making capability when he or she is presented with aleading to severe sepsis (acute organ dysfunction sec- patient’s unique set of clinical variables. Most of theseondary to documented or suspected infection) and septic recommendations are appropriate for the severe sepsisshock (severe sepsis plus hypotension not reversed with patient in the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICUfluid resuscitation). Severe sepsis and septic shock are settings. In fact, the committee believes that the greatestmajor healthcare problems, affecting millions of people outcome improvement can be made through educationaround the world each year, killing one in four (and often and process change for those caring for severe sepsismore), and increasing in incidence [1–5]. Similar to patients in the non-ICU setting and across the spectrum ofpolytrauma, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke, the acute care. Resource limitations in some institutions andspeed and appropriateness of therapy administered in the countries may prevent physicians from accomplishinginitial hours after severe sepsis develops are likely to particular recommendations. Thus, these recommenda-influence outcome. tions are intended to be best practice (the committee The recommendations in this document are intended to considers this a goal for clinical practice) and not createdprovide guidance for the clinician caring for a patient with to represent standard of care. The Surviving Sepsissevere sepsis or septic shock. Recommendations from Campaign (SSC) Guidelines Committee hopes that overthese guidelines cannot replace the clinician’s decision- time, particularly through education programs and formal
  • 4. 168audit and feedback performance improvement initiatives, to address content needs for the development process. Fourthe guidelines will influence bedside healthcare practi- clinicians with experience in the GRADE process applica-tioner behavior that will reduce the burden of sepsis tion (referred to in this document as GRADE group orworldwide. Evidence-Based Medicine [EBM] group) took part in the guidelines development. The guidelines development process began with appointment of group heads and assignment of committee members to groups according to their specific expertise.Methodology Each group was responsible for drafting the initial update toDefinitions the 2008 edition in their assigned area (with major additional elements of information incorporated into the evolvingSepsis is defined as the presence (probable or documented) manuscript through year-end 2011 and early 2012).of infection together with systemic manifestations of infec- With input from the EBM group, an initial group meet-tion. Severe sepsis is defined as sepsis plus sepsis-induced ing was held to establish procedures for literature review andorgan dysfunction or tissue hypoperfusion (Tables 1, 2) [6]. development of tables for evidence analysis. CommitteesThroughout this manuscript and the performance improve- and their subgroups continued work via phone and thement bundles, which are included, a distinction is made Internet. Several subsequent meetings of subgroups and keybetween definitions and therapeutic targets or thresholds. individuals occurred at major international meetingsSepsis-induced hypotension is defined as a systolic blood (nominal groups), with work continuing via teleconferencespressure (SBP)90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure (MAP) and electronic-based discussions among subgroups and70 mmHg or a SBP decrease[40 mmHg or less than two members of the entire committee. Ultimately, a meeting ofstandard deviations below normal for age in the absence of all group heads, executive committee members, and otherother causes of hypotension. An example of a therapeutic key committee members was held to finalize the draft doc-target or typical threshold for the reversal of hypotension is ument for submission to reviewers.seen in the sepsis bundles for the use of vasopressors. In thebundles, the MAP threshold is C65 mmHg. The use of defi-nition versus threshold will be evident throughout this article. Search techniquesSeptic shock is defined as sepsis-induced hypotension per-sisting despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Sepsis-induced A separate literature search was performed for each clearlytissue hypoperfusion is defined as infection-induced hypo- defined question. The committee chairs worked with sub-tension, elevated lactate, or oliguria. group heads to identify pertinent search terms that were to include, at a minimum, sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, and sepsis syndrome crossed against the subgroup’s generalHistory of the guidelines topic area, as well as appropriate key words of the specific question posed. All questions used in the previous guide-These clinical practice guidelines are a revision of the 2008 lines publications were searched, as were pertinent newSSC guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and questions generated by general topic-related searches orseptic shock [7]. The initial SSC guidelines were published recent trials. The authors were specifically asked to look forin 2004 [8] and incorporated the evidence available through existing meta-analyses related to their question and search athe end of 2003. The 2008 publication analyzed evidence minimum of one general database (i.e., MEDLINE, EM-available through the end of 2007. The most current iteration BASE) and the Cochrane Library [both The Cochraneis based on updated literature search incorporated into the Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database ofevolving manuscript through fall 2012. Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)]. Other databases were optional (ACP Journal Club, Evidence- Based Medicine Journal, Cochrane Registry of ControlledSelection and organization of committee members Clinical Trials, International Standard Randomised Con- trolled Trial Registry ( selection of committee members was based on interest isrctn/) or metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.and expertise in specific aspects of sepsis. Co-chairs and Where appropriate, availableexecutive committee members were appointed by the evidence was summarized in the form of evidence tables.Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society ofIntensive Care Medicine governing bodies. Each sponsor-ing organization appointed a representative who had sepsis Grading of recommendationsexpertise. Additional committee members were appointedby the co-chairs and executive committee to create conti- We advised the authors to follow the principles of thenuity with the previous committees’ membership as well as GRADE system to guide assessment of quality of
  • 5. 169Table 1 Diagnostic criteria for sepsisInfection, documented or suspected, and some of the following: General variables Fever ([38.3 °C) Hypothermia (core temperature 36 °C) Heart rate [90 min-1 or more than two SD above the normal value for age Tachypnea Altered mental status Significant edema or positive fluid balance ([ 20 mL/kg over 24 h) Hyperglycemia (plasma glucose [140 mg/dL or 7.7 mmol/L) in the absence of diabetes Inflammatory variables Leukocytosis (WBC count [12,000 lL-1) Leukopenia (WBC count 4,000 lL-1) Normal WBC count with greater than 10 % immature forms Plasma C-reactive protein more than two SD above the normal value Plasma procalcitonin more than two SD above the normal value Hemodynamic variables Arterial hypotension (SBP 90 mmHg, MAP 70 mmHg, or an SBP decrease [40 mmHg in adults or less than two SD below normal for age) Organ dysfunction variables Arterial hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 300) Acute oliguria (urine output 0.5 mL kg-1 h-1 for at least 2 h despite adequate fluid resuscitation) Creatinine increase [0.5 mg/dL or 44.2 lmol/L Coagulation abnormalities (INR [1.5 or aPTT [60 s) Ileus (absent bowel sounds) Thrombocytopenia (platelet count 100,000 lL-1) Hyperbilirubinemia (plasma total bilirubin [4 mg/dL or 70 lmol/L) Tissue perfusion variables Hyperlactatemia ([1 mmol/L) Decreased capillary refill or mottlingSD standard deviation, WBC white blood cell, SBP systolic blood hypothermia (rectal temperature [38.5 or 35 °C), tachycardiapressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, INR international normalized (may be absent in hypothermic patients), and at least one of theratio, aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time following indications of altered organ function: altered mental sta-Diagnostic criteria for sepsis in the pediatric population are signs tus, hypoxemia, increased serum lactate level, or bounding pulsesand symptoms of inflammation plus infection with hyper- or Adapted from [6]Table 2 Severe sepsis The GRADE system is based on a sequential assess-Severe sepsis definition = sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion or ment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment organ dysfunction (any of the following thought to be due to the of the balance between the benefits and risks, burden, and infection) cost, leading to development and grading of a manage- Sepsis-induced hypotension ment recommendation. Keeping the rating of quality of Lactate above upper limits laboratory normal Urine output 0.5 mL kg-1 h-1 for more than 2 h despite evidence and strength of recommendation explicitly sep- adequate fluid resuscitation arate constitutes a crucial and defining feature of the Acute lung injury with PaO2/FiO2 250 in the absence of GRADE approach. This system classifies quality of evi- pneumonia as infection source dence as high (grade A), moderate (grade B), low (grade Acute lung injury with PaO2/FiO2 200 in the presence of pneumonia as infection source C), or very low (grade D). Randomized trials begin as Creatinine [2.0 mg/dL (176.8 lmol/L) high-quality evidence but may be downgraded due to Bilirubin [2 mg/dL (34.2 lmol/L) limitations in implementation, inconsistency, or impreci- Platelet count 100,000 lL sion of the results, indirectness of the evidence, and Coagulopathy (international normalized ratio [1.5) possible reporting bias (Table 3). Examples of indirect-Adapted from [6] ness of the evidence include population studied, interventions used, outcomes measured, and how theseevidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the relate to the question of interest. Well-done observationalstrength of recommendations (Tables 3, 4) [9–11]. The SSC (nonrandomized) studies begin as low-quality evidence,Steering Committee and individual authors collaborated but the quality level may be upgraded on the basis of awith GRADE representatives to apply the system during the large magnitude of effect. An example of this is theSSC guidelines revision process. The members of the quality of evidence for early administration of antibiotics.GRADE group were directly involved, either in person or References to supplemental digital content appendices ofvia e-mail, in all discussions and deliberations among the GRADEpro Summary of Evidence Tables appear through-guidelines committee members as to grading decisions. out this document.
  • 6. 170Table 3 Determination of the quality of evidence Table 4 Factors determining strong versus weak recommendationUnderlying methodology What should be considered Recommended process A (high) RCTs High or moderate evidence (is The higher the quality of B (moderate) downgraded RCTs or upgraded observational studies there high or moderate quality C (low) well-done observational studies with control RCTs evidence, the more likely a evidence?) D (very low) downgraded controlled studies or expert opinion strong recommendation. based on other evidence Certainty about the balance of The larger the differenceFactors that may decrease the strength of evidence benefits versus harms and between the desirable and burdens (is there certainty?) 1. Poor quality of planning and implementation of available RCTs, undesirable consequences and suggesting high likelihood of bias the certainty around that 2. Inconsistency of results, including problems with subgroup difference, the more likely a analyses strong recommendation. The 3. Indirectness of evidence (differing population, intervention, smaller the net benefit and the control, outcomes, comparison) lower the certainty for that 4. Imprecision of results benefit, the more likely a weak 5. High likelihood of reporting bias recommendation Certainty in or similar values (is The more certainty or similarityMain factors that may increase the strength of evidence there certainty or similarity?) 1. Large magnitude of effect (direct evidence, relative risk [ 2 in values and preferences, the with no plausible confounders) more likely a strong 2. Very large magnitude of effect with relative risk [ 5 and no recommendation threats to validity (by two levels) Resource implications (are The lower the cost of an 3. Dose–response gradient resources worth expected intervention compared to the benefits?) alternative and other costsRCT randomized controlled trial related to the decision–i.e., fewer resources consumed— the more likely a strong The GRADE system classifies recommendations as recommendationstrong (grade 1) or weak (grade 2). The factors influencingthis determination are presented in Table 4. The assignmentof strong or weak is considered of greater clinical impor- intervention and that most clinicians should use it in mosttance than a difference in letter level of quality of evidence. situations. Circumstances may exist in which a strongThe committee assessed whether the desirable effects of recommendation cannot or should not be followed for anadherence would outweigh the undesirable effects, and the individual because of that patient’s preferences or clinicalstrength of a recommendation reflects the group’s degree of characteristics that make the recommendation less appli-confidence in that assessment. Thus, a strong recommen- cable. A strong recommendation does not automaticallydation in favor of an intervention reflects the panel’s opinion imply standard of care. For example, the strong recom-that the desirable effects of adherence to a recommendation mendation for administering antibiotics within 1 h of the(beneficial health outcomes; lesser burden on staff and diagnosis of severe sepsis, as well as the recommendationpatients; and cost savings) will clearly outweigh the unde- for achieving a central venous pressure (CVP) ofsirable effects (harm to health; more burden on staff and 8 mmHg and a central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2)patients; and greater costs). The potential drawbacks of of 70 % in the first 6 h of resuscitation of sepsis-inducedmaking strong recommendations in the presence of low- tissue hypoperfusion, although deemed desirable, are notquality evidence were taken into account. A weak recom- yet standards of care as verified by practice data.mendation in favor of an intervention indicates the judgment Significant education of committee members on thethat the desirable effects of adherence to a recommendation GRADE approach built on the process conducted duringprobably will outweigh the undesirable effects, but the panel 2008 efforts. Several members of the committee wereis not confident about these tradeoffs—either because some trained in the use of GRADEpro software, allowing moreof the evidence is low quality (and thus uncertainty remains formal use of the GRADE system [12]. Rules were dis-regarding the benefits and risks) or the benefits and down- tributed concerning assessing the body of evidence, andsides are closely balanced. A strong recommendation is GRADE representatives were available for adviceworded as ‘‘we recommend’’ and a weak recommendation throughout the process. Subgroups agreed electronicallyas ‘‘we suggest.’’ on draft proposals that were then presented for general Throughout the document are a number of statements discussion among subgroup heads, the SSC Steeringthat either follow graded recommendations or are listed as Committee (two co-chairs, two co-vice chairs, and an at-stand-alone numbered statements followed by ‘‘ungraded’’ large committee member), and several selected keyin parentheses (UG). In the opinion of the committee, committee members who met in July 2011 in Chicago.these recommendations were not conducive for the The results of that discussion were incorporated into theGRADE process. next version of recommendations and again discussed The implications of calling a recommendation strong with the whole group using electronic mail. Draft rec-are that most well-informed patients would accept that ommendations were distributed to the entire committee
  • 7. 171and finalized during an additional nominal group meeting Management of severe sepsisin Berlin in October 2011. Deliberations and decisionswere then recirculated to the entire committee for Initial resuscitation and infection issues (Table 5)approval. At the discretion of the chairs and following A. Initial resuscitationdiscussion, competing proposals for wording of recom- 1. We recommend the protocolized, quantitative resus-mendations or assigning strength of evidence were citation of patients with sepsis- induced tissueresolved by formal voting within subgroups and at nom- hypoperfusion (defined in this document as hypoten-inal group meetings. The manuscript was edited for style sion persisting after initial fluid challenge or bloodand form by the writing committee with final approval by lactate concentration C4 mmol/L). This protocolsubgroup heads and then by the entire committee. To should be initiated as soon as hypoperfusion is rec-satisfy peer review during the final stages of manuscript ognized and should not be delayed pending ICUapproval for publication, several recommendations were admission. During the first 6 h of resuscitation, theedited with approval of the SSC executive committee goals of initial resuscitation of sepsis-induced hypo-group head for that recommendation and the EBM lead. perfusion should include all of the following as a part of a treatment protocol (grade 1C):Conflict of interest policy (a) CVP 8–12 mmHg (b) MAP C65 mmHgSince the inception of the SSC guidelines in 2004, no (c) Urine output C0.5 mL kg h-1members of the committee represented industry; there (d) Superior vena cava oxygenation saturation (ScvO2)was no industry input into guidelines development; and or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) 70 orno industry representatives were present at any of the 65 %, respectively.meetings. Industry awareness or comment on the recom- 2. We suggest targeting resuscitation to normalize lactatemendations was not allowed. No member of the in patients with elevated lactate levels as a marker ofguidelines committee received honoraria for any role in tissue hypoperfusion (grade 2C).the 2004, 2008, or 2012 guidelines process. A detailed description of the disclosure process and all Rationale. In a randomized, controlled, single-centerauthor disclosures appear in Supplemental Digital Content 1 study, early quantitative resuscitation improved survivalin the supplemental materials to this document. Appendix 2 for emergency department patients presenting with septicshows a flowchart of the COI disclosure process. Committee shock [13]. Resuscitation targeting the physiologic goalsmembers who were judged to have either financial or non- expressed in recommendation 1 (above) for the initial 6-hfinancial/academic competing interests were recused during period was associated with a 15.9 % absolute reduction inthe closed discussion session and voting session on that 28-day mortality rate. This strategy, termed early goal-topic. Full disclosure and transparency of all committee directed therapy, was evaluated in a multicenter trial ofmembers’ potential conflicts were sought. 314 patients with severe sepsis in eight Chinese centers On initial review, 68 financial conflict of interest [14]. This trial reported a 17.7 % absolute reduction in(COI) disclosures and 54 non-financial disclosures were 28-day mortality (survival rates, 75.2 vs. 57.5 %,submitted by committee members. Declared COI disclo- P = 0.001). A large number of other observational stud-sures from 19 members were determined by the COI ies using similar forms of early quantitative resuscitationsubcommittee to be not relevant to the guidelines content in comparable patient populations have shown significantprocess. Nine who were determined to have COI (finan- mortality reduction compared to the institutions’ histori-cial and non-financial) were adjudicated by group cal controls (Supplemental Digital Content 2). Phase IIIreassignment and requirement to adhere to SSC COI of the SSC activities, the international performancepolicy regarding discussion or voting at any committee improvement program, showed that the mortality of septicmeetings where content germane to their COI was dis- patients presenting with both hypotension and lactatecussed. Nine were judged as having conflicts that could C4 mmol/L was 46.1 %, similar to the 46.6 % mortalitynot be resolved solely by reassignment. One of these found in the first trial cited above [15]. As part of per-individuals was asked to step down from the committee. formance improvement programs, some hospitals haveThe other eight were assigned to the groups in which they lowered the lactate threshold for triggering quantitativehad the least COI. They were required to work within resuscitation in the patient with severe sepsis, but thesetheir group with full disclosure when a topic for which thresholds have not been subjected to randomized trials.they had relevant COI was discussed, and they were not The consensus panel judged use of CVP and SvO2 targetsallowed to serve as group head. At the time of final to be recommended physiologic targets for resuscitation.approval of the document, an update of the COI statement Although there are limitations to CVP as a marker ofwas required. No additional COI issues were reported that intravascular volume status and response to fluids, a lowrequired further adjudication. CVP generally can be relied upon as supporting positive
  • 8. 172Table 5 Recommendations: initial resuscitation and infection issuesA. Initial resuscitation 1. Protocolized, quantitative resuscitation of patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion (defined in this document as hypotension persisting after initial fluid challenge or blood lactate concentration C4 mmol/L). Goals during the first 6 h of resuscitation: (a) Central venous pressure 8–12 mmHg (b) Mean arterial pressure (MAP) C 65 mmHg (c) Urine output C 0.5 mL kg-1 h (d) Central venous (superior vena cava) or mixed venous oxygen saturation 70 or 65 %, respectively (grade 1C) 2. In patients with elevated lactate levels targeting resuscitation to normalize lactate as rapidly as possible (grade 2C)B. Screening for sepsis and performance improvement 1. Routine screening of potentially infected seriously ill patients for severe sepsis to allow earlier implementation of therapy (grade 1C) 2. Hospital-based performance improvement efforts in severe sepsis (UG)C. Diagnosis 1. Cultures as clinically appropriate before antimicrobial therapy if no significant delay ([45 min) in the start of antimicrobial(s) (grade 1C). At least 2 sets of blood cultures (both aerobic and anaerobic bottles) be obtained before antimicrobial therapy with at least 1 drawn percutaneously and 1 drawn through each vascular access device, unless the device was recently (48 h) inserted (grade 1C) 2. Use of the 1,3 b-D-glucan assay (grade 2B), mannan and anti-mannan antibody assays (2C), if available and invasive candidiasis is in differential diagnosis of cause of infection. 3. Imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG)D. Antimicrobial therapy 1. Administration of effective intravenous antimicrobials within the first hour of recognition of septic shock (grade 1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (grade 1C) as the goal of therapy 2a. Initial empiric anti-infective therapy of one or more drugs that have activity against all likely pathogens (bacterial and/or fungal or viral) and that penetrate in adequate concentrations into tissues presumed to be the source of sepsis (grade 1B) 2b. Antimicrobial regimen should be reassessed daily for potential deescalation (grade 1B) 3. Use of low procalcitonin levels or similar biomarkers to assist the clinician in the discontinuation of empiric antibiotics in patients who initially appeared septic, but have no subsequent evidence of infection (grade 2C) 4a. Combination empirical therapy for neutropenic patients with severe sepsis (grade 2B) and for patients with difficult to treat, multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas spp. (grade 2B). For patients with severe infections associated with respiratory failure and septic shock, combination therapy with an extended spectrum beta-lactam and either an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone is for P. aeruginosa bacteremia (grade 2B). A combination of beta-lactam and macrolide for patients with septic shock from bacteremic Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (grade 2B) 4b. Empiric combination therapy should not be administered for more than 3–5 days. De-escalation to the most appropriate single therapy should be performed as soon as the susceptibility profile is known (grade 2B) 5. Duration of therapy typically 7–10 days; longer courses may be appropriate in patients who have a slow clinical response, undrainable foci of infection, bacteremia with S. aureus; some fungal and viral infections or immunologic deficiencies, including neutropenia (grade 2C) 6. Antiviral therapy initiated as early as possible in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of viral origin (grade 2C) 7. Antimicrobial agents should not be used in patients with severe inflammatory states determined to be of noninfectious cause (UG)E. Source control 1. A specific anatomical diagnosis of infection requiring consideration for emergent source control be sought and diagnosed or excluded as rapidly as possible, and intervention be undertaken for source control within the first 12 h after the diagnosis is made, if feasible (grade 1C) 2. When infected peripancreatic necrosis is identified as a potential source of infection, definitive intervention is best delayed until adequate demarcation of viable and nonviable tissues has occurred (grade 2B) 3. When source control in a severely septic patient is required, the effective intervention associated with the least physiologic insult should be used (e.g., percutaneous rather than surgical drainage of an abscess) (UG) 4. If intravascular access devices are a possible source of severe sepsis or septic shock, they should be removed promptly after other vascular access has been established (UG)F. Infection prevention 1a. Selective oral decontamination and selective digestive decontamination should be introduced and investigated as a method to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia; This infection control measure can then be instituted in health care settings and regions where this methodology is found to be effective (grade 2B) 1b. Oral chlorhexidine gluconate be used as a form of oropharyngeal decontamination to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICU patients with severe sepsis (grade 2B)response to fluid loading. Either intermittent or continuous achieve the ScvO2 or SvO2 goal are options. The strongmeasurements of oxygen saturation were judged to be recommendation for achieving a CVP of 8 mmHg and anacceptable. During the first 6 h of resuscitation, if ScvO2 less ScvO2 of 70 % in the first 6 h of resuscitation of sepsis-than 70 % or SvO2 equivalent of less than 65 % persists with induced tissue hypoperfusion, although deemed desirable,what is judged to be adequate intravascular volume reple- are not yet the standard of care as verified by practice data.tion in the presence of persisting tissue hypoperfusion, then The publication of the initial results of the international SSCdobutamine infusion (to a maximum of 20 lg kg-1 min-1) performance improvement program demonstrated thator transfusion of packed red blood cells to achieve a adherence to CVP and ScvO2 targets for initial resuscitationhematocrit of greater than or equal to 30 % in attempts to was low [15].
  • 9. 173 In mechanically ventilated patients or those with known (n = 30). The second trial included 348 patients with lactatepreexisting decreased ventricular compliance, a higher target levels C3 mmol/L [36]. The strategy in this trial was basedCVP of 12–15 mmHg should be achieved to account for the on a greater than or equal to 20 % decrease in lactate levelsimpediment in filling [16]. Similar consideration may be per 2 h of the first 8 h in addition to ScvO2 target achieve-warranted in circumstances of increased abdominal pressure ment, and was associated with a 9.6 % absolute reduction in[17]. Elevated CVP may also be seen with preexisting clin- mortality (P = 0.067; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95 % CI,ically significant pulmonary artery hypertension, making use 0.43–0.87; P = 0.006).of this variable untenable for judging intravascular volumestatus. Although the cause of tachycardia in septic patientsmay be multifactorial, a decrease in elevated pulse rate with B. Screening for sepsis and performance improvementfluid resuscitation is often a useful marker of improving 1. We recommend routine screening of potentiallyintravascular filling. Published observational studies have infected seriously ill patients for severe sepsis todemonstrated an association between good clinical outcome increase the early identification of sepsis and allowin septic shock and MAP C65 mmHg as well as ScvO2 implementation of early sepsis therapy (grade 1C).C70 % (measured in the superior vena cava, either inter-mittently or continuously) [18]. Many studies support the Rationale. The early identification of sepsis and imple-value of early protocolized resuscitation in severe sepsis and mentation of early evidence-based therapies have beensepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion [19–24]. Studies of documented to improve outcomes and decrease sepsis-patients with shock indicate that SvO2 runs 5–7 % lower than related mortality [15]. Reducing the time to diagnosis ofScvO2 [25]. While the committee recognized the controversy severe sepsis is thought to be a critical component ofsurrounding resuscitation targets, an early quantitative reducing mortality from sepsis-related multiple organresuscitation protocol using CVP and venous blood gases dysfunction [35]. Lack of early recognition is a majorcan be readily established in both emergency department and obstacle to sepsis bundle initiation. Sepsis screening toolsICU settings [26]. Recognized limitations to static ventric- have been developed to monitor ICU patients [37–41],ular filling pressure estimates exist as surrogates for fluid and their implementation has been associated withresuscitation [27, 28], but measurement of CVP is currently decreased sepsis-related mortality [15].the most readily obtainable target for fluid resuscitation.Targeting dynamic measures of fluid responsiveness during 2. Performance improvement efforts in severe sepsisresuscitation, including flow and possibly volumetric indices should be used to improve patient outcomes (UG).and microcirculatory changes, may have advantages [29–32]. Available technologies allow measurement of flow at Rationale. Performance improvement efforts in sepsisthe bedside [33, 34]; however, the efficacy of these moni- have been associated with improved patient outcomes [19,toring techniques to influence clinical outcomes from early 42–46]. Improvement in care through increasing compli-sepsis resuscitation remains incomplete and requires further ance with sepsis quality indicators is the goal of a severestudy before endorsement. sepsis performance improvement program [47]. Sepsis The global prevalence of severe sepsis patients initially management requires a multidisciplinary team (physicians,presenting with either hypotension with lactate C4 mmol/L, nurses, pharmacy, respiratory, dieticians, and administra-hypotension alone, or lactate C4 mmol/L alone, is reported tion) and multispecialty collaboration (medicine, surgery,as 16.6, 49.5, and 5.4 %, respectively [15]. The mortality and emergency medicine) to maximize the chance for suc-rate is high in septic patients with both hypotension and cess. Evaluation of process change requires consistentlactate C4 mmol/L (46.1 %) [15], and is also increased in education, protocol development and implementation, dataseverely septic patients with hypotension alone (36.7 %) collection, measurement of indicators, and feedback toand lactate C4 mmol/L alone (30 %) [15]. If ScvO2 is not facilitate the continuous performance improvement.available, lactate normalization may be a feasible option in Ongoing educational sessions provide feedback on indi-the patient with severe sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion. cator compliance and can help identify areas forScvO2 and lactate normalization may also be used as a additional improvement efforts. In addition to traditionalcombined endpoint when both are available. Two multi- continuing medical education efforts to introduce guide-center randomized trials evaluated a resuscitation strategy lines into clinical practice, knowledge translation effortsthat included lactate reduction as a single target or a target have recently been introduced as a means to promote thecombined with ScvO2 normalization [35, 36]. The first trial use of high-quality evidence in changing behavior [48].reported that early quantitative resuscitation based on lactate Protocol implementation associated with education andclearance (decrease by at least 10 %) was noninferior to performance feedback has been shown to change clini-early quantitative resuscitation based on achieving ScvO2 of cian behavior and is associated with improved outcomes70 % or more [35]. The intention-to-treat group contained and cost effectiveness in severe sepsis [19, 23, 24, 49]. In300, but the number of patients actually requiring either partnership with the Institute for Healthcare Improve-ScvO2 normalization or lactate clearance was small ment, phase III of the SSC targeted the implementation of
  • 10. 174a core set (‘‘bundle’’) of recommendations in hospital devices with signs of inflammation, catheter dysfunction, orenvironments where change in behavior and clinical indicators of thrombus formation). Obtaining blood culturesimpact were measured [50]. The SSC guidelines and peripherally and through a vascular access device is anbundles can be used as the basis of a sepsis performance important strategy. If the same organism is recovered fromimprovement program. both cultures, the likelihood that the organism is causing the Application of the SSC sepsis bundles led to sustained, severe sepsis is enhanced.continuous quality improvement in sepsis care and was In addition, if equivalent volumes of blood drawn forassociated with reduced mortality [15]. Analysis of the data culture and the vascular access device is positive muchfrom nearly 32,000 patient charts gathered from 239 hospi- earlier than the peripheral blood culture (i.e., more than 2 htals in 17 countries through September 2011 as part of phase earlier), the data support the concept that the vascular accessIII of the campaign informed the revision of the bundles in device is the source of the infection [36, 51, 52]. Quantitativeconjunction with the 2012 guidelines. As a result, for the cultures of catheter and peripheral blood may also be useful2012 version, the management bundle was dropped and the for determining whether the catheter is the source of infec-resuscitation bundle was broken into two parts and modified tion. The volume of blood drawn with the culture tube shouldas shown in Fig. 1. For performance improvement quality be C10 mL [53]. Quantitative (or semiquantitative) culturesindicators, resuscitation target thresholds are not considered. of respiratory tract secretions are often recommended for theHowever, recommended targets from the guidelines are diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) [54],included with the bundles for reference purposes. but their diagnostic value remains unclear [55]. The Gram stain can be useful, in particular for respira- tory tract specimens, to determine if inflammatory cells areC. Diagnosis present (greater than five polymorphonuclear leukocytes/1. We recommend obtaining appropriate cultures before high-powered field and less than 10 squamous cells/low- antimicrobial therapy is initiated if such cultures do powered field) and if culture results will be informative of not cause significant delay ([45 min) in the start of lower respiratory pathogens. Rapid influenza antigen testing antimicrobial(s) administration (grade 1C). To opti- during periods of increased influenza activity in the com- mize identification of causative organisms, we munity is also recommended. A focused history can provide recommend obtaining at least two sets of blood cul- vital information about potential risk factors for infection tures (both aerobic and anaerobic bottles) before and likely pathogens at specific tissue sites. The potential antimicrobial therapy, with at least one drawn percu- role of biomarkers for diagnosis of infection in patients taneously and one drawn through each vascular access presenting with severe sepsis remains undefined. The utility device, unless the device was recently (48 h) inser- of procalcitonin levels or other biomarkers (such as ted. These blood cultures can be drawn at the same C-reactive protein) to discriminate the acute inflammatory time if they are obtained from different sites. Cultures pattern of sepsis from other causes of generalized inflam- of other sites (preferably quantitative where appropri- mation (e.g., postoperative, other forms of shock) has not ate), such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, wounds, been demonstrated. No recommendation can be given for respiratory secretions, or other body fluids that may be the use of these markers to distinguish between severe the source of infection, should also be obtained before infection and other acute inflammatory states [56–58]. antimicrobial therapy if doing so does not cause sig- In the near future, rapid, non-culture-based diagnostic nificant delay in antibiotic administration (grade 1C). methods (polymerase chain reaction, mass spectroscopy, microarrays) might be helpful for a quicker identification ofRationale. Although sampling should not delay timely pathogens and major antimicrobial resistance determinantsadministration of antimicrobial agents in patients with [59]. These methodologies could be particularly useful forsevere sepsis (e.g., lumbar puncture in suspected meningi- difficult-to-culture pathogens or in clinical situations wheretis), obtaining appropriate cultures before administration of empiric antimicrobial agents have been administered beforeantimicrobials is essential to confirm infection and the culture samples were been obtained. Clinical experienceresponsible pathogens, and to allow de-escalation of anti- remains limited, and more clinical studies are needed beforemicrobial therapy after receipt of the susceptibility profile. recommending these non-culture molecular methods as aSamples can be refrigerated or frozen if processing cannot replacement for standard blood culture methods [60, 61].be performed immediately. Because rapid sterilization ofblood cultures can occur within a few hours after the first 2. We suggest the use of the 1,3 b-D-glucan assay (gradeantimicrobial dose, obtaining those cultures before therapy 2B), mannan and anti-mannan antibody assays (gradeis essential if the causative organism is to be identified. Two 2C), when invasive candidiasis is in the differentialor more blood cultures are recommended [51]. In patients diagnosis of infection.with indwelling catheters (for more than 48 h), at least oneblood culture should be drawn through each lumen of each Rationale. The diagnosis of systemic fungal infectionvascular access device (if feasible, especially for vascular (usually candidiasis) in the critically ill patient can be
  • 11. 175Fig. 1 Surviving sepsiscampaign care bundles SURVIVING SEPSIS CAMPAIGN CARE BUNDLES TO BE COMPLETED WITHIN 3 HOURS: 1) Measure lactate level 2) Obtain blood cultures prior to administration of antibiotics 3) Administer broad spectrum antibiotics 4) Administer 30 mL/kg crystalloid for hypotension or lactate ≥ 4 mmol/L TO BE COMPLETED WITHIN 6 HOURS: 5) Apply vasopressors (for hypotension that does not respond to initial fluid resuscitation) to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 65 mm Hg 6) In the event of persistent arterial hypotension despite volume resuscitation (septic shock) or initial lactate ≥ 4 mmol/L (36 mg/dL): - Measure central venous pressure (CVP)* - Measure central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2)* 7) Remeasure lactate if initial lactate was elevated* *Targets for quantitative resuscitation included in the guidelines are CVP of ≥8 mm Hg, ScvO2 of ≥ 70%, and normalization of lactate.challenging, and rapid diagnostic methodologies, such as shock (grade 1C) should be the goal of therapy.antigen and antibody detection assays, can be helpful in Remark: Although the weight of the evidence supportsdetecting candidiasis in the ICU patient. These suggested prompt administration of antibiotics following thetests have shown positive results significantly earlier than recognition of severe sepsis and septic shock, thestandard culture methods [62–67], but false-positive feasibility with which clinicians may achieve this idealreactions can occur with colonization alone, and their state has not been scientifically evaluated.diagnostic utility in managing fungal infection in the ICUneeds additional study [65]. Rationale. Establishing vascular access and initiating aggressive fluid resuscitation are the first priorities when3. We recommend that imaging studies be performed managing patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. promptly in attempts to confirm a potential source of Prompt infusion of antimicrobial agents should also be a infection. Potential sources of infection should be sam- priority and may require additional vascular access ports pled as they are identified and in consideration of patient [68, 69]. In the presence of septic shock, each hour delay risk for transport and invasive procedures (e.g., careful in achieving administration of effective antibiotics is coordination and aggressive monitoring if the decision is associated with a measurable increase in mortality in a made to transport for a computed tomography-guided number of studies [15, 68, 70–72]. Overall, the prepon- needle aspiration). Bedside studies, such as ultrasound, derance of data support giving antibiotics as soon as may avoid patient transport (UG). possible in patients with severe sepsis with or without septic shock [15, 68, 70–77]. The administration of anti-Rationale. Diagnostic studies may identify a source of microbial agents with a spectrum of activity likely to treatinfection that requires removal of a foreign body or drainage the responsible pathogen(s) effectively within 1 h of theto maximize the likelihood of a satisfactory response to diagnosis of severe sepsis and septic shock. Practicaltherapy. Even in the most organized and well-staffed considerations, for example challenges with clinicians’healthcare facilities, however, transport of patients can be early identification of patients or operational complexitiesdangerous, as can be placing patients in outside-unit imaging in the drug delivery chain, represent unstudied variablesdevices that are difficult to access and monitor. Balancing that may impact achieving this goal. Future trials shouldrisk and benefit is therefore mandatory in those settings. endeavor to provide an evidence base in this regard. This should be the target goal when managing patients withD. Antimicrobial therapy septic shock, whether they are located within the hospital1. The administration of effective intravenous antimi- ward, the emergency department, or the ICU. The strong crobials within the first hour of recognition of septic recommendation for administering antibiotics within 1 h shock (grade 1B) and severe sepsis without septic of the diagnosis of severe sepsis and septic shock,
  • 12. 176although judged to be desirable, is not yet the standard of agents, or if Candida glabrata infection is suspected fromcare as verified by published practice data [15]. earlier culture data. Knowledge of local resistance pat- If antimicrobial agents cannot be mixed and delivered terns to antifungal agents should guide drug selectionpromptly from the pharmacy, establishing a supply of until fungal susceptibility test results, if available, arepremixed antibiotics for such urgent situations is an performed. Risk factors for candidemia, such as immu-appropriate strategy for ensuring prompt administration. nosuppressed or neutropenic state, prior intense antibioticMany antibiotics will not remain stable if premixed in a therapy, or colonization in multiple sites, should also besolution. This risk must be taken into consideration in considered when choosing initial therapy.institutions that rely on premixed solutions for rapid Because patients with severe sepsis or septic shock haveavailability of antibiotics. In choosing the antimicrobial little margin for error in the choice of therapy, the initialregimen, clinicians should be aware that some antimi- selection of antimicrobial therapy should be broad enoughcrobial agents have the advantage of bolus administration, to cover all likely pathogens. Antibiotic choices should bewhile others require a lengthy infusion. Thus, if vascular guided by local prevalence patterns of bacterial pathogensaccess is limited and many different agents must be and susceptibility data. Ample evidence exists that failure toinfused, bolus drugs may offer an advantage. initiate appropriate therapy (i.e., therapy with activity2a. We recommend that initial empiric anti-infective ther- against the pathogen that is subsequently identified as the apy include one or more drugs that have activity against causative agent) correlates with increased morbidity and all likely pathogens (bacterial and/or fungal or viral) mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock [68, and that penetrate in adequate concentrations into the 71, 79, 80]. Recent exposure to antimicrobials (within last tissues presumed to be the source of sepsis (grade 1B). 3 months) should be considered in the choice of an empiric antibacterial regimen. Patients with severe sepsis or septicRationale. The choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy shock warrant broad-spectrum therapy until the causativedepends on complex issues related to the patient’s history, organism and its antimicrobial susceptibilities are defined.including drug intolerances, recent receipt of antibiotics Although a global restriction of antibiotics is an important(previous 3 months), underlying disease, the clinical syn- strategy to reduce the development of antimicrobial resis-drome, and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in the tance and to reduce cost, it is not an appropriate strategy incommunity and hospital, and that previously have been the initial therapy for this patient population. However, asdocumented to colonize or infect the patient. The most soon as the causative pathogen has been identified, de-common pathogens that cause septic shock in hospitalized escalation should be performed by selecting the mostpatients are Gram-positive bacteria, followed by Gram- appropriate antimicrobial agent that covers the pathogennegative and mixed bacterial microorganisms. Candidiasis, and is safe and cost-effective. Collaboration with antimi-toxic shock syndromes, and an array of uncommon patho- crobial stewardship programs, where they exist, isgens should be considered in selected patients. An especially encouraged to ensure appropriate choices and rapid avail-wide range of potential pathogens exists for neutropenic ability of effective antimicrobials for treating septicpatients. Recently used anti-infective agents should gener- patients. All patients should receive a full loading dose ofally be avoided. When choosing empirical therapy, each agent. Patients with sepsis often have abnormal andclinicians should be cognizant of the virulence and growing vacillating renal or hepatic function, or may have abnor-prevalence of oxacillin (methicillin)-resistant Staphylococ- mally high volumes of distribution due to aggressive fluidcus aureus, and resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams resuscitation, requiring dose adjustment. Drug serum con-and carbapenem among Gram-negative bacilli in some centration monitoring can be useful in an ICU setting forcommunities and healthcare settings. Within regions in those drugs that can be measured promptly. Significantwhich the prevalence of such drug-resistant organisms is expertise is required to ensure that serum concentrationssignificant, empiric therapy adequate to cover these patho- maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity [81, 82].gens is warranted. Clinicians should also consider whether candidemia is 2b. The antimicrobial regimen should be reassessed dailya likely pathogen when choosing initial therapy. When for potential de-escalation to prevent the develop-deemed warranted, the selection of empirical antifungal ment of resistance, to reduce toxicity, and to reducetherapy (e.g., an echinocandin, triazoles such as fluco- costs (grade 1B).nazole, or a formulation of amphotericin B) should betailored to the local pattern of the most prevalent Candida Rationale. Once the causative pathogen has been iden-species and any recent exposure to antifungal drugs [78]. tified, the most appropriate antimicrobial agent thatRecent Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) covers the pathogen and is safe and cost-effective shouldguidelines recommend either fluconazole or an echino- be selected. On occasion, continued use of specificcandin. Empiric use of an echinocandin is preferred in combinations of antimicrobials might be indicated evenmost patients with severe illness, especially in those after susceptibility testing is available (e.g., Pseudomonaspatients who have recently been treated with antifungal spp. only susceptible to aminoglycosides; enterococcal
  • 13. 177endocarditis; Acinetobacter spp. infections susceptible only 4b. We suggest that combination therapy, when usedto polymyxins). Decisions on definitive antibiotic choices empirically in patients with severe sepsis, should notshould be based on the type of pathogen, patient charac- be administered for longer than 3–5 days. De-esca-teristics, and favored hospital treatment regimens. lation to the most appropriate single-agent therapy Narrowing the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage and should be performed as soon as the susceptibilityreducing the duration of antimicrobial therapy will reduce profile is known (grade 2B). Exceptions wouldthe likelihood that the patient will develop superinfection include aminoglycoside monotherapy, which shouldwith other pathogenic or resistant organisms, such as be generally avoided, particularly for P. aeruginosaCandida species, Clostridium difficile, or vancomycin- sepsis, and for selected forms of endocarditis, whereresistant Enterococcus faecium. However, the desire to prolonged courses of combinations of antibiotics areminimize superinfections and other complications should warranted.not take precedence over giving an adequate course oftherapy to cure the infection that caused the severe sepsis Rationale. A propensity-matched analysis, meta-analy-or septic shock. sis, and meta-regression analysis, along with additional observational studies, have demonstrated that combina-3. We suggest the use of low procalcitonin levels or tion therapy produces a superior clinical outcome in similar biomarkers to assist the clinician in the dis- severely ill, septic patients with a high risk of death [86– continuation of empiric antibiotics in patients who 90]. In light of the increasing frequency of resistance to appeared septic, but have no subsequent evidence of antimicrobial agents in many parts of the world, broad- infection (grade 2C). spectrum coverage generally requires the initial use ofRationale. This suggestion is predicated on the prepon- combinations of antimicrobial agents. Combination ther-derance of the published literature relating to the use of apy used in this context connotes at least two differentprocalcitonin as a tool to discontinue unnecessary antimi- classes of antibiotics (usually a beta-lactam agent with acrobials [58, 83]. However, clinical experience with this macrolide, fluoroquinolone, or aminoglycoside for selectstrategy is limited and the potential for harm remains a patients). A controlled trial suggested, however, thatconcern [83]. No evidence demonstrates that this practice when using a carbapenem as empiric therapy in a popu-reduces the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance or the risk lation at low risk for infection with resistantof antibiotic-related diarrhea from C. difficile. One recent microorganisms, the addition of a fluoroquinolone doesstudy failed to show any benefit of daily procalcitonin not improve outcomes of patients [85]. A number of othermeasurement in early antibiotic therapy or survival [84]. recent observational studies and some small, prospective trials support initial combination therapy for selected4a. Empiric therapy should attempt to provide antimi- patients with specific pathogens (e.g., pneumococcal crobial activity against the most likely pathogens sepsis, multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens) based upon each patient’s presenting illness and local [91–93], but evidence from adequately powered, ran- patterns of infection. We suggest combination empiric domized clinical trials is not available to support therapy for neutropenic patients with severe sepsis combination over monotherapy other than in septic (grade 2B) and for patients with difficult-to- treat, patients at high risk of death. In some clinical scenarios, multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as Acine- combination therapies are biologically plausible and are tobacter and Pseudomonas spp. (grade 2B). For likely clinically useful even if evidence has not demon- selected patients with severe infections associated with strated improved clinical outcome [89, 90, 94, 95]. respiratory failure and septic shock, combination ther- Combination therapy for suspected or known Pseudo- apy with an extended spectrum beta-lactam and either monas aeruginosa or other multiresistant Gram-negative an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone is suggested for pathogens, pending susceptibility results, increases the P. aeruginosa bacteremia (grade 2B). Similarly, a more likelihood that at least 1 drug is effective against that complex combination of beta-lactam and a macrolide is strain and positively affects outcome [88, 96]. suggested for patients with septic shock from bactere- mic Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (grade 2B). 5. We suggest that the duration of therapy typically be 7–10 days if clinically indicated; longer courses mayRationale. Complex combinations might be needed in be appropriate in patients who have a slow clinicalsettings where highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens are response, undrainable foci of infection, bacteremia withprevalent, with such regimens incorporating carbapen- S. aureus; some fungal and viral infections, or immu-ems, colistin, rifampin, or other agents. However, a recent nologic deficiencies, including neutropenia (grade 2C).controlled trial suggested that adding a fluoroquinolone toa carbapenem as empiric therapy did not improve out- Rationale. Although patient factors may influence thecome in a population at low risk for infection with length of antibiotic therapy, in general, a duration of 7–10resistant microorganisms [85]. days (in the absence of source control issues) is adequate.
  • 14. 178Thus, decisions to continue, narrow, or stop antimicrobial infected with an antimicrobial-resistant pathogen or willtherapy must be made on the basis of clinician judgment develop a drug-related adverse effect. Although it isand clinical information. Clinicians should be cognizant important to stop unnecessary antibiotics early, cliniciansof blood cultures being negative in a significant percent- should be cognizant that blood cultures will be negative inage of cases of severe sepsis or septic shock, despite the more than 50 % of cases of severe sepsis or septic shockfact that many of these cases are very likely caused by if the patients are receiving empiric antimicrobial therapy;bacteria or fungi. Clinicians should be cognizant that yet many of these cases are very likely caused by bacteriablood cultures will be negative in a significant percentage or fungi. Thus, the decisions to continue, narrow, or stopof cases of severe sepsis or septic shock, despite many of antimicrobial therapy must be made on the basis of cli-these cases are very likely caused by bacteria or fungi. nician judgment and clinical information.6. We suggest that antiviral therapy be initiated as early as possible in patients with severe sepsis or septic E. Source control shock of viral origin (grade 2C). 1. We recommend that a specific anatomical diagnosis ofRationale. Recommendations for antiviral treatment infection requiring consideration for emergent sourceinclude the use of: a) early antiviral treatment of sus- control (e.g., necrotizing soft tissue infection, peritonitis,pected or confirmed influenza among persons with severe cholangitis, intestinal infarction) be sought and diagnosedinfluenza (e.g., those who have severe, complicated, or or excluded as rapidly as possible, and intervention beprogressive illness or who require hospitalization); b) undertaken for source control within the first 12 h afterearly antiviral treatment of suspected or confirmed influ- the diagnosis is made, if feasible (grade 1C).enza among persons at higher risk for influenza 2. We suggest that when infected peripancreatic necrosis iscomplications; and c) therapy with a neuraminidase identified as a potential source of infection, definitiveinhibitor (oseltamivir or zanamivir) for persons with intervention is best delayed until adequate demarcationinfluenza caused by 2009 H1N1 virus, influenza A of viable and nonviable tissues has occurred (grade 2B).(H3N2) virus, or influenza B virus, or when the influenza 3. When source control in a severely septic patient isvirus type or influenza A virus subtype is unknown [97, required, the effective intervention associated with the98]. Susceptibility to antivirals is highly variable in a least physiologic insult should be used (e.g., percutane-rapidly evolving virus such as influenza, and therapeutic ous rather than surgical drainage of an abscess) (UG).decisions must be guided by updated information 4. If intravascular access devices are a possible source ofregarding the most active, strain-specific, antiviral agents severe sepsis or septic shock, they should be removedduring influenza epidemics [99, 100]. promptly after other vascular access has been estab- The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other her- lished (UG).pesviruses as significant pathogens in septic patients,especially those not known to be severely immunocom- Rationale. The principles of source control in thepromised, remains unclear. Active CMV viremia is management of sepsis include a rapid diagnosis of thecommon (15–35 %) in critically ill patients; the presence specific site of infection and identification of a focus ofof CMV in the bloodstream has been repeatedly found to infection amenable to source control measures (specifi-be a poor prognostic indicator [101, 102]. What is not cally the drainage of an abscess, debridement of infectedknown is whether CMV simply is a marker of disease necrotic tissue, removal of a potentially infected device,severity or if the virus actually contributes to organ injury and definitive control of a source of ongoing microbialand death in septic patients [103]. No treatment recom- contamination) [105]. Foci of infection readily amenablemendations can be given based on the current level of to source control measures include an intra-abdominalevidence. In those patients with severe primary or gen- abscess or gastrointestinal perforation, cholangitis oreralized varicella-zoster virus infections, and in rare pyelonephritis, intestinal ischemia or necrotizing softpatients with disseminated herpes simplex infections, tissue infection, and other deep space infection, such as anantiviral agents such as acyclovir can be highly effective empyema or septic arthritis. Such infectious foci shouldwhen initiated early in the course of infection [104]. be controlled as soon as possible following successful initial resuscitation [106–108], and intravascular access7. We recommend that antimicrobial agents not be used devices that are potentially the source of severe sepsis or in patients with severe inflammatory states determined septic shock should be removed promptly after estab- to be of noninfectious cause (UG). lishing other sites for vascular access [109, 110]. An RCT comparing early to delayed surgical inter-Rationale. When infection is found not to be present, vention for peripancreatic necrosis showed betterantimicrobial therapy should be stopped promptly to outcomes with a delayed approach [111]. Moreover, aminimize the likelihood that the patient will become randomized surgical study found that a minimally
  • 15. 179invasive, step-up approach was better tolerated by debate, despite the recent evidence that the incidence ofpatients and had a lower mortality than open necrosec- antimicrobial resistance does not change appreciably withtomy in necrotizing pancreatitis [112], although areas of current SDD regimens [119–121]. The grade 2B wasuncertainty exist, such as definitive documentation of designated for both SOD and CHG as it was felt that riskinfection and appropriate length of delay. The selection of was lower with CHG and the measure better acceptedoptimal source control methods must weigh the benefits despite less published literature than with SOD.and risks of the specific intervention as well as risks of Supplemental Digital Content 3 shows a GRADEprotransfer [113]. Source control interventions may cause Summary of Evidence Table for the use of topicalfurther complications, such as bleeding, fistulas, or inad- digestive tract antibiotics and CHG for prophylaxisvertent organ injury. Surgical intervention should be against VAP.considered when other interventional approaches areinadequate or when diagnostic uncertainty persists despiteradiologic evaluation. Specific clinical situations require Hemodynamic support and adjunctive therapyconsideration of available choices, the patient’s prefer- (Table 6)ences, and the clinician’s expertise. G. Fluid therapy of severe sepsis 1. We recommend crystalloids be used as the initial fluidF. Infection prevention of choice in the resuscitation of severe sepsis and1. We suggest that selective oral decontamination (SOD) septic shock (grade 1B). and selective digestive decontamination (SDD) should 2. We recommend against the use of hydroxyethyl be introduced and investigated as a method to reduce starches (HES) for fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis the incidence of VAP; this infection control measure and septic shock (grade 1B). (This recommendation is can then be instituted in healthcare settings and regions based on the results of the VISEP [128], CRYSTMAS where this methodology is found to be effective (grade [122], 6S [123], and CHEST [124] trials. The results of 2B). the recently completed CRYSTAL trial were not2. We suggest oral chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) be considered.) used as a form of oropharyngeal decontamination to 3. We suggest the use of albumin in the fluid resuscita- reduce the risk of VAP in ICU patients with severe tion of severe sepsis and septic shock when patients sepsis (grade 2B). require substantial amounts of crystalloids (grade 2C).Rationale. Careful infection control practices (e.g., handwashing, expert nursing care, catheter care, barrier pre-cautions, airway management, elevation of the head of the Rationale. The absence of any clear benefit followingbed, subglottic suctioning) should be instituted during the the administration of colloid solutions compared tocare of septic patients as reviewed in the nursing con- crystalloid solutions, together with the expense associatedsiderations for the SSC [114]. The role of SDD with with colloid solutions, supports a high-grade recommen-systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis and its variants (e.g., dation for the use of crystalloid solutions in the initialSOD, CHG) has been a contentious issue ever since the resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis and septicconcept was first developed more than 30 years ago. The shock.notion of limiting the acquisition of opportunistic, often Three recent multicenter RCTs evaluating 6 % HESmultiresistant, healthcare-associated microorganisms has 130/0.4 solutions (tetra starches) have been published.its appeal by promoting ‘‘colonization resistance’’ from The CRYSTMAS study demonstrated no difference inthe resident microbiome existing along mucosal surfaces mortality with HES versus 0.9 % normal saline (31 vs.of the alimentary tract. However, the efficacy of SDD, its 25.3 %, P = 0.37) in the resuscitation of septic shocksafety, propensity to prevent or promote antibiotic resis- patients; however, the study was underpowered to detecttance, and cost-effectiveness remain debatable despite a the 6 % difference in absolute mortality observed [122].number of favorable meta-analyses and controlled clinical In a sicker patient cohort, a Scandinavian multicentertrials [115]. The data indicate an overall reduction in VAP study in septic patients (6S Trial Group) showedbut no consistent improvement in mortality, except in increased mortality rates with 6 % HES 130/0.42 fluidselected populations in some studies. Most studies do not resuscitation compared to Ringer’s acetate (51 vs. 43 %.specifically address the efficacy of SDD in patients who P = 0.03) [123]. The CHEST study, conducted in a het-present with sepsis, but some do [116–118]. erogenous population of patients admitted to intensive Oral CHG is relatively easy to administer, decreases care (HES vs. isotonic saline, n = 7000 critically illrisk of nosocomial infection, and reduces the potential patients), showed no difference in 90-day mortalityconcern over promotion of antimicrobial resistance by between resuscitation with 6 % HES with a molecularSDD regimens. This remains a subject of considerable weight of 130 kD/0.40 and isotonic saline (18 vs. 17 %,
  • 16. 180Table 6 Recommendations: hemodynamic support and adjunctive therapyG. Fluid therapy of severe sepsis 1. Crystalloids as the initial fluid of choice in the resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B). 2. Against the use of hydroxyethyl starches for fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B). 3. Albumin in the fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock when patients require substantial amounts of crystalloids (grade 2C). 4. Initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion with suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (a portion of this may be albumin equivalent). More rapid administration and greater amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (grade 1C). 5. Fluid challenge technique be applied wherein fluid administration is continued as long as there is hemodynamic improvement either based on dynamic (e.g., change in pulse pressure, stroke volume variation) or static (eg, arterial pressure, heart rate) variables (UG).H. Vasopressors 1. Vasopressor therapy initially to target a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mm Hg (grade 1C). 2. Norepinephrine as the first choice vasopressor (grade 1B). 3. Epinephrine (added to and potentially substituted for norepinephrine) when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (grade 2B). 4. Vasopressin 0.03 units/minute can be added to norepinephrine (NE) with intent of either raising MAP or decreasing NE dosage (UG). 5. Low dose vasopressin is not recommended as the single initial vasopressor for treatment of sepsis-induced hypotension and vasopressin doses higher than 0.03-0.04 units/minute should be reserved for salvage therapy (failure to achieve adequate MAP with other vasopressor agents) (UG). 6. Dopamine as an alternative vasopressor agent to norepinephrine only in highly selected patients (eg, patients with low risk of tachyarrhythmias and absolute or relative bradycardia) (grade 2C). 7. Phenylephrine is not recommended in the treatment of septic shock except in circumstances where (a) norepinephrine is associated with serious arrhythmias, (b) cardiac output is known to be high and blood pressure persistently low or (c) as salvage therapy when combined inotrope/vasopressor drugs and low dose vasopressin have failed to achieve MAP target (grade 1C). 8. Low-dose dopamine should not be used for renal protection (grade 1A). 9. All patients requiring vasopressors have an arterial catheter placed as soon as practical if resources are available (UG).I. Inotropic therapy 1. A trial of dobutamine infusion up to 20 micrograms/kg/min be administered or added to vasopressor (if in use) in the presence of (a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion, despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate MAP (grade 1C). 2. Not using a strategy to increase cardiac index to predetermined supranormal levels (grade 1B).J. Corticosteroids 1. Not using intravenous hydrocortisone to treat adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability (see goals for Initial Resuscitation). In case this is not achievable, we suggest intravenous hydrocortisone alone at a dose of 200 mg per day (grade 2C). 2. Not using the ACTH stimulation test to identify adults with septic shock who should receive hydrocortisone (grade 2B). 3. In treated patients hydrocortisone tapered when vasopressors are no longer required (grade 2D). 4. Corticosteroids not be administered for the treatment of sepsis in the absence of shock (grade 1D). 5. When hydrocortisone is given, use continuous flow (grade 2D).P = 0.26); the need for renal replacement therapy was clinical trial comparing crystalloids and colloids, washigher in the HES group [7.0 vs. 5.8 %; relative risk (RR), recently completed and will provide additional insight1.21; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.45; into HES fluid resuscitation.P = 0.04] [124]. A meta-analysis of 56 randomized trials The SAFE study indicated that albumin administrationfound no overall difference in mortality between crys- was safe and equally as effective as 0.9 % saline [129]. Atalloids and artificial colloids (modified gelatins, HES, meta-analysis aggregated data from 17 randomized trialsdextran) when used for initial fluid resuscitation [125]. (n = 1977) of albumin versus other fluid solutions inInformation from 3 randomized trials (n = 704 patients patients with severe sepsis/septic shock [130]; 279 deathswith severe sepsis/septic shock) did not show survival occurred among 961 albumin-treated patients versus 343benefit with use of heta-, hexa-, or pentastarches com- deaths among 1,016 patients treated with other fluids, thuspared to other fluids (RR, 1.15; 95 % CI, 0.95–1.39; favoring albumin [odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95 % CI,random effect; I2 = 0 %) [126–128]. However, these 0.67–1.00; I2 = 0 %]. When albumin-treated patientssolutions increased substantially the risk of acute kidney were compared with those receiving crystalloids (7 trials,injury (RR, 1.60; 95 % CI, 1.26–2.04; I2 = 0 %) [126– n = 1441), the OR of dying was significantly reduced for128]. The evidence of harm observed in the 6S and albumin-treated patients (OR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.62–0.99;CHEST studies and the meta-analysis supports a high- I2 = 0 %). A multicenter randomized trial (n = 794) inlevel recommendation advising against the use of HES patients with septic shock compared intravenous albuminsolutions in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, (20 g, 20 %) every 8 h for 3 days to intravenous salineparticularly since other options for fluid resuscitation solution [130]; albumin therapy was associated withexist. The CRYSTAL trial, another large prospective 2.2 % absolute reduction in 28-day mortality (from 26.3
  • 17. 181to 24.1 %), but did not achieve statistical significance. sepsis-induced hypotension for use of MAP in the diag-These data support a low-level recommendation regarding nosis of severe sepsis is different (MAP 70 mmHg)the use of albumin in patients with sepsis and septic shock from the evidence-based target of 65 mmHg used in this(personal communication from J.P. Mira and as presented recommendation. In any case, the optimal MAP should beat the 32nd International ISICEM Congress 2012, Brus- individualized as it may be higher in patients with ath-sels and the 25th ESICM Annual Congress 2012, Lisbon). erosclerosis and/or previous hypertension than in young patients without cardiovascular comorbidity. For exam-4. We recommend an initial fluid challenge in patients ple, a MAP of 65 mmHg might be too low in a patient with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion with suspi- with severe uncontrolled hypertension; in a young, pre- cion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/ viously normotensive patient, a lower MAP might be kg of crystalloids (a portion of this may be albumin adequate. Supplementing endpoints, such as blood pres- equivalent). More rapid administration and greater sure, with assessment of regional and global perfusion, amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (see such as blood lactate concentrations, skin perfusion, Initial Resuscitation recommendations) (grade 1C). mental status, and urine output, is important. Adequate5. We recommend that a fluid challenge technique be fluid resuscitation is a fundamental aspect of the hemo- applied wherein fluid administration is continued as long dynamic management of patients with septic shock and as there is hemodynamic improvement either based on should ideally be achieved before vasopressors and ino- dynamic (e.g., change in pulse pressure, stroke volume tropes are used; however, using vasopressors early as an variation) or static (e.g., arterial pressure, heart rate) emergency measure in patients with severe shock is fre- variables (UG). quently necessary, as when diastolic blood pressure is too low. When that occurs, great effort should beRationale. Dynamic tests to assess patients’ responsive- directed to weaning vasopressors with continuing fluidness to fluid replacement have become very popular in resuscitation.recent years in the ICU [131]. These tests are based onmonitoring changes in stroke volume during mechanical 2. We recommend norepinephrine as the first-choiceventilation or after passive leg raising in spontaneously vasopressor (grade 1B).breathing patients. A systematic review (29 trials, n = 685 3. We suggest epinephrine (added to and potentiallycritically ill patients) looked at the association between substituted for norepinephrine) when an additionalstroke volume variation, pulse pressure variation, and/or agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressurestroke volume variation and the change in stroke volume/ (grade 2B).cardiac index after a fluid or positive end-expiratory pres- 4. Vasopressin (up to 0.03 U/min) can be added tosure (PEEP) challenge [132]. The diagnostic OR of fluid norepinephrine with the intent of raising MAP to targetresponsiveness was 59.86 (14 trials, 95 % CI, or decreasing norepinephrine dosage (UG).23.88–150.05) and 27.34 (5 trials, 95 % CI, 3.46–55.53) for 5. Low-dose vasopressin is not recommended as thethe pulse pressure variation and the stroke volume variation, single initial vasopressor for treatment of sepsis-respectively. Utility of pulse pressure variation and stroke induced hypotension, and vasopressin doses highervolume variation is limited in the presence of atrial fibril- than 0.03–0.04 U/min should be reserved for salvagelation, spontaneous breathing, and low pressure support therapy (failure to achieve an adequate MAP withbreathing. These techniques generally require sedation. other vasopressor agents) (UG). 6. We suggest dopamine as an alternative vasopressor agent to norepinephrine only in highly selectedH. Vasopressors patients (e.g., patients with low risk of tachyarrhyth-1. We recommend that vasopressor therapy initially tar- mias and absolute or relative bradycardia) (grade 2C). get a MAP of 65 mmHg (grade 1C). 7. Phenylephrine is not recommended in the treatment of septic shock except in the following circumstances:Rationale. Vasopressor therapy is required to sustain (a) norepinephrine is associated with serious arrhyth-life and maintain perfusion in the face of life-threatening mias, (b) cardiac output is known to be high and bloodhypotension, even when hypovolemia has not yet been pressure persistently low, or (c) as salvage therapyresolved. Below a threshold MAP, autoregulation in when combined inotrope/vasopressor drugs and low-critical vascular beds can be lost, and perfusion can dose vasopressin have failed to achieve the MAPbecome linearly dependent on pressure. Thus, some target (grade 1C).patients may require vasopressor therapy to achieve aminimal perfusion pressure and maintain adequate flow Rationale. The physiologic effects of vasopressor and[133, 134]. The titration of norepinephrine to a MAP as combined inotrope/vasopressors selection in septic shocklow as 65 mmHg has been shown to preserve tissue are set out in an extensive number of literature entriesperfusion [134]. Note that the consensus definition of [135–147]. Table 7 depicts a GRADEpro Summary of
  • 18. 182Table 7 Norepinephrine compared with dopamine in severe sepsis summary of evidenceNorepinephrine compared with dopamine in severe sepsisPatient or population: patients with severe sepsisSettings: intensive care unitIntervention: norepinephrineComparison: dopamineSources: analysis performed by Djillali Annane for Surviving Sepsis Campaign using following publications: De Backer D. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:779–789; Marik PE. JAMA 1994; 272:1354–1357; Mathur RDAC. Indian J Crit Care Med 2007; 11:186–191; Martin C. Chest 1993; 103:1826–1831; Patel GP. Shock 2010; 33:375–380; Ruokonen E. Crit Care Med 1993; 21:1296–1303Outcomes Illustrative comparative risksa (95 % CI) Relative effect No. of Quality of Comments (95 % CI) participants the evidence Assumed risk Corresponding risk (Studies) (GRADE) Dopamine NorepinephrineShort-term Study population RR 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 2,043 (6 studies) ÈÈÈÉ mortality 530 per 1000 482 per 1,000 (440–524) moderateb,cSerious adverse Study population RR 0.47 (0.38–0.58) 1,931 (2 studies) ÈÈÈÉ events— 229 per 1,000 82 per 1,000 (34–195) moderateb,c supraventricular arrhythmiasSerious adverse Study population RR 0.35 (0.19–0.66) 1,931 (2 studies) ÈÈÈÉ events— 39 per 1,000 15 per 1000 moderateb,c ventricular (8–27) arrhythmias bCI confidence interval, RR risk ratio Strong heterogeneity in the results (I2 = 85 %), however, this reflects degree ofa The assumed risk is the control group risk across studies. The corre- effect, not direction of effect. We have decided not to lower the evidence quality csponding risk (and its 95 % CI) is based on the assumed risk in the Effect results in part from hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock patients incomparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95 % [152]CI)Evidence Table comparing dopamine and norepinephrine and produces hyperlactatemia, no clinical evidence showsin the treatment of septic shock. Dopamine increases that epinephrine results in worse outcomes, and it should beMAP and cardiac output, primarily due to an increase in the first alternative to norepinephrine. Indeed, informationstroke volume and heart rate. Norepinephrine increases from 4 randomized trials (n = 540) comparing norepi-MAP due to its vasoconstrictive effects, with little change nephrine to epinephrine found no evidence for differences inin heart rate and less increase in stroke volume compared the risk of dying (RR, 0.96; CI, 0.77–1.21; fixed effect;with dopamine. Norepinephrine is more potent than I2 = 0 %) [142, 147, 154, 155]. Epinephrine may increasedopamine and may be more effective at reversing hypo- aerobic lactate production via stimulation of skeletal mus-tension in patients with septic shock. Dopamine may be cles’ b2-adrenergic receptors and thus may prevent the useparticularly useful in patients with compromised systolic of lactate clearance to guide resuscitation. With its almostfunction but causes more tachycardia and may be more pure a-adrenergic effects, phenylephrine is the adrenergicarrhythmogenic than norepinephrine [148]. It may also agent least likely to produce tachycardia, but it mayinfluence the endocrine response via the hypothalamic decrease stroke volume and is therefore not recommendedpituitary axis and have immunosuppressive effects. for use in the treatment of septic shock except in circum-However, information from five randomized trials stances where norepinephrine is: (a) associated with serious(n = 1,993 patients with septic shock) comparing nor- arrhythmias, or (b) cardiac output is known to be high, orepinephrine to dopamine does not support the routine use (c) as salvage therapy when other vasopressor agents haveof dopamine in the management of septic shock [136, 149– failed to achieve target MAP [156]. Vasopressin levels in152]. Indeed, the relative risk of short-term mortality was septic shock have been reported to be lower than anticipated0.91 (95 % CI, 0.84–1.00; fixed effect; I2 = 0 %) in favor of for a shock state [157]. Low doses of vasopressin may benorepinephrine. A recent meta-analysis showed dopamine effective in raising blood pressure in patients, refractory towas associated with an increased risk [RR, 1.10 (1.01–1.20); other vasopressors and may have other potential physiologicP = 0.035]; in the two trials that reported arrhythmias, these benefits [158–163]. Terlipressin has similar effects but iswere more frequent with dopamine than with norepinephrine long acting [164]. Studies show that vasopressin concen-[RR, 2.34 (1.46–3.77); P = 0.001] [153]. trations are elevated in early septic shock, but decrease to Although some human and animal studies suggest epi- normal range in the majority of patients between 24 andnephrine has deleterious effects on splanchnic circulation 48 h as shock continues [165]. This has been called relative
  • 19. 183vasopressin deficiency because in the presence of hypo- vasopressor (if in use) in the presence of: (a) myocardialtension, vasopressin would be expected to be elevated. The dysfunction, as suggested by elevated cardiac fillingsignificance of this finding is unknown. The VASST trial, a pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs ofrandomized, controlled trial comparing norepinephrine hypoperfusion, despite achieving adequate intravascularalone to norepinephrine plus vasopressin at 0.03 U/min, volume and adequate MAP (grade 1C).showed no difference in outcome in the intent-to-treat 2. We recommend against the use of a strategy topopulation [166]. An a priori defined subgroup analysis increase cardiac index to predetermined supranormaldemonstrated that survival among patients receiving levels (grade 1B).15 lg/min norepinephrine at the time of randomizationwas better with the addition of vasopressin; however, the Rationale. Dobutamine is the first choice inotrope forpretrial rationale for this stratification was based on patients with measured or suspected low cardiac output inexploring potential benefit in the population requiring the presence of adequate left ventricular filling pressureC15 lg/min norepinephrine. Higher doses of vasopressin (or clinical assessment of adequate fluid resuscitation) andhave been associated with cardiac, digital, and splanchnic adequate MAP. Septic patients who remain hypotensiveischemia and should be reserved for situations where after fluid resuscitation may have low, normal, oralternative vasopressors have failed [167]. Information increased cardiac outputs. Therefore, treatment with afrom 7 trials (n = 963 patients with septic shock) compar- combined inotrope/vasopressor, such as norepinephrine oring norepinephrine with vasopressin (or terlipressin) does epinephrine, is recommended if cardiac output is notnot support the routine use of vasopressin or its analog ter- measured. When the capability exists for monitoringlipressin [93, 95, 97, 99, 159, 161, 164, 166, 168–170]. cardiac output in addition to blood pressure, a vasopres-Indeed, the relative risk of dying was 1.12 (95 % CI, sor, such as norepinephrine, may be used separately to0.96–1.30; fixed effects; I2 = 0 %). However, the risk of target specific levels of MAP and cardiac output. Largesupraventricular arrhythmias was increased with norepi- prospective clinical trials, which included critically illnephrine (RR, 7.25; 95 % CI, 2.30–22.90; fixed effect; ICU patients who had severe sepsis, failed to demonstrateI2 = 0 %). Cardiac output measurement targeting mainte- benefit from increasing oxygen delivery to supranormalnance of a normal or elevated flow is desirable when these targets by use of dobutamine [173, 174]. These studies didpure vasopressors are instituted. not specifically target patients with severe sepsis and did not target the first 6 h of resuscitation. If evidence of8. We recommend that low-dose dopamine not be used tissue hypoperfusion persists despite adequate intravas- for renal protection (grade 1A). cular volume and adequate MAP, a viable alternative (other than reversing underlying insult) is to add inotropicRationale. A large randomized trial and meta-analysis therapy.comparing low-dose dopamine to placebo found no dif-ference in either primary outcomes (peak serumcreatinine, need for renal replacement, urine output, time J. Corticosteroidsto recovery of normal renal function) or secondary out-comes (survival to either ICU or hospital discharge, ICU 1. We suggest not using intravenous hydrocortisone as astay, hospital stay, arrhythmias) [171, 172]. Thus, the treatment of adult septic shock patients if adequateavailable data do not support administration of low doses fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able toof dopamine solely to maintain renal function. restore hemodynamic stability (see goals for Initial Resuscitation). If this is not achievable, we suggest9. We recommend that all patients requiring vasopressors intravenous hydrocortisone alone at a dose of 200 mg have an arterial catheter placed as soon as practical if per day (grade 2C). resources are available (UG). Rationale. The response of septic shock patients to fluidRationale. In shock states, estimation of blood pressure and vasopressor therapy seems to be an important factorusing a cuff is commonly inaccurate; use of an arterial cannula in selection of patients for optional hydrocortisone ther-provides a more appropriate and reproducible measurement apy. One French multicenter RCT of patients inof arterial pressure. These catheters also allow continuous vasopressor-unresponsive septic shock (hypotensionanalysis so that decisions regarding therapy can be based on despite fluid resuscitation and vasopressors for more thanimmediate and reproducible blood pressure information. 60 min) showed significant shock reversal and reduction of mortality rate in patients with relative adrenal insuffi- ciency [defined as postadrenocorticotropic hormoneI. Inotropic therapy (ACTH) cortisol increase B9 lg/dL] [175]. Two smaller1. We recommend that a trial of dobutamine infusion up RCTs also showed significant effects on shock reversal to 20 lg kg-1 min-1 be administered or added to with steroid therapy [176, 177]. In contrast, a large,
  • 20. 184European multicenter trial (CORTICUS) that enrolled [184]. Although the clinical significance is not clear, it ispatients without sustained shock and had a lower risk of now recognized that etomidate, when used for inductiondeath than the French trial failed to show a mortality for intubation, will suppress the hypothalamic–pituitary–benefit with steroid therapy [178]. Unlike the French trial adrenal axis [185, 186]. Moreover, a subanalysis of thethat only enrolled shock patients with blood pressure CORTICUS trial [178] revealed that the use of etomidateunresponsive to vasopressor therapy, the CORTICUS before application of low-dose steroids was associatedstudy included patients with septic shock regardless of with an increased 28-day mortality rate [187]. An inap-how the blood pressure responded to vasopressors; the propriately low random cortisol level (18 lg/dL) in astudy baseline (placebo) 28-day mortality rate was 61 and patient with shock would be considered an indication for31 %, respectively. The use of the ACTH test (responders steroid therapy along traditional adrenal insufficiencyand nonresponders) did not predict the faster resolution of guidelines.shock. In recent years, several systematic reviews haveexamined the use of low-dose hydrocortisone in septic 3. We suggest that clinicians taper the treated patientshock with contradictory results: Annane et al. [179] from steroid therapy when vasopressors are no longeranalyzed the results of 12 studies and calculated a sig- required (grade 2D).nificant reduction in 28-day mortality with prolongedlow-dose steroid treatment in adult septic shock patients Rationale. There has been no comparative study(RR, 0.84; 95 % CI, 0.72–0.97; P = 0.02). In parallel, between a fixed-duration and clinically guided regimen orSligl and colleagues [180] used a similar technique, but between tapering and abrupt cessation of steroids. Threeonly identified eight studies for their meta-analysis, six of RCTs used a fixed-duration protocol for treatment [175,which had a high-level RCT design with low risk of bias 177, 178], and therapy was decreased after shock reso-[181]. In contrast to the aforementioned review, this lution in two RCTs [176, 182]. In four studies, steroidsanalysis revealed no statistically significant difference in were tapered over several days [176–178, 182], and ste-mortality (RR, 1.00; 95 % CI, 0.84–1.18). Both reviews, roids were withdrawn abruptly in two RCTs [175, 183].however, confirmed the improved shock reversal by using One crossover study showed hemodynamic and immu-low-dose hydrocortisone [180, 181]. A recent review on nologic rebound effects after abrupt cessation ofthe use of steroids in adult septic shock underlined the corticosteroids [188]. Furthermore, a study revealed thatimportance of selection of studies for systematic analysis there is no difference in outcome of septic shock patients[181] and identified only 6 high-level RCTs as adequate if low-dose hydrocortisone is used for 3 or 7 days; hence,for systematic review [175–178, 182, 183]. When only no recommendation can be given with regard to thethese six studies are analyzed, we found that in ‘‘low risk’’ optimal duration of hydrocortisone therapy [189].patients from three studies (i.e., those with a placebo 4. We recommend that corticosteroids not be adminis-mortality rate of less than 50 %, which represents the tered for the treatment of sepsis in the absence ofmajority of all patients), hydrocortisone failed to show shock (grade 1D).any benefit on outcome (RR 1.06). The minority of patientsfrom the remaining three studies, who had a placebo mor- Rationale. Steroids may be indicated in the presence oftality of greater than 60 %, showed a nonsignificant trend to a history of steroid therapy or adrenal dysfunction, butlower mortality by using hydrocortisone. See Supplemental whether low-dose steroids have a preventive potency inDigital Content 4, Summary of Evidence Table. reducing the incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock2. We suggest not using the ACTH stimulation test to in critically ill patients cannot be answered. A preliminary identify the subset of adults with septic shock who study of stress-dose level steroids in community-acquired should receive hydrocortisone (grade 2B). pneumonia showed improved outcome measures in a small population [190], and a recent confirmatory RCTRationale. In one study, the observation of a potential revealed reduced hospital length of stay without affectinginteraction between steroid use and ACTH test was not mortality [191].statistically significant [175]. Furthermore, no evidence of 5. When low-dose hydrocortisone is given, we suggestthis distinction was observed between responders and using continuous infusion rather than repetitive bolusnonresponders in a recent multicenter trial [178]. Random injections (grade 2D).cortisol levels may still be useful for absolute adrenalinsufficiency; however, for septic shock patients who Rationale. Several randomized trials on the use of low-suffer from relative adrenal insufficiency (no adequate dose hydrocortisone in septic shock patients revealed astress response), random cortisol levels have not been significant increase of hyperglycemia and hypernatremiademonstrated to be useful. Cortisol immunoassays may [175] as side effects. A small prospective study demon-over- or underestimate the actual cortisol level, affecting strated that repetitive bolus application of hydrocortisonethe assignment of patients to responders or nonresponders leads to a significant increase in blood glucose; this peak
  • 21. 185effect was not detectable during continuous infusion. of erythropoietin in severe sepsis and septic shock wouldFurthermore, considerable inter-individual variability was not be expected to be more beneficial than in other criticalseen in this blood glucose peak after the hydrocortisone conditions. Patients with severe sepsis and septic shockbolus [192]. Although an association of hyperglycemia may have coexisting conditions that meet indications forand hypernatremia with patient outcome measures could the use of erythropoietin.not be shown, good practice includes strategies foravoidance and/or detection of these side effects. 3. We suggest that fresh frozen plasma not be used to correct laboratory clotting abnormalities in the absence of bleeding or planned invasive procedures (grade 2D).Supportive therapy of severe sepsis (Table 8) Rationale. Although clinical studies have not assessedK. Blood product administration the impact of transfusion of fresh frozen plasma on out-1. Once tissue hypoperfusion has resolved and in the comes in critically ill patients, professional organizations absence of extenuating circumstances, such as myocar- have recommended it for coagulopathy when there is a dial ischemia, severe hypoxemia, acute hemorrhage, or documented deficiency of coagulation factors (increased ischemic coronary artery disease, we recommend that prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, or par- red blood cell transfusion occur when the hemoglobin tial thromboplastin time) and the presence of active concentration decreases to 7.0 g/dL to target a hemo- bleeding or before surgical or invasive procedures [200– globin concentration of 7.0–9.0 g/dL in adults (grade 203]. In addition, transfusion of fresh frozen plasma 1B). usually fails to correct the prothrombin time in nonblee- ding patients with mild abnormalities [204, 205]. No studies suggest that correction of more severe coagulation abnormalities benefits patients who are not bleeding.Rationale. Although the optimum hemoglobin concen- 4. We recommend against antithrombin administrationtration for patients with severe sepsis has not been for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shockspecifically investigated, the Transfusion Requirements in (grade 1B).Critical Care trial suggested that a hemoglobin level of7–9 g/dL, compared with 10–12 g/dL, was not associated Rationale. A phase III clinical trial of high-dose anti-with increased mortality in critically ill adults [193]. No thrombin did not demonstrate any beneficial effect onsignificant differences in 30-day mortality rates were 28-day all-cause mortality in adults with severe sepsis andobserved between treatment groups in the subgroup of septic shock. High-dose antithrombin was associated withpatients with severe infections and septic shock (22.8 and an increased risk of bleeding when administered with29.7 %, respectively; P = 0.36), heparin [206]. Although a post hoc subgroup analysis of Although less applicable to septic patients, results of a patients with severe sepsis and high risk of death showedrandomized trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery better survival in patients receiving antithrombin, thiswith cardiopulmonary bypass support a restrictive trans- agent cannot be recommended until further clinical trialsfusion strategy using a threshold hematocrit of 24 % are performed [207].(hemoglobin & 8 g/dL) as equivalent to a transfusionthreshold of hematocrit of 30 % (hemoglobin & 10 g/ 5. In patients with severe sepsis, we suggest that plateletsdL) [194]. Red blood cell transfusion in septic patients be administered prophylactically when counts areincreases oxygen delivery but does not usually increase B10,000/mm3 (10 9 109/L) in the absence of apparentoxygen consumption [195–197]. The transfusion thresh- bleeding, as well when counts are B20,000/mm3old of 7 g/dL contrasts with early goal-directed (20 9 109/L) if the patient has a significant risk ofresuscitation protocols that use a target hematocrit of bleeding. Higher platelet counts [C50,000/mm330 % in patients with low ScvO2 during the first 6 h of (50 9 109/L)] are advised for active bleeding, surgery,resuscitation of septic shock [13]. or invasive procedures (grade 2D).2. We recommend not using erythropoietin as a specific Rationale. Guidelines for transfusion of platelets are treatment of anemia associated with severe sepsis derived from consensus opinion and experience in (grade 1B). patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. Patients with severe sepsis are likely to have some limi-Rationale. No specific information regarding erythro- tation of platelet production similar to that inpoietin use in septic patients is available, but clinical trials chemotherapy-treated patients, but they also are likely toof erythropoietin administration in critically ill patients have increased platelet consumption. Recommendationsshow some decrease in red cell transfusion requirement take into account the etiology of thrombocytopenia,with no effect on clinical outcome [198, 199]. The effect platelet dysfunction, risk of bleeding, and presence of
  • 22. 186Table 8 Recommendations: other supportive therapy of severe sepsisK. Blood product administration 1. Once tissue hypoperfusion has resolved and in the absence of extenuating circumstances, such as myocardial ischemia, severe hypoxemia, acute hemorrhage, or ischemic heart disease, we recommend that red blood cell transfusion occur only when hemoglobin concentration decreases to 7.0 g/dL to target a hemoglobin concentration of 7.0–9.0 g/dL in adults (grade 1B). 2. Not using erythropoietin as a specific treatment of anemia associated with severe sepsis (grade 1B). 3. Fresh frozen plasma not be used to correct laboratory clotting abnormalities in the absence of bleeding or planned invasive procedures (grade 2D). 4. Not using antithrombin for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B). 5. In patients with severe sepsis, administer platelets prophylactically when counts are B10,000/mm3 (10 9 109/L) in the absence of apparent bleeding. We suggest prophylactic platelet transfusion when counts are B20,000/mm3 (20 9 109/L) if the patient has a significant risk of bleeding. Higher platelet counts (C50,000/mm3 [50 9 109/L]) are advised for active bleeding, surgery, or invasive procedures (grade 2D).L. Immunoglobulins 1. Not using intravenous immunoglobulins in adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (grade 2B).M. Selenium 1. Not using intravenous selenium for the treatment of severe sepsis (grade 2C).N. History of Recommendations Regarding Use of Recombinant Activated Protein C (rhAPC) A history of the evolution of SSC recommendations as to rhAPC (no longer available) is provided.O. Mechanical ventilation of sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 1. Target a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight in patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (grade 1A vs. 12 mL/kg). 2. Plateau pressures be measured in patients with ARDS and initial upper limit goal for plateau pressures in a passively inflated lung be B30 cm H2O (grade 1B). 3. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) be applied to avoid alveolar collapse at end expiration (atelectotrauma) (grade 1B). 4. Strategies based on higher rather than lower levels of PEEP be used for patients with sepsis- induced moderate or severe ARDS (grade 2C). 5. Recruitment maneuvers be used in sepsis patients with severe refractory hypoxemia (grade 2C). 6. Prone positioning be used in sepsis-induced ARDS patients with a PaO2/FIO2 ratio B100 mm Hg in facilities that have experience with such practices (grade 2B). 7. That mechanically ventilated sepsis patients be maintained with the head of the bed elevated to 30–45 degrees to limit aspiration risk and to prevent the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (grade 1B). 8. That noninvasive mask ventilation (NIV) be used in that minority of sepsis-induced ARDS patients in whom the benefits of NIV have been carefully considered and are thought to outweigh the risks (grade 2B). 9. That a weaning protocol be in place and that mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis undergo spontaneous breathing trials regularly to evaluate the ability to discontinue mechanical ventilation when they satisfy the following criteria: a) arousable; b) hemodynamically stable (without vasopressor agents); c) no new potentially serious conditions; d) low ventilatory and end-expiratory pressure requirements; and e) low FIo2 requirements which can be met safely delivered with a face mask or nasal cannula. If the spontaneous breathing trial is successful, consideration should be given for extubation (grade 1A). 10. Against the routine use of the pulmonary artery catheter for patients with sepsis-induced ARDS (grade 1A). 11. A conservative rather than liberal fluid strategy for patients with established sepsis-induced ARDS who do not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (grade 1C). 12. In the absence of specific indications such as bronchospasm, not using beta 2-agonists for treatment of sepsis- induced ARDS. (Grade 1B).P. Sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade in sepsis 1. Continuous or intermittent sedation be minimized in mechanically ventilated sepsis patients, targeting specific titration endpoints (grade 1B). 2. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) be avoided if possible in the septic patient without ARDS due to the risk of prolonged neuromuscular blockade following discontinuation. If NMBAs must be maintained, either intermittent bolus as required or continuous infusion with train-of-four monitoring of the depth of blockade should be used (grade 1C). 3. A short course of NMBA of not greater than 48 hours for patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS and a PaO2/FIO2 150 mm Hg (grade 2C).Q. Glucose control 1. A protocolized approach to blood glucose management in ICU patients with severe sepsis commencing insulin dosing when 2 consecutive blood glucose levels are [180 mg/dL. This protocolized approach should target an upper blood glucose B180 mg/dL rather than an upper target blood glucose B110 mg/dL (grade 1A). 2. blood glucose values be monitored every 1–2 hrs until glucose values and insulin infusion rates are stable and then every 4 hrs thereafter (grade 1C). 3. glucose levels obtained with point-of-care testing of capillary blood be interpreted with caution, as such measurements may not accurately estimate arterial blood or plasma glucose values (UG).R. Renal replacement therapy 1. Continuous renal replacement therapies and intermittent hemodialysis are equivalent in patients with severe sepsis and acute renal failure (grade 2B). 2. Use continuous therapies to facilitate management of fluid balance in hemodynamically unstable septic patients (grade 2D).
  • 23. 187Table 8 continuedS. Bicarbonate therapy 1. Not using sodium bicarbonate therapy for the purpose of improving hemodynamics or reducing vasopressor requirements in patients with hypoperfusion-induced lactic acidemia with pH C7.15 (grade 2B).T. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis 1. Patients with severe sepsis receive daily pharmacoprophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) (grade 1B). This should be accomplished with daily subcutaneous low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (grade 1B versus twice daily UFH, grade 2C versus three times daily UFH). If creatinine clearance is 30 mL/min, use dalteparin (grade 1A) or another form of LMWH that has a low degree of renal metabolism (grade 2C) or UFH (grade 1A). 2. Patients with severe sepsis be treated with a combination of pharmacologic therapy and intermittent pneumatic compression devices whenever possible (grade 2C). 3. Septic patients who have a contraindication for heparin use (eg, thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy, active bleeding, recent intracerebral hemorrhage) not receive pharmacoprophylaxis (grade 1B), but receive mechanical prophylactic treatment, such as graduated compression stockings or intermittent compression devices (grade 2C), unless contraindicated. When the risk decreases start pharmacoprophylaxis (grade 2C).U. Stress ulcer prophylaxis 1. Stress ulcer prophylaxis using H2 blocker or proton pump inhibitor be given to patients with severe sepsis/septic shock who have bleeding risk factors (grade 1B). 2. When stress ulcer prophylaxis is used, proton pump inhibitors rather than H2RA (grade 2D) 3. Patients without risk factors do not receive prophylaxis (grade 2B).V. Nutrition 1. Administer oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either complete fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within the first 48 hours after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (grade 2C). 2. Avoid mandatory full caloric feeding in the first week but rather suggest low dose feeding (e.g., up to 500 calories per day), advancing only as tolerated (grade 2B). 3. Use intravenous glucose and enteral nutrition rather than total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone or parenteral nutrition in conjunction with enteral feeding in the first 7 days after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (grade 2B). 4. Use nutrition with no specific immunomodulating supplementation rather than nutrition providing specific immunomodulating supplementation in patients with severe sepsis (grade 2C).W. Setting goals of care 1. Discuss goals of care and prognosis with patients and families (grade 1B). 2. Incorporate goals of care into treatment and end-of-life care planning, utilizing palliative care principles where appropriate (grade 1B). 3. Address goals of care as early as feasible, but no later than within 72 hours of ICU admission (grade 2C).concomitant disorders [200, 202, 203, 208, 209]. Factors immunoglobulin (Ig) M-enriched polyclonal IVIGthat may increase the bleeding risk and indicate the need (n = 528) [212]. Compared with placebo, IVIG resultedfor a higher platelet count are frequently present in in a significant reduction in mortality (RR, 0.81 and 95 %patients with severe sepsis. Sepsis itself is considered to CI, 0.70–0.93; and RR, 0.66 and 95 % CI, 0.51–0.85,be a risk factor for bleeding in patients with chemother- respectively). Also the subgroup of IgM-enriched IVIGsapy-induced thrombocytopenia. Other factors considered (n = 7 trials) showed a significant reduction in mortalityto increase the risk of bleeding in patients with severe rates compared with placebo (RR, 0.66; 95 % CI,sepsis include temperature higher than 38 °C, recent 0.51–0.85). Trials with low risk of bias showed nominor hemorrhage, rapid decrease in platelet count, and reduction in mortality with polyclonal IVIG (RR, 0.97;other coagulation abnormalities [203, 208, 209]. 95 % CI, 0.81–1.15; five trials, n = 945). Three of these trials [210, 213, 214] used standard polyclonal IVIG and two IgM-enriched IVIG [215, 216].L. Immunoglobulins These findings are in accordance with those of 2 older1. We suggest not using intravenous immunoglobulins meta-analyses [217, 218] from other Cochrane authors. in adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock One systematic review [217] included a total of 21 trials (grade 2B). and showed a relative risk of death of 0.77 with immu- noglobulin treatment (95 % CI, 0.68–0.88); however, theRationale. One larger multicenter RCT (n = 624) [210] results of only high-quality trials (total of 763 patients)in adult patients and one large multinational RCT in showed a relative risk of 1.02 (95 % CI, 0.84–1.24).infants with neonatal sepsis (n = 3,493) [211] found no Similarly, Laupland et al. [218] found a significantbenefit for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). (For reduction in mortality with the use of IVIG treatmentmore on this trial, see ‘‘Pediatric considerations in severe (OR, 0.66; 95 % CI, 0.53–0.83; P 0.005). When onlysepsis’’.). A meta-analysis by the Cochrane collaboration, high-quality studies were pooled, the OR for mortalitywhich did not include this most recent RCT, identified 10 was 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.71–1.3; P = 0.78). Two meta-polyclonal IVIG trials (n = 1,430) and seven trials on analyses, which used less strict criteria to identify sources
  • 24. 188of bias or did not state their criteria for the assessment of (glutamine was also tested in a two-factorial design) tostudy quality, found significant improvement in patient parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients reducesmortality with IVIG treatment [219, 220]. In contrast to infections and improves outcome [226]. Selenium supple-the most recent Cochrane review, Kreymann et al. [219] mentation did not significantly affect the development of aclassified five studies that investigated IgM-enriched new infection (OR, 0.81; 95 % CI, 0.57–1.15), and thepreparation as high-quality studies, combining studies in 6-month mortality rate was not unaffected (OR, 0.89; 95 %adults and neonates, and found an OR for mortality of 0.5 CI, 0.62–1.29). In addition, length of stay, days of antibiotic(95 % CI, 0.34–0.73). use, and modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Most IVIG studies are small, some have methodo- score were not significantly affected by selenium [227].logical flaws; the only large study (n = 624) showed no In addition to the lack of evidence, the questions ofeffect [210]. Subgroup effects between IgM-enriched and optimal dosing and application mode remain unanswered.nonenriched formulations reveal substantial heterogene- Reported high-dose regimens have involved a loading doseity. In addition, indirectness and publication bias were followed by an infusion, while animal trials suggest thatconsidered in grading this recommendation. The low- bolus dosing could be more effective [227]; this, however,quality evidence led to the grading as a weak recom- has not been tested in humans. These unsolved problemsmendation. The statistical information that comes from require additional trials, and we encourage conducting largethe high-quality trials does not support a beneficial effect multicenter studies to further evaluate the effectiveness ofof polyclonal IVIG. We encourage conducting large intravenous selenium in patients with severe sepsis. Thismulticenter studies to further evaluate the effectiveness of recommendation does not exclude the use of low-doseother polyclonal immunoglobulin preparations given selenium as part of the standard minerals and oligo-ele-intravenously in patients with severe sepsis. ments used during total parenteral nutrition (TPN).M. Selenium N. History of recommendations regarding use1. We suggest not using intravenous selenium to treat of recombinant activated protein C severe sepsis (grade 2C). Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) wasRationale. Selenium was administered in the hope that it approved for use in adult patients in a number of countriescould correct the known reduction of selenium concentra- in 2001 following the Recombinant Human Activatedtion in sepsis patients and provide a pharmacologic effect Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsisthrough an antioxidant defense. Although some randomized (PROWESS) trial, which enrolled 1,690 severe sepsiscontrolled trials are available, the evidence on the use of patients and showed a significant reduction in mortalityintravenous selenium is still very weak. Only one large (24.7 %) with rhAPC compared with placebo (30.8 %,clinical trial has examined the effect on mortality rates, and P = 0.005) [228]. The 2004 SSC guidelines recom-no significant impact was reported on the intent-to-treat mended use of rhAPC in line with the product labelingpopulation with severe systemic inflammatory response instructions required by the US and European regulatorysyndrome, sepsis, or septic shock (OR, 0.66; 95 % CI, authorities with a grade B quality of evidence [7, 8].0.39–1.10; P = 0.109) [221]. Overall, there was a trend By the time of publication of the 2008 SSC guidelines,toward a concentration-dependent reduction in mortality; no additional studies of rhAPC in severe sepsis (as requireddifferences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were by regulatory agencies) had shown it ineffective in lessdetected. Finally, no comment on standardization of sepsis severely ill patients with severe sepsis as well as inmanagement was included in this study, which recruited 249 children [229, 230]. The 2008 SSC recommendationspatients over a period of 6 years (1999–2004) [221]. reflected these findings, and the strength of the rhAPC A French RCT in a small population revealed no effect recommendation was downgraded to a suggestion for useon primary (shock reversal) or secondary (days on in adult patients with a clinical assessment of high risk ofmechanical ventilation, ICU mortality) endpoints [222]. death, most of whom will have Acute Physiology andAnother small RCT revealed less early VAP in the selenium Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores C25 orgroup (P = 0.04), but no difference in late VAP or sec- multiple organ failure (grade 2C; quality of evidence wasondary outcomes such as ICU or hospital mortality [223]. also downgraded from 2004, from B to C) [7]. The 2008This is in accordance with 2 RCTs that resulted in reduced guidelines also recommended against use of rhAPC innumber of infectious episodes [224] or increase in gluta- low-risk adult patients, most of whom will have APACHEthione peroxidase concentrations [225]; neither study, II scores B20 or single organ failures (grade 1A), andhowever, showed a beneficial effect on secondary outcome against use in all pediatric patients (grade 1B).measures (renal replacement, ICU mortality) [224, 225]. The results of the PROWESS SHOCK trial (1,696 A more recent large RCT tried to determine if the patients) were released in late 2011, showing no benefit ofaddition of relatively low doses of supplemental selenium rhAPC in patients with septic shock (mortality 26.4 % for
  • 25. 189rhAPC, 24.2 % placebo) with a relative risk of 1.09 and a patients who are passively inflated. Conversely, patientsP value of 0.31 [231]. The drug was withdrawn from the with very stiff chest walls may require plateau pressuresmarket and is no longer available, negating any need for [30 cmH2O to meet vital clinical objectives. A retro-an SSC recommendation regarding its use. spective study suggested that tidal volumes should be lowered even with plateau pressures B30 cmH2O [244] as lower plateau pressures were associated with decreasedO. Mechanical ventilation of sepsis-induced acute in-hospital mortality [245].respiratory distress syndrome High tidal volumes that are coupled with high plateau1. We recommend that clinicians target a tidal volume of pressures should be avoided in ARDS. Clinicians should 6 mL/kg predicted body weight in patients with sepsis- use as a starting point the objective of reducing tidal induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) volume over 1–2 h from its initial value toward the goal (grade 1A vs. 12 mL/kg). of a ‘‘low’’ tidal volume (&6 mL/kg PBW) achieved in2. We recommend that plateau pressures be measured in conjunction with an end-inspiratory plateau pressure patients with ARDS and that the initial upper limit B30 cmH2O. If the plateau pressure remains [30 cmH2O goal for plateau pressures in a passively inflated lung after reduction of tidal volume to 6 mL/kg PBW, tidal be B 30 cmH2O (grade 1B). volume may be reduced further to as low as 4 mL/kg PBW per protocol. (Appendix 3 provides ARDSNetRationale. Of note, studies used to determine recom- ventilator management and formulas to calculate PBW.)mendations in this section enrolled patients using criteria Using volume- and pressure-limited ventilation may leadfrom the American-European Consensus Criteria Defini- to hypercapnia with maximum tolerated set respiratorytion for Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and ARDS [232]. For this rates. In such cases, hypercapnia that is otherwise notdocument, we have used the updated Berlin definition and contraindicated (e.g., high intracranial pressure) andused the terms mild, moderate, and severe ARDS (PaO2/ appears to be tolerated should be allowed. SodiumFIO2 B300, B200, and B100 mm Hg, respectively) for bicarbonate or tromethamine (THAM) infusion may bethe syndromes previously known as ALI and ARDS [233]. considered in selected patients to facilitate use of limitedSeveral multicenter randomized trials have been per- ventilator conditions that result in permissive hypercapniaformed in patients with established ARDS to evaluate the [246, 247].effects of limiting inspiratory pressure through moderation A number of observational trials in mechanicallyof tidal volume [234–238]. These studies showed differing ventilated patients have demonstrated a decreased risk ofresults that may have been caused by differences in airway developing ARDS when smaller trial volumes are usedpressures in the treatment and control groups [233, 234, [248–251]. Accordingly, high tidal volumes and plateau239]. Several meta-analyses suggest decreased mortality in pressures should be avoided in mechanically ventilatedpatients with a pressure- and volume-limited strategy for patients at risk for developing ARDS, including thoseestablished ARDS [240, 241]. with sepsis. The largest trial of a volume- and pressure-limited No single mode of ventilation (pressure control, vol-strategy showed an absolute 9 % decrease in all-cause ume control) has consistently been shown to bemortality in patients with ARDS ventilated with tidal advantageous when compared with any other that respectsvolumes of 6 mL/kg compared with 12 mL/kg of pre- the same principles of lung protection.dicted body weight (PBW), and aiming for a plateau 3. We recommend that PEEP be applied to avoid alveolarpressure B30 cm H2O [233]. The use of lung-protective collapse at end expiration (atelectotrauma) (grade 1B).strategies for patients with ARDS is supported by clinical 4. We suggest strategies based on higher rather thantrials and has been widely accepted, but the precise choice lower levels of PEEP for patients with sepsis-inducedof tidal volume for an individual patient with ARDS may moderate to severe ARDS (grade 2C).require adjustment for such factors as the plateau pressureachieved, the level of PEEP chosen, the compliance of the Rationale. Raising PEEP in ARDS keeps lung unitsthoracoabdominal compartment, and the vigor of the open to participate in gas exchange. This will increasepatient’s breathing effort. Patients with profound meta- PaO2 when PEEP is applied through either an endotra-bolic acidosis, high obligate minute ventilations, or short cheal tube or a face mask [252–254]. In animalstature may require additional manipulation of tidal vol- experiments, avoidance of end-expiratory alveolar col-umes. Some clinicians believe it may be safe to ventilate lapse helps minimize ventilator-induced lung injury whenwith tidal volumes [6 mL/kg PBW as long as the plateau relatively high plateau pressures are in use. Three largepressure can be maintained B30 cm H2O [242, 243]. The multicenter trials using higher versus lower levels ofvalidity of this ceiling value will depend on the patient’s PEEP in conjunction with low tidal volumes did noteffort, as those who are actively breathing generate higher uncover benefit or harm [255–257]. A meta-analysis usingtransalveolar pressures for a given plateau pressure than individual patient data showed no benefit in all patients
  • 26. 190with ARDS; however, patients with moderate or severe release ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygen-ARDS (Pao2/FIo2 ratio B200 mm Hg) had decreased ation [271], may be considered as rescue therapies in centersmortality with the use of higher PEEP, whereas those with with expertise and experience with their use [261, 271–274].mild ARDS did not [258]. Two options are recommended Inhaled nitric oxide does not improve mortality rates infor PEEP titration. One option is to titrate PEEP (and tidal patients with ARDS and should not be routinely used [275].volume) according to bedside measurements of thoraco-pulmonary compliance with the objective of obtaining the 7. We recommend that mechanically ventilated sepsisbest compliance, reflecting a favorable balance of lung patients be maintained with the head of the bed ele-recruitment and overdistension [259]. The second option vated between 30 and 45 degrees to limit aspirationis to titrate PEEP based on severity of oxygenation deficit risk and to prevent the development of VAPand guided by the FIo2 required to maintain adequate (grade 1B).oxygenation [234, 255, 256]. A PEEP[5 cm H20 is usuallyrequired to avoid lung collapse [260]. The ARDSNet Rationale. The semi-recumbent position has beenstandard PEEP strategy is shown in Appendix 3. The higher demonstrated to decrease the incidence of VAP [276].PEEP strategy recommended for ARDS is shown in Enteral feeding increased the risk of developing VAP; 50 %Appendix 4 and comes from the ALVEOLI trial [257]. of the patients who were fed enterally in the supine position developed VAP compared with 9 % of those fed in the semi-5. We suggest recruitment maneuvers in sepsis patients recumbent position [276]. However, the bed position was with severe refractory hypoxemia due to ARDS (grade monitored only once a day, and patients who did not achieve 2C). the desired bed elevation were not included in the analysis6. We suggest prone positioning in sepsis-induced ARDS [276]. One study did not show a difference in incidence of patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio B100 mmHg in facilities VAP between patients maintained in supine and semi- that have experience with such practices (grade 2B). recumbent positions [277]; patients assigned to the semi- recumbent group did not consistently achieve the desiredRationale. Many strategies exist for treating refractory head of the bed elevation, and the head of bed elevation inhypoxemia in patients with severe ARDS [261]. Tempo- the supine group approached that of the semi-recumbentrarily raising transpulmonary pressure may facilitate group by day 7 [277]. When necessary, patients may be laidopening atelectatic alveoli to permit gas exchange [260], flat for procedures, hemodynamic measurements, and dur-but could also overdistend aerated lung units leading to ing episodes of hypotension. Patients should not be fedventilator-induced lung injury and temporary hypoten- enterally while supine.sion. The application of transient sustained use ofcontinuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) appears to 8. We suggest that noninvasive mask ventilation (NIV) beimprove oxygenation in patients initially, but these effects used in that minority of sepsis-induced ARDS patients incan be transient [262]. Although selected patients with whom the benefits of NIV have been carefully consid-severe hypoxemia may benefit from recruitment maneu- ered and are thought to outweigh the risks (grade 2B).vers in conjunction with higher levels of PEEP, littleevidence supports the routine use in all ARDS patients Rationale. Obviating the need for airway intubation[262]. Blood pressure and oxygenation should be moni- confers multiple advantages: better communication, lowertored and recruitment maneuvers discontinued if incidence of infection, and reduced requirements fordeterioration in these variables is observed. sedation. Two RCTs in patients with acute respiratory Several small studies and one large study in patients failure demonstrated improved outcome with the use ofwith hypoxemic respiratory failure or ARDS have shown NIV when it can be used successfully [278, 279].that most patients respond to the prone position with Unfortunately, only a small percentage of sepsis patientsimproved oxygenation [263–266]. None of the individual with life-threatening hypoxemia can be managed in thistrials of prone positioning in patients with ARDS or way [280, 281].hypoxemic respiratory failure demonstrated a mortality ben- NIV should be considered in patients with sepsis-efit [267–270]. One meta-analysis suggested potential induced ARDS if they are responsive to relatively low levelsbenefits for prone positioning in patients with profound hyp- of pressure support and PEEP with stable hemodynamics,oxemia and PaO2/FiO2 ratio B100 mmHg, but not in those can be made comfortable, and are easily arousable; if theywith less severe hypoxemia [270]. Prone positioning may be are able to protect the airway and spontaneously clear theassociated with potentially life-threatening complications, airway of secretions; and if they are anticipated to recoverincluding accidental dislodging of the endotracheal and chest rapidly from the precipitating insult [280, 281]. A lowtubes; these complications occur more frequently in patients threshold for airway intubation should be the prone compared with supine position [270]. 9. We recommend that a weaning protocol be in place Other methods to treat refractory hypoxemia, including and that mechanically ventilated patients with severehigh-frequency oscillatory ventilation, airway pressure sepsis undergo spontaneous breathing trials regularly
  • 27. 191 to evaluate the ability to discontinue mechanical ven- ventilation [297, 298]. A fluid-conservative strategy to tilation when they satisfy the following criteria: minimize fluid infusion and weight gain in patients with (a) arousable; (b) hemodynamically stable (without ARDS, based on either a central venous catheter (CVP vasopressor agents); (c) no new potentially serious 4 mmHg) or a PA catheter (pulmonary artery wedge conditions; (d) low ventilatory and end-expiratory pressure8 mmHg), along with clinical variables to guide pressure requirements; and (e) low FiO2 requirements treatment, led to fewer days of mechanical ventilation and which can be safely delivered with a face mask or nasal reduced length of ICU stay without altering the incidence of cannula. If the spontaneous breathing trial is successful,renal failure or mortality rates [299]. This strategy was only extubation should be considered (grade 1A). used in patients with established ARDS, some of whom had shock present during the ICU stay, and active attempts toRationale. Spontaneous breathing trial options include a reduce fluid volume were conducted only outside periods oflow level of pressure support, CPAP (&5 cmH2O), or a shock.use of a T-piece. Studies demonstrated that daily spon-taneous breathing trials in appropriately selected patients 12. In the absence of specific indications such as bron-reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation [282, 283]. chospasm, we recommend against the use ofThese breathing trials should be conducted in conjunction b2-agonists for treatment of patients with sepsis-with a spontaneous awakening trial [284]. Successful induced ARDS (grade 1B).completion of spontaneous breathing trials leads to a highlikelihood of successful early discontinuation of Rationale. Patients with sepsis-induced ARDS oftenmechanical ventilation. develop increased vascular permeability. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that b-adrenergic agonists may10. We recommend against the routine use of the pul- speed resorption of alveolar edema [300]. Two random- monary artery catheter for patients with sepsis- ized clinical trials studied the effect of b-agonists in induced ARDS (grade 1A). patients with ARDS [301, 302]. In one, a comparison of aerosolized albuterol and placebo in 282 patients withRationale. Although insertion of a pulmonary artery ARDS, the trial was stopped for futility [301]. Patients(PA) catheter may provide useful information on a receiving albuterol had higher heart rates on day 2, and apatient’s volume status and cardiac function, these bene- trend was detected toward decreased ventilator-free daysfits may be confounded by differences in the (days alive and off the ventilator). The rates of deathinterpretation of results [285–287], lack of correlation of before discharge were 23.0 % in the albuterol groupPA occlusion pressures with clinical response [288], and versus 17.7 % in placebo-treated patients. More than halfan absence of a proven strategy to use catheter results to of the patients enrolled in this trial had pulmonary orimprove patient outcomes [173]. Two multicenter ran- nonpulmonary sepsis as the cause of the ARDS [301].domized trials, one in patients with shock or ARDS [289] The use of intravenous salbutamol was tested in theand the other in those with only ARDS [290], failed to BALTI-2 trial [302]. Three hundred twenty-six patientsshow benefit with the routine use of PA catheters in with ARDS, 251 of whom had pulmonary or nonpulmo-ARDS. In addition, other studies in different types of nary sepsis as cause, were randomized to intravenouscritically ill patients have failed to show definitive benefit salbutatmol, 15 lg/kg of ideal body weight, or placebowith routine use of the PA catheter [291–293]. Well- for up to 7 days. Patients treated with salbutamol hadselected patients remain appropriate candidates for PA increased 28-day mortality rates (34 vs. 23 %; RR, 1.4;catheter insertion only when the answers to important 95 % CI, 1.03–2.08) leading to early termination of themanagement decisions depend on information solely trial [302].obtainable from direct measurements made within the PA b2-agonists may have specific indications, such as[292, 294]. treatment of bronchospasm and hyperkalemia. In the absence of these conditions, we recommend against the11. We recommend a conservative fluid strategy for routine use of b-agonists, either in intravenous or aero- patients with established sepsis-induced ARDS who do solized form, for the treatment of patients with sepsis- not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (grade 1C). induced ARDS.Rationale. Mechanisms for the development of pul-monary edema in patients with ARDS include increased P. Sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockadecapillary permeability, increased hydrostatic pressure, and in sepsisdecreased oncotic pressure [295]. Small prospectivestudies in patients with critical illness and ARDS 1. We recommend that either continuous or intermittenthave suggested that low weight gain is associated with sedation be minimized in mechanically ventilated sepsisimproved oxygenation [296] and fewer days of mechanical patients, targeting specific titration endpoints (grade 1B).
  • 28. 192Rationale. A growing body of evidence indicates that mechanical ventilation or lengths of stay between thelimiting the use of sedation in critically ill ventilated groups; and daily interruption was associated with higherpatients can reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation daily opioid and benzodiazepines doses, as well as higherand ICU and hospital lengths of stay [303–305]. While nurse workload. Additionally, a randomized prospectivestudies limiting sedation have been performed in a wide blinded observational study demonstrated that althoughrange of critically ill patients, there is little reason to myocardial ischemia is common in critically ill ventilatedassume that septic patients will not derive benefit from patients, daily sedative interruption is not associated withthis approach [305]. The use of protocols for sedation is an increased occurrence of myocardial ischemia [312].one method to limit sedation use, and a randomized, Regardless of sedation approach, early physical rehabili-controlled clinical trial found that protocolized sedation tation should be a goal [313].compared with usual care reduced duration of mechanicalventilation, lengths of stay, and tracheostomy rates [305]. 2. We recommend that NMBAs be avoided if possible inAvoidance of sedation is another strategy. A recent the septic patient without ARDS due to the risk ofobservational study of 250 critically ill patients suggests prolonged neuromuscular blockade following discon-that deep sedation is common in mechanically ventilated tinuation. If NMBAs must be maintained, eitherpatients [306]. A randomized, controlled clinical trial intermittent bolus as required or continuous infusionfound that patients treated with intravenous morphine with train-of-four monitoring of the depth of blockadeboluses preferentially, had significantly more days with- should be used (grade 1C).out ventilation, shorter stay in ICU and hospital, than 3. We suggest a short course of an NMBA (B48 h) forpatients who received sedation (propofol and midazolam) patients with early, sepsis-induced ARDS and PaO2/in addition to morphine [307]. However, agitated delirium FIO2 150 mm Hg (grade 2C).was more frequently detected in the intervention group.Although not specifically studied in patients with sepsis, Rationale. Although NMBAs are often administered tothe administration of intermittent sedation, daily sedative critically ill patients, their role in the ICU is not well defined.interruption, and systematic titration to a predefined No evidence exists that neuromuscular blockade in thisendpoint have been demonstrated to decrease the duration patient population reduces mortality or major morbidity. Inof mechanical ventilation [284, 305, 308, 309]. Patients addition, no studies have been published that specificallyreceiving neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) must address the use of NMBAs in septic individually assessed regarding discontinuation of The most common indication for NMBA use in thesedative drugs because the neuromuscular blockade must ICU is to facilitate mechanical ventilation [314]. Whenfirst be reversed. The use of intermittent vs. continuous appropriately used, these agents may improve chest wallmethods for the delivery of sedation in critically ill compliance, prevent respiratory dyssynchrony, andpatients has been examined in an observational study of reduce peak airway pressures [315]. Muscle paralysis maymechanically ventilated patients that showed that patients also reduce oxygen consumption by decreasing the workreceiving continuous sedation had significantly longer of breathing and respiratory muscle blood flow [316].durations of mechanical ventilation and ICU and hospital However, a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical triallengths of stay [310]. in patients with severe sepsis demonstrated that oxygen Clinical trials have evaluated daily interruption of delivery, oxygen consumption, and gastric intramucosalcontinuous sedative infusions. A prospective, randomized pH were not improved during deep neuromuscularcontrolled trial in 128 mechanically ventilated adults blockade [317].receiving continuous intravenous sedation demonstrated A recent randomized clinical trial of continuousthat a daily interruption in the continuous sedative infu- infusions of cisatracurium in patients with early ARDSsion until the patient was awake decreased the duration of and a PaO2/FIO2 150 mm Hg showed improved adjus-mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay [310]. ted survival rates and more organ failure-free daysAlthough the patients did receive continuous sedative without an increased risk in ICU-acquired weaknessinfusions in this study, the daily interruption and awak- compared with placebo-treated patients [318]. Theening allowed for titration of sedation, in effect making investigators used a high fixed dose of cisatracuriumthe dosing intermittent. In addition, a paired spontaneous without train-of-four monitoring, and half of the patientsawakening trial combined with a spontaneous breathing in the placebo group received at least a single dose oftrial decreased the duration of mechanical ventilation, NMBA. Whether another NMBA would have similarlength of ICU and hospital stay, and 1-year mortality effects is unknown. Although many of the patients[284]. More recently, a multicenter randomized trial enrolled into this trial appeared to meet sepsis criteria, itcompared protocolized sedation with protocolized seda- is not clear whether similar results would occur in sepsistion plus daily sedation interruption in 423 critically ill patients. A GRADEpro Summary of Evidence Tablemechanically ventilated medical and surgical patients regarding use of NMBA in ARDS appears in Supple-[311]. There were no differences in duration of mental Digital Content 5.
  • 29. 193 An association between NMBA use and myopathies length of stay of more than 3 days in three medical ICUsand neuropathies has been suggested by case studies and and overall mortality was not reduced [327].prospective observational studies in the critical care Since these studies [326, 327] and the previous Sur-population [315, 319–322], but the mechanisms by which viving Sepsis Guidelines [7] appeared, several RCTsNMBAs produce or contribute to myopathies and neur- [128, 328–332] and meta-analyses [333– 337] of intensiveopathies in these patients are unknown. Although no insulin therapy have been performed. The RCTs studiedstudies are specific to the septic patient population, it mixed populations of surgical and medical ICU patientsseems clinically prudent, based on existing knowledge, [128, 328–332] and found that intensive insulin therapythat NMBAs not be administered unless there is a clear did not significantly decrease mortality [128, 328–332],indication for neuromuscular blockade that cannot be whereas the NICE-SUGAR trial demonstrated ansafely achieved with appropriate sedation and analgesia increased mortality [331]. All studies [128, 326–332][315]. reported a much higher incidence of severe hypoglycemia Only one prospective RCT has compared peripheral (glucose B40 mg/dL) (6–29 %) with intensive insulinnerve stimulation and standard clinical assessment in ICU therapy. Several meta-analyses confirmed that intensivepatients [323]. Rudis et al. randomized 77 critically ill insulin therapy was not associated with a mortality benefitICU patients requiring neuromuscular blockade to receive in surgical, medical, or mixed ICU patients [333, 335,dosing of vecuronium based on train-of-four stimulation 337]. The meta-analysis by Griesdale and colleaguesor on clinical assessment (control group). The peripheral [334], using between-trial comparisons driven mainly bynerve stimulation group received less drug and recovered the 2001 study by van den Berghe et al. [326], found thatneuromuscular function and spontaneous ventilation fas- intensive insulin therapy was beneficial in surgical ICUter than the control group. Nonrandomized observational patients [risk ratio 0.63 (0.44–0.9)], whereas the meta-studies have suggested that peripheral nerve monitoring analysis by Friedrich et al. [336], using within-trialreduces or has no effect on clinical recovery from comparisons, showed no benefit for surgical patients inNMBAs in the ICU [324, 325]. mixed medical-surgical ICUs [risk ratio 0.99 (0.82–1.11)] Benefits to neuromuscular monitoring, including faster and no subgroup of surgical patients who benefited fromrecovery of neuromuscular function and shorter intuba- intensive insulin therapy. Interestingly, the RCTs thattion times, appear to exist. A potential for cost savings reported [326, 337] compared intensive insulin therapy to(reduced total dose of NMBAs and shorter intubation high controls (180–200 mg/dL) [OR 0.89 (0.73–1.09)],times) also may exist, although this has not been studied whereas those that did not demonstrate benefit [330–332]formally. compared intensive therapy to moderate controls (108–180 mg/dL) [OR 1.14 (1.02 to -1.26)]. See Sup- plemental Digital Content 6 for details.Q. Glucose control The trigger to start an insulin protocol for blood glu-1. We recommend a protocolized approach to blood cose levels [180 mg/dL with an upper target blood glucose management in ICU patients with severe glucose level 180 mg/dL derives from the NICE- sepsis, commencing insulin dosing when two consec- SUGAR study [331], which used these values for initi- utive blood glucose levels are [180 mg/dL. This ating and stopping therapy. The NICE-SUGAR trial is the approach should target an upper blood glucose level largest, most compelling study to date on glucose control B180 mg/dL rather than an upper target blood glucose in ICU patients given its inclusion of multiple ICUs and B110 mg/dL (grade 1A). hospitals and a general patient population. Several med-2. We recommend blood glucose values be monitored ical organizations, including the American Association of every 1–2 h until glucose values and insulin infusion Clinical Endocrinologists, American Diabetes Associa- rates are stable, then every 4 h thereafter (grade 1C). tion, American Heart Association, American College of3. We recommend that glucose levels obtained with Physicians, and Society of Critical Care Medicine, have point-of-care testing of capillary blood be interpreted published consensus statements for glycemic control of with caution, as such measurements may not accu- hospitalized patients [338–341]. These statements usually rately estimate arterial blood or plasma glucose values targeted glucose levels between 140 and 180 mg/dL. As (UG). there is no evidence that targets between 140 and 180 mg/ dL are different from targets of 110–140 mg/dL, theRationale. One large RCT single center trial in a pre- recommendations use an upper target blood glucosedominantly cardiac surgical ICU demonstrated a B180 mg/dL without a lower target other than hypogly-reduction in ICU mortality with intensive intravenous cemia. Treatment should avoid hyperglycemia ([180 mg/insulin (Leuven protocol) targeting blood glucose to dL), hypoglycemia, and wide swings in glucose levels.80–110 mg/dL [326]. A second randomized trial of The continuation of insulin infusions, especially with theintensive insulin therapy using the Leuven protocol cessation of nutrition, has been identified as a risk factorenrolled medical ICU patients with an anticipated ICU for hypoglycemia [332]. Balanced nutrition may be
  • 30. 194associated with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia [342]. analyses [365, 366] reported the absence of significantSeveral studies have suggested that the variability in difference in hospital mortality between patients whoglucose levels over time is an important determinant of receive continuous and intermittent renal replacementmortality [343–345]. Hyperglycemia and glucose vari- therapies. This absence of apparent benefit of oneability seem to be unassociated with increased mortality modality over the other persists even when the analysisrates in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients is restricted to RCT studies [366]. To date, five pro-[346, 347]. spective RCTs have been published [367–371]; four Several factors may affect the accuracy and repro- found no significant difference in mortality [367–371],ducibility of point-of-care testing of blood capillary blood whereas one found significantly higher mortality in theglucose, including the type and model of the device used, continuous treatment group [367], but imbalanced ran-user expertise, and patient factors, including hematocrit domization had led to a higher baseline severity of(false elevation with anemia), PaO2, and drugs [348]. illness in this group. When a multivariable model wasPlasma glucose values by capillary point-of-care testing used to adjust for severity of illness, no difference inhave been found to be inaccurate with frequent false mortality was apparent between the groups [367]. Mostelevations [349] over the range of glucose levels [350], studies comparing modes of renal replacement in thebut especially in the hypoglycemic [349, 351] and critically ill have included a small number of patientshyperglycemic ranges [351] and in hypotensive patients and some major weaknesses (i.e., randomization failure,[352] or patients receiving catecholamines [353]. A modifications of therapeutic protocol during the studyreview of 12 published insulin infusion protocols for period, combination of different types of continuouscritically ill patients showed wide variability in dose renal replacement therapies, small number of heteroge-recommendations and variable glucose control [354]. This neous groups of enrollees). The most recent and largestlack of consensus about optimal dosing of intravenous RCT [371] enrolled 360 patients and found no significantinsulin may reflect variability in patient factors (severity difference in survival between the continuous andof illness, surgical vs medical settings), or practice pat- intermittent groups. Moreover, no evidence supports theterns (e.g., approaches to feeding, intravenous dextrose) use of continuous therapies in sepsis independent ofin the environments in which these protocols were renal replacement needs.developed and tested. Alternatively, some protocols may No evidence supports a better tolerance with contin-be more effective than others, conclusion supported by uous treatments regarding the hemodynamic tolerance ofthe wide variability in hypoglycemia rates reported with each method. Two prospective studies [369, 372] haveprotocols [128, 326–333]. Thus, the use of established reported a better hemodynamic tolerance with continuousinsulin protocols is important not only for clinical care but treatment, with no improvement in regional perfusionalso for the conduct of clinical trials to avoid hypogly- [372] and no survival benefit [369]. Four other prospec-cemia, adverse events, and premature termination of trials tive studies did not find any significant difference in MAPbefore the efficacy signal, if any, can be determined. or drop in systolic pressure between the two methodsSeveral studies have suggested that computer-based [368, 370, 371, 373]. Two studies reported a significantalgorithms result in tighter glycemic control with a improvement in goal achievement with continuousreduced risk of hypoglycemia [355, 356]. Further study of methods [367, 369] regarding fluid balance management.validated, safe, and effective protocols for controlling In summary, the evidence is insufficient to draw strongblood glucose concentrations and variability in the severe conclusions regarding the mode of replacement therapysepsis population is needed. for acute renal failure in septic patients. The effect of dose of continuous renal replacement on outcomes in patients with acute renal failure has shownR. Renal replacement therapy mixed results [374, 375]. None of these trials was con-1. We suggest that continuous renal replacement thera- ducted specifically in patients with sepsis. Although the pies and intermittent hemodialysis are equivalent in weight of evidence suggests that higher doses of renal patients with severe sepsis and acute renal failure replacement may be associated with improved outcomes, because they achieve similar short-term survival rates these results may not be generalizable. Two large multi- (grade 2B). center randomized trials comparing the dose of renal2. We suggest the use of continuous therapies to facilitate replacement (Acute Renal Failure Trial Network in the management of fluid balance in hemodynamically United States and RENAL Renal Replacement Therapy unstable septic patients (grade 2D). Study in Australia and New Zealand) failed to show benefit of more aggressive renal replacement dosing [376,Rationale. Although numerous nonrandomized studies 377]. A typical dose for continuous renal replacementhave reported a nonsignificant trend toward improved therapy would be 20–25 mL kg-1 h-1 of effluentsurvival using continuous methods [357–364], two meta- generation.
  • 31. 195S. Bicarbonate therapy Rationale. ICU patients are at risk for deep vein1. We recommend against the use of sodium bicarbonate thrombosis (DVT) [380]. It is logical that patients with therapy for the purpose of improving hemodynamics severe sepsis would be at a similar or higher risk than the or reducing vasopressor requirements in patients with general ICU population. The consequences of VTE in the hypoperfusion-induced lactic acidemia with pH C7.15 setting of sepsis (increased risk of potentially fatal pul- (grade 2B). monary emboli in an already hemodynamically compromised patient) are dire. Therefore, prevention ofRationale. Although bicarbonate therapy may be useful VTE is highly desirable, especially if it can be done safelyin limiting tidal volume in ARDS in some situations of and effectively.permissive hypercapnia (see ‘‘Mechanical ventilation’’ Prophylaxis is generally effective. In particular, nineof ARDS), no evidence supports the use of bicarbonate placebo-controlled RCTs of VTE prophylaxis have beentherapy in the treatment of hypoperfusion-induced lactic conducted in general populations of acutely ill patientsacidemia associated with sepsis. Two blinded, crossover [381–389]. All trials showed reduction in DVT or pul-RCTs that compared equimolar saline and bicarbonate monary embolism, a benefit that is also supported byin patients with lactic acidosis failed to reveal any dif- meta-analyses [390, 391]. Thus, the evidence stronglyference in hemodynamic variables or vasopressor supports the value of VTE prophylaxis (grade 1A). Therequirements [378, 379]. The number of patients with prevalence of infection/sepsis was 17 % in those studies7.15 pH in these studies was small. Bicarbonate in which this could be ascertained. One study investigatedadministration has been associated with sodium and only ICU patients only, and 52 % of those enrolled hadfluid overload, an increase in lactate and PCO2, and a infection/sepsis. The need to extrapolate from general,decrease in serum ionized calcium, but the relevance of acutely ill patients to critically ill patients to septicthese variables to outcome is uncertain. The effect of patients downgrades the evidence. That the effect isbicarbonate administration on hemodynamics and pronounced and the data are robust somewhat mitigatevasopressor requirements at lower pH, as well as the against the extrapolation, leading to a grade B determi-effect on clinical outcomes at any pH, is unknown. No nation. Because the patient’s risk of administration isstudies have examined the effect of bicarbonate small, the gravity of not administering may be great, andadministration on outcomes. the cost is low, the strength of the recommendation is strong [1]. Deciding how to provide prophylaxis is decidedlyT. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis more difficult. The Canadian Critical Care Trials Group compared UFH (5000 IU twice daily) to LMWH (dal-1. We recommend that patients with severe sepsis receive teparin, 5000 IU once per day and a second placebo daily pharmacoprophylaxis against venous thrombo- injection to ensure parallel-group equivalence) [392]. No embolism (VTE) (grade 1B). We recommend that this statistically significant difference in asymptomatic DVTs be accomplished with daily subcutaneous low-molec- was found between the two groups (hazard ratio, 0.92; ular weight heparin (LMWH) (grade 1B versus 95 % CI, 0.68–1.23; P = 0.57), but the proportion of unfractionated heparin [UFH] twice daily and grade patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism on CT scan, 2C versus UFH given thrice daily). If creatinine high-probability ventilation perfusion scan, or autopsy clearance is 30 mL/min we recommend use of dal- was significantly lower in the LMWH group (hazard ratio, teparin (grade 1A) or another form of LMWH that has 0.51; 95 % CI, 0.30–0.88; P = 0.01).The study did not a low degree of renal metabolism (grade 2C) or UFH account for the use of other forms of LMWH. These data (grade 1A). suggest that LMWH (dalteparin) is the treatment of2. We suggest that patients with severe sepsis be treated choice over UFH administered twice daily in critically ill with a combination of pharmacologic therapy and patients. Also, because the study included septic patients, intermittent pneumatic compression devices whenever the evidence supporting the use of dalteparin over twice possible (grade 2C). daily UFH in critically ill, and perhaps septic, patients is3. We recommend that septic patients who have a strong. Similarly, a meta-analysis of acutely ill, general contraindication to heparin use (e.g., thrombocytope- medical patients comparing UFH twice and thrice daily nia, severe coagulopathy, active bleeding, recent demonstrated that the latter regimen was more effective at intracerebral hemorrhage) not receive pharmacopro- preventing VTE, but twice daily dosing produced less phylaxis (grade 1B). Rather we suggest they receive bleeding [393]. Both critically ill and septic patients were mechanical prophylactic treatment, such as graduated included in these analyses, but their numbers are unclear. compression stockings or intermittent compression Nonetheless, the quality of evidence supporting the use of devices (grade 2C), unless contraindicated. When the three times daily, as opposed to twice daily, UFH dosing risk decreases, we suggest starting pharmacoprophy- in preventing VTE in acutely ill medical patients is high laxis (grade 2C). (A). However, comparing LMWH to twice daily UFH, or
  • 32. 196twice daily UFH to three times daily UFH, in sepsis 2. When stress ulcer prophylaxis is used, we suggest therequires extrapolation, downgrading the data. No data use of proton pump inhibitors rather than H2 receptorexist on direct comparison of LMWH to UFH adminis- antagonists (H2RA) (grade 2C).tered three times daily, nor are there any studies directly 3. We suggest that patients without risk factors shouldcomparing twice daily and thrice daily UFH dosing in not receive prophylaxis (grade 2B).septic or critically ill patients. Therefore, it is not possibleto state that LMWH is superior to three times daily UFH Rationale. Although no study has been performed spe-or that three times daily dosing is superior to twice daily cifically in patients with severe sepsis, trials confirmingadministration in sepsis. This downgrades the quality of the benefit of stress ulcer prophylaxis in reducing upperthe evidence and therefore the recommendation. gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in general ICU populations Douketis et al. [394] conducted a study of 120 criti- included 20–25 % of patients with sepsis [403–406]. Thiscally ill patients with acute kidney injury (creatinine benefit should be applicable to patients with severe sepsisclearance 30 mL/min) who received VTE prophylaxis and septic shock. In addition, the risk factors for GIwith dalteparin 5,000 IU daily for between 4 and 14 days bleeding (e.g., coagulopathy, mechanical ventilation for atand had at least one trough anti-factor Xa level measured. least 48 h, possibly hypotension) are frequently present inNone of the patients had bio-accumulation (trough anti- patients with severe sepsis and septic shock [407, 408].factor Xa level lower than 0.06 IU/mL). The incidence of Patients without these risk factors are unlikely (0.2 %;major bleeding was somewhat higher than in trials of 95 % CI, 0.02–0.5) to have clinically important bleedingother agents, but most other studies did not involve crit- [407].ically ill patients, in whom the bleeding risk is higher. Both old and new meta-analyses show prophylaxis-Further, bleeding did not correlate with detectable trough induced reduction in clinically significant upper GIlevels [394]. Therefore, we recommend that dalteparin bleeding, which we consider significant even in thecan be administered to critically ill patients with acute absence of proven mortality benefit [409–411]. The ben-renal failure (A). Data on other LMWHs are lacking. efit of prevention of upper GI bleeding must be weighedConsequently, these forms should probably be avoided or, against the potential (unproven) effect of increasedif used, anti-factor Xa levels should be monitored (grade stomach pH on a greater incidence of VAP and C. difficile2C). UFH is not renally cleared and is safe (grade 1A). infection [409, 412, 413]. (See Supplemental Digital Mechanical methods (intermittent compression Content 6, 7 and 8, Summary of Evidence Tables fordevices and graduated compression stockings) are rec- effects of treatments on specific outcomes.) In anommended when anticoagulation is contraindicated [395– exploratory hypothesis, we considered (as did the authors397]. A meta-analysis of 11 studies, including six RCTs, of the meta-analysis) [411] the possibility of less benefitpublished in the Cochrane Library concluded that the and more harm in prophylaxis among patients receivingcombination of pharmacologic and mechanical prophy- enteral nutrition but decided to provide one recommen-laxis was superior to either modality alone in preventing dation while lowering the quality of evidence. TheDVT and was better than compression alone in preventing balance of benefits and risks may thus depend on thepulmonary embolism [398]. This analysis did not focus on individual patient’s characteristics as well as on the localsepsis or critically ill patients but included studies of epidemiology of VAP and C. difficile infections. Theprophylaxis after orthopedic, pelvic, and cardiac surgery. rationale for considering only suppression of acid pro-In addition, the type of pharmacologic prophylaxis varied, duction (and not sucralfate) is based on the study of 1,200including UFH, LMWH, aspirin, and warfarin. Nonethe- patients by Cook et al. [414] comparing H2 blockers andless, the minimal risk associated with compression sucralfate. More recent meta-analyses provide low-qualitydevices lead us to recommend combination therapy in evidence suggesting more effective GI bleeding protec-most cases. In very-high-risk patients, LMWH is pre- tion with the use of proton pump inhibitors than withferred over UFH [392, 399–401]. Patients receiving H2RA [415–417]. Patients should be periodically evalu-heparin should be monitored for development of heparin- ated for the continued need for prophylaxis.induced thrombocytopenia. These recommendations areconsistent with those developed by the American Collegeof Chest Physicians [402]. V. Nutrition 1. We suggest administering oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either completeU. Stress ulcer prophylaxis fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within1. We recommend that stress ulcer prophylaxis using H2 the first 48 h after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic blocker or proton pump inhibitor be given to patients shock (grade 2C). with severe sepsis/septic shock who have bleeding risk 2. We suggest avoiding mandatory full caloric feeding in factors (grade 1B). the first week, but rather suggest low dose feeding
  • 33. 197 (e.g., up to 500 kcal per day), advancing only as Underfeeding/trophic feeding strategies did not exclude tolerated (grade 2B). advancing diet as tolerated in those who improved3. We suggest using intravenous glucose and enteral quickly. nutrition rather than TPN alone or parenteral nutrition Some form of parenteral nutrition has been compared in conjunction with enteral feeding in the first 7 days to alternative feeding strategies (e.g., fasting or enteral after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (grade nutrition) in well over 50 studies, although only one 2B). exclusively studied sepsis [436], and eight meta-analyses4. We suggest using nutrition with no specific immuno- have been published [429, 437–443]. Two of the meta- modulating supplementation in patients with severe analyses summarize comparisons of parenteral nutrition sepsis (grade 2C). versus fasting or intravenous glucose [437, 438], and 6 look at parenteral versus enteral nutrition [429, 439–443],Rationale. Early enteral nutrition has theoretical two of which attempted to explore the effect of earlyadvantages in the integrity of gut mucosa and prevention enteral nutrition [441, 442]. Recently, a study much largerof bacterial translocation and organ dysfunction, but also than most earlier nutrition trials compared ICU patientsconcerning is the risk of ischemia, mainly in hemody- randomized to early use of parenteral nutrition to augmentnamically unstable patients. enteral feeding versus enteral feeding with only late ini- Unfortunately, no clinical trial has specifically tiation of parenteral nutrition if necessary [444].addressed early feeding in septic patients. Studies on No direct evidence supports the benefits or harm ofdifferent subpopulations of critically ill patients, mostly parenteral nutrition in the first 48 h in sepsis. Rather, thesurgical patients, are not consistent, with great variability evidence is generated predominantly from surgical, burn,in the intervention and control groups; all are of low and trauma patients. None of the meta-analyses reports amethodological quality [418–427] and none was indi- mortality benefit with parenteral nutrition, except onevidually powered for mortality, with very low mortality suggesting parenteral nutrition may be better than laterates [418–420, 423, 426]. Authors of previously pub- introduction of enteral nutrition [442]. Several suggestedlished meta-analyses of optimal nutrition strategies for the that parenteral nutrition had higher infectious complica-critically ill all reported that the studies they included had tions compared both to fasting or intravenous glucose andhigh heterogeneity and low quality [418–430]. Although to enteral nutrition [429, 431, 438, 439, 442]. Enteralno consistent effect on mortality was observed, there was feeding was associated with a higher rate of enteralevidence of benefit from some early enteral feeding on complications (e.g., diarrhea) than parenteral nutritionsecondary outcomes, such as reduced incidence of [438]. The use of parenteral nutrition to supplement ent-infectious complications [418, 422, 426, 427–430], eral feeding was also analyzed by Dhaliwal et al. [440],reduced length of mechanical ventilation [421, 427], and who also reported no benefit. The trial by Casaer et al.reduced ICU [421, 427] and hospital stays [428]. No [444] reported that early initiation of parenteral nutritionevidence of harm was demonstrated in any of those led to longer hospital and ICU stays, longer duration ofstudies. Therefore, there is insufficient evidence to issue a organ support, and higher incidence of ICU-acquiredstrong recommendation, but the suggestion of benefit and infection. One-fifth of patients had sepsis and there wasabsence of harm supports a suggestion that some enteral no evidence of heterogeneity in treatment effects acrossfeeding is warranted. subgroups, including the sepsis subjects. Therefore, no Studies comparing full caloric early enteral feeding to studies suggest the superiority of TPN over enteral alonelower targets in the critically ill have produced incon- in the first 24 h. In fact, there is a suggestion that enteralclusive results. In four studies, no effect on mortality was nutrition may in fact be superior to TPN vis a vis infec-seen [431–434]; one reported fewer infectious complica- tious complications and possibly requirement fortions [431], and the others reported increased diarrhea and intensive care and organ support.gastric residuals [433, 434] and increased incidence of Immune system function can be modified throughinfectious complications with full caloric feeding [432]. alterations in the supply of certain nutrients, such asIn another study, mortality was greater with higher arginine, glutamine, or omega-3 fatty acids. Numerousfeeding, but differences in feeding strategies were modest studies have assessed whether use of these agents asand the sample size was small [435]. Therefore, evidence nutritional supplements can affect the course of criticalis insufficient to support an early target of full caloric illness, but few specifically addressed their early use inintake and, indeed, some possibility of harm exists. sepsis. Four meta-analyses evaluated immune-enhancingUnderfeeding (60–70 % of target) or trophic feeding nutrition and found no difference in mortality, neither in(upper limit of 500 kcal) is probably a better nutritional surgical nor medical patients [445–448]. However, theystrategy in the first week of severe sepsis/septic shock. analyzed all studies together, regardless of the immuno-This upper limit for trophic feeding is a somewhat arbi- component used, which could have compromised theirtrary number, but based in part on the fact that the two conclusions. Other individual studies analyzed diets withrecent studies used a range of 240–480 kcal [433, 434]. a mix of arginine, glutamine, antioxidants, and/or omega-
  • 34. 1983 with negative results [449, 450] including a small study arachidonic acid-derived equivalents, reducing the pro-in septic patients showing a non-significant increase in inflammatory impact on the immune response [452, 453].ICU mortality [451, 452]. Three early studies were summarized in a meta-analysis Arginine. Arginine availability is reduced in sepsis, that reported a significant mortality reduction, increasedwhich can lead to reduced nitric oxide synthesis, loss of ventilator-free days, and reduced risk of new organ dys-microcirculatory regulation, and enhanced production of function [470]. However, only one study was in septicsuperoxide and peroxynitrite. However, arginine supple- patients [471], none was individually powered for mor-mentation could lead to unwanted vasodilation and tality [472, 473], and all three used a diet with highhypotension [452, 453]. Human trials of L-arginine sup- omega-6 lipid content in the control group, which is notplementation have generally been small and reported the usual standard of care in the critically ill. The authorsvariable effects on mortality [454–457]. The only study in who first reported reduced mortality in sepsis [471] con-septic patients showed improved survival, but had limi- ducted a follow-up multicenter study and again foundtations in study design [455]. Other studies suggested no improvement in nonmortality outcomes, though notablybenefit [449, 454, 455] or possible harm [455] in the with no demonstrable effect on mortality [474]. Othersubgroup of septic patients. Some authors found studies using enteral [475–477] or parenteral [478–480]improvement in secondary outcomes in septic patients, fish oil failed to confirm these findings in general criticalsuch as reduced infectious complications [454, 455] and illness or acute lung injury. Thus, no large, reproduciblelength of hospital stay [454], but the relevance of these findings suggest a clear benefit in the use of immuno-findings in the face of potential harm is unclear. modulating nutritional supplements in sepsis, though Glutamine. Glutamine levels are also reduced during larger trials are ongoing.critical illness. Exogenous supplementation can improvegut mucosal atrophy and permeability, possibly leading toreduced bacterial translocation. Other potential benefits W. Setting goals of careare enhanced immune cell function, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and higher levels of 1. We recommend that goals of care and prognosis beglutathione and antioxidative capacity [452, 453]. How- discussed with patients and families (grade 1B).ever, the clinical significance of these findings is not 2. We recommend that the goals of care be incorporatedclearly established. into treatment and end-of-life care planning, utilizing Although a previous meta-analysis showed mortality palliative care principles where appropriate (grade 1B).reduction [428], four other meta-analyses did not [458– 3. We suggest that goals of care be addressed as early as462]. Other small studies not included in those meta- feasible, but no later than within 72 h of ICU admissionanalyses had similar results [463, 464]. Three recent well- (grade 2C).designed studies also failed to show a mortality benefit inthe primary analyses [227, 465, 466], but again, none Rationale. The majority of ICU patients receive fullfocused specifically on septic patients. Two small studies support with aggressive, life-sustaining treatments. Manyon septic patients showed no benefit in mortality rates patients with multiple organ system failure or severe neu-[467, 468] but a significant reduction in infectious com- rologic injuries will not survive or will have a poor quality ofplications [467] and a faster recovery of organ life. Decisions to provide less-aggressive life-sustainingdysfunction [468]. Some previous individual studies and treatments or to withdraw life-sustaining treatments in thesemeta-analyses showed positive secondary outcomes, such patients may be in the patient’s best interest and may be whatas reduction in infectious morbidity [461, 462, 465] and patients and their families desire [481]. Physicians haveorgan dysfunction [462]. Beneficial effects were found different end-of-life practices based on their region ofmostly in trials using parenteral rather than enteral glu- practice, culture, and religion [482]. Although the outcometamine. However, recent and well-sized studies could not of intensive care treatment in critically ill patients may bedemonstrate a reduction of infectious complications [227] difficult to prognosticate accurately, establishing realisticor organ dysfunction [465, 466], even with parenteral treatment goals is important in promoting patient-centeredglutamine. An ongoing trial (REDOXS) of 1,200 patients care in the ICU [483]. Models for structuring initiatives towill test both enteral and parenteral glutamine and anti- enhance care in the ICU highlight the importance of incor-oxidant supplementation in critically ill, mechanically porating goals of care along with the prognosis intoventilated patients [469]. Although no clear benefit could treatment plans [484]. Additionally, discussing the prog-be demonstrated in clinical trials with supplemental glu- nosis for achieving the goals of care and level of certainty oftamine, there is no sign of harm. prognosis has been identified as an important component of The omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) surrogate decision-making in the ICU [485, 486]. However,and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) are eicosanoid precur- variations exist in the use of advanced care planning andsors. The prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes integration of palliative and end-of-life care in the ICU,produced from EPA/GLA are less potent than their which can lead to conflicts that may threaten overall quality
  • 35. 199of care [487, 488]. The use of proactive family care con- require early intubation; however, during intubation andferences to identify advanced directives and treatment mechanical ventilation, increased intrathoracic pressuregoals within 72 h of ICU admission promotes communi- can reduce venous return and lead to worsening shock ifcation and understanding between the patient’s family and the patient is not volume loaded. In those who desaturatethe care team; improves family satisfaction; decreases despite administration of face mask oxygen, high-flowstress, anxiety, and depression in surviving relatives; nasal cannula oxygen or nasopharyngeal CPAP can befacilitates end-of-life decision making; and shortens used to increase functional residual capacity and reducelength of stay for patients who die in the ICU [489–494]. the work of breathing, allowing for establishment ofClinical practice guidelines for support of the ICU patient intravenous or intraosseous access for fluid resuscitationand family promote: early and repeated care conferencing and peripheral inotrope delivery [502, 503]. Drugs usedto reduce family stress and improve consistency in com- for sedation have important side effects in these patients.munication; open flexible visitation; family presence For example, etomidate is associated with increasedduring clinical rounds and resuscitation; and attention to mortality in children with meningococcal sepsis becausecultural and spiritual support [495]. Additionally, the of adrenal suppression effect [504, 505]. Becauseintegration of advanced care planning and palliative care attainment of central access is more difficult in childrenfocused on pain management, symptom control, and than adults, reliance on peripheral or intraosseous accessfamily support has been shown to improve symptom can be substituted until and unless central access ismanagement and patient comfort, and to improve family available.communication [484, 490, 496]. 2. We suggest that the initial therapeutic endpoints ofPediatric considerations in severe sepsis (Table 9) resuscitation of septic shock be capillary refill of B2 s, normal blood pressure for age, normal pulses with noWhile sepsis in children is a major cause of death in differential between peripheral and central pulses,industrialized countries with state-of-the-art ICUs, the warm extremities, urine output [1 mL kg-1 h-1, andoverall mortality from severe sepsis is much lower than normal mental status. Thereafter, ScvO2 saturationthat in adults, estimated at about 2–10 % [497–499]. The greater than or equal to 70 % and cardiac indexhospital mortality rate for severe sepsis is 2 % in previ- between 3.3 and 6.0 L min-1 m-2 should be targetedously healthy children and 8 % in chronically ill children (grade 2C).in the US [497]. Definitions of sepsis, severe sepsis, septicshock, and multiple organ dysfunction/failure syndromes Rationale. Adult guidelines recommend lactate clear-are similar to adult definitions but depend on age-specific ance as well, but children commonly have normal lactateheart rate, respiratory rate, and white blood cell count levels with septic shock. Because of the many modalitiescutoff values [500, 501]. This document provides rec- used to measure ScvO2 and cardiac index, the specificommendations only for term newborns and children in the choice is left to the practitioner’s discretion [506–512].industrialized resource-rich setting with full access tomechanical ventilation ICUs. 3. We recommend following the American College of Critical Care Medicine-Pediatric Advanced Life Sup-A. Initial resuscitation port guidelines for the management of septic shock1. We suggest starting with oxygen administered by face (grade 1C). mask or, if needed and available, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen or nasopharyngeal CPAP for respira- Rationale. The recommended guidelines are summa- tory distress and hypoxemia. Peripheral intravenous rized in Fig. 2 [510–512]. access or intraosseous access can be used for fluid resuscitation and inotrope infusion when a central line is not available. If mechanical ventilation is required, 4. We recommend evaluating for and reversing pneumo- then cardiovascular instability during intubation is less thorax, pericardial tamponade, or endocrine emergencies likely after appropriate cardiovascular resuscitation in patients with refractory shock (grade 1C). (grade 2C). Rationale. Endocrine emergencies include hypoadre- nalism and hypothyroidism. In select patients, intra-Rationale. Due to low functional residual capacity, abdominal hypertension may also need to be consideredyoung infants and neonates with severe sepsis may [513–515].
  • 36. 200Table 9 Recommendations: special considerations in pediatricsA. Initial resuscitation1. For respiratory distress and hypoxemia start with face mask oxygen or if needed and available, high flow nasal cannula oxygen or nasopharyngeal CPAP (NP CPAP). For improved circulation, peripheral intravenous access or intraosseus access can be used for fluid resuscitation and inotrope infusion when a central line is not available. If mechanical ventilation is required then cardiovascular instability during intubation is less likely after appropriate cardiovascular resuscitation (grade 2C).2. Initial therapeutic end points of resuscitation of septic shock: capillary refill of B2 s, normal blood pressure for age, normal pulses with no differential between peripheral and central pulses, warm extremities, urine output [1 mL kg-1 h-1, and normal mental status. ScvO2 saturation C70% and cardiac index between 3.3 and 6.0 L/min/m2 should be targeted thereafter (grade 2C).3. Follow American College of Critical Care Medicine-Pediatric Life Support ( ACCM-PALS) guidelines for the management of septic shock (grade 1C).4. Evaluate for and reverse pneumothorax, pericardial tamponade, or endocrine emergencies in patients with refractory shock (grade 1C).B. Antibiotics and source control1. Empiric antibiotics be administered within 1 hr of the identification of severe sepsis. Blood cultures should be obtained before administering antibiotics when possible but this should not delay administration of antibiotics. The empiric drug choice should be changed as epidemic and endemic ecologies dictate (eg H1N1, MRSA, chloroquine resistant malaria, penicillin-resistant pneumococci,recent ICU stay, neutropenia) (grade 1D).2. Clindamycin and anti-toxin therapies for toxic shock syndromes with refractory hypotension (grade 2D).3. Early and aggressive source control (grade 1D).4. Clostridium difficile colitis should be treated with enteral antibiotics if tolerated. Oral vancomycin is preferred for severe disease (grade 1A).C. Fluid resuscitation1. In the industrialized world with access to inotropes and mechanical ventilation, initial resuscitation of hypovolemic shock begins with infusion of isotonic crystalloids or albumin with boluses of up to 20 mL/kg crystalloids (or albumin equivalent ) over 5–10 minutes, titrated to reversing hypotension, increasing urine output, and attaining normal capillary refill, peripheral pulses, and level of consciousness without inducing hepatomegaly or rales. If hepatomegaly or rales exist then inotropic support should be implemented, not fluid resuscitation. In non-hypotensive children with severe hemolytic anemia (severe malaria or sickle cell crises) blood transfusion is considered superior to crystalloid or albumin bolusing (grade 2C).D. Inotropes/vasopressors/vasodilators1. Begin peripheral inotropic support until central venous access can be attained in children who are not responsive to fluid resuscitation (grade 2C).2. Patients with low cardiac output and elevated systemic vascular resistance states with normal blood pressure be given vasodilator therapies in addition to inotropes (grade 2C).E. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) 1. Consider ECMO for refractory pediatric septic shock and respiratory failure (grade 2C).F. Corticosteroids 1. Timely hydrocortisone therapy in children with fluid refractory, catecholamine resistant shock and suspected or proven absolute (classic) adrenal insufficiency (grade 1 A) .G. Protein C and activated protein concentrateNo recommendation as no longer availableH. Blood products and plasma therapies1. Similar hemoglobin targets in children as in adults. During resuscitation of low superior vena cava oxygen saturation shock (70 %), hemoglobin levels of 10 g/dL are targeted. After stabilization and recovery from shock and hypoxemia then a lower target [7.0 g/dL can be considered reasonable (grade 1B).2. Similar platelet transfusion targets in children as in adults (grade 2C).3. Use plasma therapies in children to correct sepsis-induced thrombotic purpura disorders, including progressive disseminated intravascular coagulation, secondary thrombotic microangiopathy, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (grade 2C).I. Mechanical ventilation 1. Lung-protective strategies during mechanical ventilation (grade 2C).J. Sedation/analgesia/drug toxicities 1. We recommend use of sedation with a sedation goal in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis (grade 1D). 2. Monitor drug toxicity labs because drug metabolism is reduced during severe sepsis, putting children at greater risk of adverse drug-related events (grade 1C).K. Glycemic control1. Control hyperglycemia using a similar target as in adults B180 mg/dL. Glucose infusion should accompany insulin therapy in newborns and children because some hyperglycemic children make no insulin whereas others are insulin resistant (grade 2C).L. Diuretics and renal replacement therapy 1. Use diuretics to reverse fluid overload when shock has resolved, and if unsuccessful then continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) or intermittent dialysis to prevent [10 % total body weight fluid overload (grade 2C).M. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxisNo recommendation on the use of DVT prophylaxis in prepubertal children with severe sepsis.N. Stress ulcer (SU) prophylaxisNo recommendation on the use of SU prophylaxis in prepubertal children with severe sepsisO. Nutrition1. Enteral nutrition given to children who can be fed enterally, and parenteral feeding in those who cannot (grade 2C).
  • 37. 201Fig. 2 Algorithm for time sensitive, goal-directed stepwise management of hemodynamic support in infants and children. Reproducedfrom [510]B. Antibiotics and source control resistant malaria, penicillin-resistant pneumococci,1. We recommend that empiric antimicrobials be admin- recent ICU stay, neutropenia) (grade 1D). istered within 1 h of the identification of severe sepsis. Blood cultures should be obtained before administering Rationale. Vascular access and blood drawing is antibiotics when possible, but this should not delay ini- more difficult in newborns and children. Antimicro- tiation of antibiotics. The empiric drug choice should be bials can be given intramuscularly or orally (if changed as epidemic and endemic ecologies dictate (e.g., tolerated) until intravenous line access is available H1N1, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, chloroquine- [516–519].
  • 38. 2022. We suggest the use of clindamycin and antitoxin transfusion is considered superior to crystalloid or therapies for toxic shock syndromes with refractory albumin bolusing (grade 2C). hypotension (grade 2D). Rationale. Three RCTs compared the use of colloid toRationale. Children are more prone to toxic shock than crystalloid resuscitation in children with hypovolemicadults because of their lack of circulating antibodies to dengue shock with near 100 % survival in all treatmenttoxins. Children with severe sepsis and erythroderma and arms [542–544]. In the industrialized world, two before-suspected toxic shock should be treated with clindamycin and-after studies observed tenfold reductions in mortalityto reduce toxin production. The role of IVIG in toxic when children with purpura/meningococcal septic shockshock syndrome is unclear, but it may be considered in were treated with fluid boluses, inotropes, and mechanicalrefractory toxic shock syndrome [520–527]. ventilation in the community emergency department [545, 546]. In one randomized trial, septic shock mortality was reduced (40–12 %) when increased fluid boluses, blood, and inotropes were given to attain a ScvO2 monitoring3. We recommend early and aggressive infection source goal of greater than 70 % [511]. A quality improvement control (grade 1D). study achieved a reduction in severe sepsis mortality (from 4.0 to 2.4 %) with the delivery of fluid boluses and ´Rationale. Debridement and source control is para- antibiotics in the first hour in a pediatric emergencymount in severe sepsis and septic shock. Conditions department to reverse clinical signs of shock [547]. ´requiring debridement or drainage include necrotizing Children normally have a lower blood pressure thanpneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, gangrenous myonecro- adults, and a fall in blood pressure can be prevented bysis, empyema, and abscesses. Perforated viscus requires vasoconstriction and increasing heart rate. Therefore,repair and peritoneal washout. Delay in use of an appro- blood pressure alone is not a reliable endpoint forpriate antibiotic, inadequate source control, and failure to assessing the adequacy of resuscitation. However, onceremove infected devices are associated with increased hypotension occurs, cardiovascular collapse may soonmortality in a synergistic manner [528–538]. follow. Thus, fluid resuscitation is recommended for both normotensive and hypotensive children in hypovolemic shock [542–554]. Because hepatomegaly and/or rales4. C. difficile colitis should be treated with enteral occur in children who are fluid overloaded, these findings antibiotics if tolerated. Oral vancomycin is preferred can be helpful signs of hypervolemia. In the absence of for severe disease (grade 1A). these signs, large fluid deficits can exist, and initial volume resuscitation can require 40–60 mL/kg or more;Rationale. In adults, metronidazole is a first choice; however, if these signs are present, then fluid adminis-however, response to treatment with C. difficile can be tration should be ceased and diuretics should be with enteral vancomycin. In very severe cases where Inotrope infusions and mechanical ventilation are com-diverting ileostomy or colectomy is performed, parenteral monly required for children with fluid refractory shock.treatment should be considered until clinical improvementis ascertained [539–541]. D. Inotropes/vasopressors/vasodilators 1. We suggest beginning peripheral inotropic supportC. Fluid resuscitation until central venous access can be attained in children1. In the industrialized world with access to inotropes and who are not responsive to fluid resuscitation (grade mechanical ventilation, we suggest that initial resus- 2C). citation of hypovolemic shock begin with infusion of isotonic crystalloids or albumin, with boluses of up to Rationale. Cohort studies show that delay in the use of 20 mL/kg for crystalloids (or albumin equivalent) over inotropic therapies is associated with major increases in 5–10 min. These should be titrated to reversing mortality risk [553, 554]. This delay is often related to hypotension, increasing urine output, and attaining difficulty in attaining central access. In the initial resus- normal capillary refill, peripheral pulses and level of citation phase, inotrope/vasopressor therapy may be consciousness without inducing hepatomegaly or rales. required to sustain perfusion pressure, even when hypo- If hepatomegaly or rales develop, inotropic support volemia has not yet been resolved. Children with severe should be implemented, not fluid resuscitation. In sepsis can present with low cardiac output and high sys- children with severe hemolytic anemia (severe malaria temic vascular resistance, high cardiac output and low or sickle cell crises) who are not hypotensive, blood systemic vascular resistance, or low cardiac output and
  • 39. 203low systemic vascular resistance shock [555]. A child [574], with one center reporting 74 % survival to hospitalmay move from one hemodynamic state to another. discharge using central cannulation via sternotomy [575].Vasopressor or inotrope therapy should be used according ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill H1N1to the hemodynamic state [555]. Dopamine-refractory pediatric patients with refractory respiratory failure [576,shock may reverse with epinephrine or norepinephrine 577].infusion. In the case of extremely low systemic vascularresistance despite the use of norepinephrine, the use ofvasopressin and terlipressin has been described in a F. Corticosteroidsnumber of case reports, yet evidence to support this in 1. We suggest timely hydrocortisone therapy in childrenpediatric sepsis, as well as safety data, are still lacking. with fluid-refractory, catecholamine-resistant shockIndeed, two RCTs showed no benefit in outcome with use and suspected or proven absolute (classic) adrenalof vasopressin or terlipressin in children [556–559]. insufficiency (grade 1A).Interestingly, while vasopressin levels are reduced inadults with septic shock, such levels seem to varyextensively in children. When vasopressors are used for Rationale. Approximately 25 % of children with septicrefractory hypotension, the addition of inotropes is com- shock have absolute adrenal insufficiency. Patients at riskmonly needed to maintain adequate cardiac output [510, for absolute adrenal insufficiency include children with511, 555]. severe septic shock and purpura, those who have previ- ously received steroid therapies for chronic illness, and children with pituitary or adrenal abnormalities. Initial2. We suggest that patients with low cardiac output and treatment is hydrocortisone infusion given at stress doses elevated systemic vascular resistance states with (50 mg/m2/24 h); however, infusions up to 50 mg kg-1 normal blood pressure be given vasodilator therapies day-1 may be required to reverse shock in the short term. in addition to inotropes (grade 2C). Death from absolute adrenal insufficiency and septic shock occurs within 8 h of presentation. Obtaining a serum cortisol level at the time empiric hydrocortisone isRationale. The choice of vasoactive agent is initially administered may be helpful [578–583].determined by the clinical examination; however, for thechild with invasive monitoring in place and demonstrationof a persistent low cardiac output state with high systemic G. Protein C and activated protein concentratevascular resistance and normal blood pressure despitefluid resuscitation and inotropic support, vasodilator See ‘‘History of recommendations regarding use oftherapy can reverse shock. Type III phosphodiesterase recombinant activated protein C’’.inhibitors (amrinone, milrinone, enoximone) and thecalcium sensitizer levosimendan can be helpful becausethey overcome receptor desensitization. Other important H. Blood products and plasma therapiesvasodilators include nitrosovasodilators, prostacyclin, andfenoldopam. In two RCTs, pentoxifylline reduced mor- 1. We suggest similar hemoglobin targets in children astality from severe sepsis in newborns [510, 560–569]. in adults. During resuscitation of low superior vena cava oxygen saturation shock (70 %), hemoglobin levels of 10 g/dL are targeted. After stabilization and recovery from shock and hypoxemia, then a lower targetE. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation [7.0 g/dL can be considered reasonable (grade 1B).1. We suggest ECMO in children with refractory septic shock or with refractory respiratory failure associated Rationale. The optimal hemoglobin for a critically ill with sepsis (grade 2C). child with severe sepsis is not known. A recent multi- center trial reported no difference in mortality inRationale. ECMO may be used to support children and hemodynamically stable critically ill children managedneonates with septic shock or sepsis-associated respira- with a transfusion threshold of 7 g/dL compared withtory failure [570, 571]. The survival of septic patients those managed with a transfusion threshold of 9.5 g/dL;supported with ECMO is 73 % for newborns and 39 % however, the severe sepsis subgroup had an increase infor older children, and is highest in those receiving nosocomial sepsis and lacked clear evidence of equiva-venovenous ECMO [572]. Forty-one percent of children lence in outcomes with the restrictive strategy [584, 585].with a diagnosis of sepsis requiring ECMO for respiratory Blood transfusion is recommended by the World Healthfailure survive to hospital discharge [573]. Venoarterial Organization for severe anemia, hemoglobin value 5 g/ECMO is useful in children with refractory septic shock dL, and acidosis. A RCT of early goal-directed therapy for
  • 40. 204pediatric septic shock using the threshold hemoglobin of Rationale. Although there are no data supporting any10 g/dL for patients with a SvcO2 saturation less than 70 % in particular drugs or regimens, propofol should not be usedthe first 72 h of pediatric ICU admission showed improved for long-term sedation in children younger than 3 yearssurvival in the multimodal intervention arm [511]. because of the reported association with fatal metabolic acidosis. The use of etomidate and/or dexmedetomidine during septic shock should be discouraged, or at least2. We suggest similar platelet transfusion targets in considered carefully, because these drugs inhibit the children as in adults (grade 2C). adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system,3. We suggest the use of plasma therapies in children to respectively, both of which are needed for hemodynamic correct sepsis-induced thrombotic purpura disorders, stability [617–620]. including progressive disseminated intravascular coag- ulation, secondary thrombotic microangiopathy, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (grade 2C). 2. We recommend monitoring drug toxicity labs because drug metabolism is reduced during severe sepsis,Rationale. We give plasma to reverse thrombotic micro- putting children at greater risk of adverse drug-relatedangiopathies in children with thrombocytopenia-associated events (grade 1C).multiple organ failure and progressive purpura becausefresh frozen plasma contains protein C, antithrombin III, Rationale. Children with severe sepsis have reducedand other anticoagulant proteins. Rapid resuscitation of drug metabolism [621].shock reverses most disseminated intravascular coagula-tion; however, purpura progresses in some children in partdue to critical consumption of antithrombotic proteins (e.g., K. Glycemic controlprotein C, antithrombin III, ADAMTS 13). Plasma is 1. We suggest controlling hyperglycemia using a similarinfused with the goal of correcting prolonged prothrombin/ target as in adults (B180 mg/dL). Glucose infusionpartial thromboplastin times and halting purpura. Large should accompany insulin therapy in newborns andvolumes of plasma require concomitant use of diuretics, children (grade 2C).continuous renal replacement therapy, or plasma exchangeto prevent greater than 10 % fluid overload [586–611]. Rationale. In general, infants are at risk for developing hypoglycemia when they depend on intravenous fluids.I. Mechanical ventilation This means that a glucose intake of 4–6 mg kg-1 min-1 or maintenance fluid intake with dextrose 10 % normal1. We suggest providing lung-protective strategies during saline containing solution is advised (6–8 mg kg-1 min-1 mechanical ventilation (grade 2C). in newborns). Associations have been reported between hyperglycemia and an increased risk of death and longerRationale. Some patients with ARDS will require length of stay. A retrospective pediatric ICU studyincreased PEEP to attain functional residual capacity and reported associations of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia,maintain oxygenation, and peak pressures above and glucose variability with increased length of stay and30–35 cmH2O to attain effective tidal volumes of 6–8 mL/kg mortality rates. An RCT of strict glycemic control com-with adequate CO2 removal. In these patients, physicians pared to moderate control using insulin in a pediatric ICUgenerally transition from conventional pressure control ven- population found a reduction in mortality with an increasetilation to pressure release ventilation (airway pressure release in hypoglycemia. Insulin therapy should only be con-ventilation) or to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. ducted with frequent glucose monitoring in view of theThese modes maintain oxygenation with higher mean airway risks for hypoglycemia which can be greater in newbornspressures using an ‘‘open’’ lung ventilation strategy. To be and children due to a) relative lack of glycogen stores andeffective, these modes can require a mean airway pressure muscle mass for gluconeogenesis, and b) the heteroge-5 cmH2O higher than that used with conventional ventilation. neity of the population with some excreting noThis can reduce venous return leading to greater need for fluid endogenous insulin and others demonstrating high insulinresuscitation and vasopressor requirements [612–616]. levels and insulin resistance [622–628].J. Sedation/analgesia/drug toxicities L. Diuretics and renal replacement therapy1. We recommend use of sedation with a sedation goal in 1. We suggest the use of diuretics to reverse fluid over- critically ill mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis load when shock has resolved and if unsuccessful, then (grade 1D). continuous venovenous hemofiltration or intermittent
  • 41. 205 dialysis to prevent greater than 10 % total body weight Summary and future directions fluid overload (grade 2C). Although this document is static, the optimum treatmentRationale. A retrospective study of children with of severe sepsis and septic shock is a dynamic andmeningococcemia showed an associated mortality risk evolving process. Additional evidence that has appearedwhen children received too little or too much fluid since the publication of the 2008 guidelines allows moreresuscitation [549, 553]. A retrospective study of 113 certainty with which we make severe sepsis recommen-critically ill children with multiple-organ dysfunction dations; however, further programmatic clinical researchsyndrome reported that patients with less fluid overload in sepsis is essential to optimize these evidence-basedbefore continuous venovenous hemofiltration had better medicine recommendations.survival [629–631], New interventions will be proven and established interventions may need modification. This publication represents an ongoing process. The SSC and the con- sensus committee members are committed to updating theM. DVT prophylaxis guidelines regularly as new interventions are tested and1. We make no graded recommendations on the use of results published. DVT prophylaxis in prepubertal children with severe sepsis. Acknowledgments The revision process was funded through a grant from the Gordon and Betty Irene Moore Foundation. We would also like to acknowledge the dedication and untold hours ofRationale. Most DVTs in young children are associated donated time of committee members over the last 2 years; thewith central venous catheters. Heparin-bonded catheters sponsoring organizations that worked with us toward the reality of a consensus document across so many disciplines, specialties, andmay decrease the risk of catheter-associated DVT. No continents; and those that contribute in so many ways to create thedata exist on the efficacy of UFH or LMWH prophylaxis new science to move us forward in treating this potentially dev-to prevent catheter-related DVT in children in the ICU astating disease: the funders of research, the investigators, the[632, 633]. subjects, and those associated with the evidence publishing bodies. Finally, we thank Deborah McBride for the incredible editorial support provided persistently over months that brought the manu- script to life and finalization.N. Stress ulcer prophylaxis Conflicts of interest Dr. Dellinger consulted for Biotest (immu-1. We make no graded recommendations on stress ulcer noglobulin concentrate available in Europe for potential use in sepsis) and AstraZeneca (anti-TNF compound unsuccessful in prophylaxis. recently completed sepsis clinical trial); his institution received consulting income from IKARIA for new product developmentRationale. Studies have shown that clinically important (IKARIA has inhaled nitric oxide available for off-label use in ARDS) and grant support from Spectral Diagnostics Inc (currentGI bleeding in children occurs at rates similar to those of endotoxin removal clinical trial), Ferring (vasopressin analogadults. Stress ulcer prophylaxis is commonly used in clinical trial-ongoing), as well as serving on speakers bureau forchildren who are mechanically ventilated, usually with H2 Eisai (anti-endotoxin compound that failed to show benefit inblockers or proton pump inhibitors, although Its effect is clinical trial). Dr. Levy received grant support from Eisai (Ocean State Clinical Coordinating Center to fund clinical trial [$500 K]),not known [634, 635]. he received honoraria from Eli Lilly (lectures in India $8,000), and he has been involved with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guideline from its beginning. Dr. Rhodes consulted for Eli Lilly with mon-O. Nutrition etary compensation paid to himself as well as his institution (Steering Committee for the PROWESS Shock trial) and LiDCO;1. Enteral nutrition should be used in children who can travel/accommodation reimbursement was received from Eli Lilly tolerate it, parenteral feeding in those who cannot and LiDCO; he received income for participation in review activ- ities such as data monitoring boards, statistical analysis from Orion, (grade 2C). and for Eli Lilly; he is an author on manuscripts describing early goal-directed therapy, and believes in the concept of minimallyRationale. Dextrose 10 % (always with sodium-con- invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Dr. Annane participated on the Fresenius Kabi International Advisory Board (honorarium 2000€).taining solution in children) at maintenance rate provides His nonfinancial disclosures include being the principal investigatorthe glucose delivery requirements for newborns and of a completed investigator-led multicenter randomized controlledchildren [636]. Patients with sepsis have increased glu- trial assessing the early guided benefit to risk of NIRS tissuecose delivery needs which can be met by this regimen. oxygen saturation; he was the principal investigator of an investi-Specific measurement of caloric requirements are thought gator-led randomized controlled trial of epinephrine versus norepinephrine (CATS study)–Lancet 2007; he also is the principleto be best attained using a metabolic cart as they are investigator of an ongoing investigator-led multinational random-generally less in the critically ill child than in the healthy ized controlled trial of crystalloids versus colloids (Crystal Study).child. Dr. Gerlach disclosed that he has no potential conflicts of interest;
  • 42. 206he is an author of a review on the use of activated protein C in government funded (nonindustry) grant. Grant awarded to chiefsurgical patients (published in the New England Journal of Medi- investigator from ICNARC. She is a trial clinician for ProMISe. Dr.cine, 2009). Dr. Opal consulted for Genzyme Transgenics Nunnally received a stipend for a chapter on diabetes mellitus; he is(consultant on transgenic antithrombin $1,000), Pfizer (consultant an author of editorials contesting classic tight glucose control. Dr.on TLR4 inhibitor project $3,000), British Therapeutics (consultant Townsend is an advocate for healthcare quality improvement. Dr.on polyclonal antibody project $1,000), and Biotest A (consultant Reinhart consulted for EISAI (Steering Committee member—lesson immunoglobin project $2,000). His institution received grant then US $10,000); BRAHMS Diagnostics (less than US $10,000);support from Novartis (Clinical Coordinating Center to assist in and SIRS-Lab Jena (founding member, less than US $10,000). Hepatient enrollment in a phase III trial with the use of Tissue Factor received honararia for lectures including service on the speakers’Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI) in severe community acquired pneumonia bureau from Biosyn Germany (less than €10,000) and Braun(SCAP) $30,000 for 2 years), Eisai ($30,000 for 3 years), Astra Melsungen (less than €10,000). He received royalties from EdwardsZeneca ($30,000 for 1 year), Aggenix ($30,000 for 1 year), Inimex Life Sciences for sales of central venous oxygen catheters($10,000), Eisai ($10,000), Atoxbio ($10,000), Wyeth ($20,000), (*$100,000). Dr. Kleinpell received monetary compensation forSirtris (preclinical research $50,000), and Cellular Bioengineering providing expert testimony (four depositions and one trial in theInc. ($500). He received honoraria from Novartis (clinical evalua- past year). Her institution receives grants from the Agency fortion committee TFPI study for SCAP $20,000) and Eisai ($25,000). Healthcare Research and Quality and the Prince Foundation (4-yearHe received travel/accommodations reimbursed from Sangart (data R01 grant, PI and 3-year foundation grant, Co-l). She receivedand safety monitoring $2,000), Spectral Diagnostics (data and honoraria from the Cleveland Clinic and the American Associationsafety monitoring $2,000), Takeda (data and safety monitoring of Critical Care Nurses for keynote speeches at conferences; she$2,000) and Canadian trials group ROS II oseltamivir study (data received royalties from McGraw Hill (co-editor of critical careand safety monitoring board (no money). He is also on the Data review book); travel/accommodations reimbursed from the Amer-Safety Monitoring Board for Tetraphase (received US $600 in ican Academy of Nurse Practitioners, Society of Critical Care2012). Dr. Sevransky received grant support to his institution from Medicine, and American Association of Critical Care Nurses (oneSirius Genomics Inc; he consulted for Idaho Technology ($1,500); night hotel coverage at national conference). Dr. Angus consultedhe is the co-principal investigator of a multicenter study evaluating for Eli Lilly (member of the Data Safety Monitoring Board, Mul-the association between ICU organizational and structural factors, ticenter trial of a PC for septic shock), Eisai Inc (Anti-TLR4including protocols and in-patient mortality. He maintains that therapy for severe sepsis), and Idaho Technology (sepsis bio-protocols serve as useful reminders to busy clinicians to consider markers); he received grant support (investigator, long-term follow-certain therapies in patients with sepsis or other life threatening up of phase III trial of an anti-TLR4 agent in severe sepsis), aillness. Dr. Sprung received grants paid to his institution from consulting income (anti-TRL4 therapy for severe sepsis), and tra-Artisan Pharma ($25,000–$50,000), Eisai, Corp ($1,000-$5,000 vel/accommodation expense reimbursement from Eisai, Inc; he isACCESS), Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S ($5,000–$10,000), the primary investigator for an ongoing National Institutes ofHutchinson Technology Incorporated ($1,000-$5,000), Novartis Health-funded study comparing early resuscitation strategies forCorp (less than $1,000). His institution receives grant support for sepsis induced tissue hypoperfusion. Dr. Deutschman has nonfi-patients enrolled in clinical studies from Eisai Corporation (PI. nancial involvement as a coauthor of the Society of Critical CarePatients enrolled in the ACCESS study $50,000–$100,000), Takeda Medicine’s Glycemic Control guidelines. Dr. Machado reports(PI. Study terminated before patients enrolled). He received grants unrestricted grant support paid to her institution for Survivingpaid to his institution and consulting income from Artisan Pharma/ Sepsis Campaign implementation in Brazil (Eli Lilly do Brasil); sheAsahi Kasei Pharma America Corp ($25,000–$50,000). He con- is the primary investigator for an ongoing study involving vaso-sulted for Eli Lilly (Sabbatical Consulting fee $10,000–$25,000) pressin. Dr. Rubenfeld received grant support from nonprofitand received honoraria from Eli Lilly (lecture $1,000–$5,000). He agencies or foundations including National Institutes of Health ($10is a member of the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care million), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation ($500,000), and CIHRSociety Clinical Trials Group for the NICE SUGAR Study (no ($200,000). His institution received grants from for-profit compa-money received); he is a council member of the International Sepsis nies including Advanced Lifeline System ($150,000), SiemensForum (as of Oct. 2010); he has held long time research interests in ($50,000), Bayer ($10,000), Byk Gulden ($15,000), AstraZenecasteroids in sepsis, PI of Corticus study, end-of-life decision making ($10,000), Faron Pharmaceuticals ($5,000), and Cerus Corporationand PI of Ethicus, Ethicatt, and Welpicus studies. Dr. Douglas ($11,000). He received honoraria, consulting fees, editorship, roy-received grants paid to his institution from Eli Lilly (PROWESS alties, and Data and Safety Monitoring Board membership fees paidShock site), Eisai (study site), National Institutes of Health (ARDS to him from Bayer ($500), DHD ($1,000), Eli Lilly ($5,000),Network), Accelr8 (VAP diagnostics), CCCTG (Oscillate Study), Oxford University Press ($10,000), Hospira ($15,000), Cernerand Hospira (Dexmedetomidine in Alcohol Withdrawal RCT). His ($5,000), Pfizer ($1,000), KCI ($7,500), American Association forinstitution received an honorarium from the Society of Critical Care Respiratory Care ($10,000), American Thoracic Society ($7,500),Medicine (Paragon ICU Improvement); he consulted for Eli Lilly BioMed Central ($1,000), National Institutes of Health ($1,500),(PROWESS Shock SC and Sepsis Genomics Study) in accordance and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research ($250).with institutional policy; he received payment for providing expert He has database access or other intellectual (non-financial) supporttestimony (Smith Moore Leatherwood LLP); travel/accommoda- from Cerner. Dr. Webb consulted for AstraZeneca (anti-infectivestions reimbursed by Eli Lilly and Company (PROWESS Shock $1,000–$5,000) and Jansen-Cilag (ani-infectives $1,000-$5,000).Steering Committee) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine He received grant support from a NHMRC project grant (ARISE(Hospital Quality Alliance, Washington DC, four times per year RECT of EGDT); NHMRC project grant and Fresinius-unrestricted2009–2011); he received honoraria from Covidien (non-CME lec- grant (CHEST RCT of voluven vs saline); RCT of steroid versusture 2010, US$500) and the University of Minnesota Center for placebo for septic shock); NHMRC project grant (BLISS study ofExcellence in Critical Care CME program (2009, 2010); he has a bacteria detection by PRC in septic shock) Intensive Care Foun-pending patent for a bed backrest elevation monitor. Dr. Jaeschke dation-ANZ (BLING pilot RCT of betalactam administration bydisclosed that he has no potential conflicts of interest. Dr. Osborn infusion); Hospira (SPICE programme of sedation deliriumconsulted for Sui Generis Health ($200). Her institution receives research); NHMRC Centres for Research Excellent Grant (criticalgrant support from the National Institutes of Health Research, illness microbiology observational studies); Hospira-unrestrictedHealth Technology Assessment Programme-United Kingdom (trial grant (DAHlia RCT of dexmedetomidine for agitated delirium).doctor for sepsis related RCT). Salary paid through the NIHR Travel/accommodations reimbursed by Jansen-Cilag ($5,000–
  • 43. 207$10,000) and AstraZeneca ($1,000–$5,000); he has a patent for a Paolo Biban,3 Julian F. Bion, Thierry Calandra, Joseph A.meningococcal vaccine. He is chair of the ANZICS Clinical Trials Carcillo, Terry P. Clemmer, Clifford S. Deutschman, J.V.Group and is an investigator in trials of EGDT, PCR for deter-mining bacterial load and a steroid in the septic shock trial. Dr. Divatia,4 Ivor S. Douglas, Bin Du,5 Seitaro Fujishima,Beale received compensation for his participation as board member Satoshi Gando,6 Herwig Gerlach, Caryl Goodyear- ´for Eisai, Inc, Applied Physiology, bioMerieux, Covidien, SIRS- Bruch,7 Gordon Guyatt, Jan A. Hazelzet, HiroyukiLab, and Novartis; consulting income was paid to his institution Hirasawa,8 Steven M. Hollenberg, Judith Jacobi, Romanfrom PriceSpective Ltd, Easton Associates (soluble guanylatecyclase activator in acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung Jaeschke, Ian Jenkins,9 Edgar Jimenez,10 Alan E. Jones,11injury adjunct therapy to supportive care and ventilation strategies), Robert M. Kacmarek, Winfried Kern,12 Ruth M.Eisai (eritoran), and Phillips (Respironics); he provided expert Kleinpell,1 Shin Ok Koh,13 Joji Kotani, Mitchell Levy,14testimony for Eli Lilly and Company (paid to his institution); Flavia Machado,15 John Marini, John C. Marshall, Henryhonoraria received (paid to his institution) from Applied Physiol-ogy (Applied Physiology PL SAB, Applied Physiology SAB, Masur, Sangeeta Mehta, John Muscedere,16 Lena M.Brussels, Satellite Symposium at the ISICEM, Brussels), bio- Napolitano,17 Mark E. Nunnally, Steven M. Opal,18 Tif- ´Merieux (GeneXpert Focus Group, France), SIRS-Lab (SIRS-LAB fany M. Osborn,19 Margaret M. Parker, Joseph E.SAB Forum, Brussels and SIRS-LAB SAB, Lisbon), Eli Lilly Parrrillo, Haibo Qiu,20 Adrienne G. Randolph, Konrad(CHMP Hearing), Eisai (eritoran through leader touch plan in Reinhart,21 Jordi Rello, Ederlon Resende,22 AndrewBrussels), Eli Lilly (Lunchtime Symposium, Vienna), Covidien(adult monitoring advisory board meeting, Frankfurt), Covidien Rhodes,23 Emanuel P. Rivers, Gordon D. Rubenfeld,24(Global Advisory Board CNIBP Boulder USA), Eli Lilly and Christa A. Schorr, Jonathan E. Sevransky, Khalid Shu-Company (development of educational presentations including kri,25 Eliezer Silva, Mark D. Soth, Charles L. Sprung,service on speaker’ bureaus (intensive care school hosted in Ann E. Thompson,26 Sean R. Townsend, Jeffery S.department); travel/accommodations were reimbursed from bio-Merieux (GeneXpert Focus Group, France) and LiDCO (Winter Vender,27 Jean-Louis Vincent, Steve A. Webb,28 TobiasAnaesthetic and Critical Care Review Conference), Surviving Welte,29 Janice L. Zimmerman. 1Sepsis Campaign (Publications Meeting, New York; Care Bundles World Federation of Critical Care Nurses; 2EmiratesConference, Manchester), SSC Publication Committee Meeting and Intensive Care Society; 3European Society of PediatricSSC Executive Committee Meeting, Nashville; SSC Meeting,Manchester), Novartis (Advisory Board Meeting, Zurich), Institute and Neonatal Intensive Care; 4Indian Society of Criticalof Biomedical Engineering (Hospital of the Future Grand Chal- Care Medicine; 5Chinese Society of Critical Care Medi-lenge Kick-Off Meeting, Hospital of the Future Grand Challenge cine; 6Japanese Association for Acute Medicine; 7Interviews EPSRC Headquarters, Swindon, Philips (Kick-Off American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 8JapaneseMeeting, Boeblingen, Germany; MET Conference, Cohenhagen), Society of Intensive Care Medicine; 9Society of HospitalCovidien (Adult Monitoring Advisory Board Meeting, Frankfurt),Eisai (ACCESS Investigators Meeting, Barcelona). His non-finan- Medicine; 10World Federation of Societies of Intensivecial disclosures include authorship of the position statement on fluid and Critical Care Medicine; 11Society of Academicresuscitation from the ESICM task force on colloids (yet to be Emergency Medicine; 12European Society of Clinicalfinalized). Dr. Vincent reports consulting income paid to his insti- Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; 13Asia Pacifictution from Astellas, AstraZeneca, Curacyte, Eli Lilly, Eisai,Ferring, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, and Pfizer. His institution Association of Critical Care Medicine; 14Society ofreceived honoraria on his behalf from Astellas, AstraZeneca, Cu- Critical Care Medicine; 15Latin American Sepsis Insti-racyte, Eli Lilly, Eisai, Ferring, Merck, and Pfizer. His institution tute; 16Canadian Critical Care Society; 17Surgicalreceived grant support from Astellas, Curacyte, Eli Lilly, Eisai, Infection Society; 18Infectious Diseases Society ofFerring, and Pfizer. His institution received payment for educa-tional presentations from Astellas, AstraZeneca, Curacyte, Eli America; 19American College of Emergency Physicians; 20Lilly, Eisai, Ferring, Merck, and Pfizer. Dr. Moreno consulted for Chinese Society of Critical Care-China Medical Asso-bioMerieux (expert meeting). He is a coauthor of a paper on cor- ciation; 21German Sepsis Society; 22Brazilian Society ofticosteroids in patients with septic shock. He is the author of several Critical Care (AMIB); 23European Society of Intensivemanuscripts defining sepsis and stratification of the patient with Care Medicine; 24American Thoracic Society; 25Interna-sepsis. He is also the author of several manuscripts contesting theutility of sepsis bundles. Complete author and committee disclo- tional Pan Arab Critical Care Medicine Society; 26sures are listed in Supplemental Digital Content 1. Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators; 27 American College of Chest Physicians; 28Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society; 29European Respi- ratory Society; World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.Appendix 12012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Pediatric SubgroupCommittee Jan A. Hazelzet, Adrienne G. Randolph, Margaret M.R. Phillip Dellinger, (Co-Chair); Rui Moreno (Co-Chair); Parker, Ann E. Thompson, Paolo Biban, Alan Duncan,Leanne Aitken,1 Hussain Al Rahma,2 Derek C. Angus, Cristina Mangia, Niranjan Kissoon, and Joseph A. Car-Dijillali Annane, Richard J. Beale, Gordon R. Bernard, cillo (Head).
  • 44. 208Appendix 2Conflict of interest process
  • 45. 209Appendix 3ARDSnet ventilator management Assist control mode—volume ventilation Reduce tidal volume to 6 mL/kg lean body weight Keep plateau pressure 30 cmH2O Reduce tidal volume as low as 4 mL/kg predicted body weight to limit plateau pressure Maintain SaO2/SpO2 between 88 and 95 % Anticipated PEEP settings at various Fio2 requirements FIo2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 PEEP 5 5 8 8 10 10 10 12 14 14 14 16 18 20–24Predicted body weight calculation Male—50 ? 2.3 [height (in.) - 60] or 50 ? 0.91 [height (cm) - 152.4] Female—45.5 ? 2.3 [height (in.) - 60] or 45.5 ? 0.91 [height (cm) - 152.4]Adapted from [234]Sao2 arterial oxygen saturation, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, Spo2 oxygen saturation on pulse oximetryAppendix 4Summary of ventilator procedures in the higher-PEEP groups of the ALVEOLI TrialProcedure ValueVentilator mode Volume assist/controlTidal-volume goal 6 mL/kg of predicted body weightPlateau-pressure goal B30 cmH2OVentilator rate and pH 6–35, adjusted to achieve arterial pH C7.30 if possible goalInspiration:expiration 1:1–1:3 timeOxygenation goal PaO2 55–80 mmHg SpO2 88–95 % Weaning Weaning attempted by means of pressure support when level of arterial oxygenation acceptable with PEEP 8 cmH2O and FiO2 0.40Allowable combinations of PEEP and FiO2aHigher-PEEP group (after protocol changed to use higher levels of PEEP)FiO2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5–0.8 0.8 0.9 1PEEP 12 14 14 16 16 18 20 22 22 22–24Complete ventilator procedures and eligibility criteria can be found a In both study groups (lower and higher PEEP), additionalat ‘‘’’ increases in PEEP to 34 cm H2O were allowed but not requiredSpO2 oxyhemoglobin saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, after Fio2 had been increased to 1.0, according to the protocolFIO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, PEEP positive end-expiratory Adapted from [257]pressure
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