The biotechnology revolution - Tools' information

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In this guide you will information and suggestions on how to use each of the tools developed by Xplore Health. …

In this guide you will information and suggestions on how to use each of the tools developed by Xplore Health.

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  • 1. Educator’s guide on Biotechnology (Tools’ information)AUTHORS FUNDED BY:
  • 2. Table of Content I. Introduction ..................................................................................................... 3 II. The tools........................................................................................................ 3 1. Virtual experiment 1 – Engineer skin ........................................................... 4 2. Game 1 – Help me to cure Nadia’s cancer! .................................................. 6 1. Game 2 – Become a doctor ........................................................................ 7 2. Game 3 – become a medical engineer ........................................................ 8 3. Video 1 – Biotechnology, life with us ......................................................... 10 4. Video 2 – Can you cure with cells?............................................................ 11 5. Video 3 – Plants to farm drugs .................................................................. 12 6. Game to engage in a dialogue .................................................................. 13 7. DECIDE – Biotechnology and ethics ......................................................... 14 8. Experiment protocol – the Biotechnology revolution .................................... 16 The Biotechnology Revolution - 2 – Tools’ Information
  • 3. I. IntroductionThis document provides information on the tools that are available on the Xplore Health portal for thesecond module concerning biotechnology. For each tool, we provide an ID table and explanation onhow to use the tool in class and interact with the curriculum.II. The toolsThe tools that have been created for the use of teachers and students in order to help them in theirfamiliarization process of biotechnology are listed and explained below.The tables provided in this document describe each tool, provides a link to the tool and givessuggestions on how the tool can be implemented in class: pre-, during, and post-exercises.The tools are the following:1. Virtual experiment 1 – Engineer skin2. Game 1 – Help me to cure Nadia’s cancer!3. Game 2 – Become a doctor4. Game 3 – become a medical engineer5. Video 1 – Biotechnology, life with us6. Video 2 – Can you cure with cells?7. Video 3 – Plants to farm drugs8. Game to engage in a dialogue9. DECIDE – Biotechnology and ethics10. Experiment protocol – the Biotechnology revolution The Biotechnology Revolution - 3 – Tools’ Information
  • 4. 1. Virtual experiment 1 – Engineer skin Tool name Virtual experiment 1 - Engineer skinLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/engineer-skinon the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be usedKey messages: Pedagogical objectives:Human tissues can be engineered in the This tool is an excellent aid for teaching pupils aboutlaboratory using live cells. The engineered how human tissues can be artificially engineered intissue can help patients whose bodies cannot the laboratory using living cells. Pupils also learnheal on their own. about the structure of human skin.Concepts that appear: The tool gives pupils the opportunity to find out about equipment used in laboratories and the scientificIntroduction to tissue engineering explaining procedures used to engineer tissue. They also seehow stem cells can be used to engineer different how the engineered tissue is attached to the body totype if human tissue such as skin, bones etc. An cover a wound.image of a tissue engineered windpipe is shownto help pupils visualise how this tissue would Lacking perhaps is an explanation of terms such aslook. collagen, fibroblasts and keratinocytesThere is an interactive sectional diagram of the Time needed:skin showing the different layers of the skin andthe structures found in the layers, e.g. sweat 25 min.glands, nerve endings, hair folliclesExplanation about Apligraf which is being used Process:successfully as tissue engineered skin. Apligraf 10 min.: Work through the introduction to the tool withis used on wounds which are difficult to heal. the class. This is an opportunity to discuss theAfter entering the virtual lab there is the structure of the skin and the jobs of nerve endings,opportunity to find out about the materials and sweat glands, hairs, hair follicles etc. Discuss also theequipment needed to make tissue engineered biological process of skin healing and the cellsskin. involved with this. Mention the problems that arise when a wound in extensive and cannot heal naturally2 types of cells are used – fibroblasts andkeratinocytes. There is a microscope which can 10 min: Allow pupils to work through the virtualbe used to explore the structure of each of the experiment on their owntypes of cells. 5 min: Class discussion about the activity leading onThe next stage is to work through the virtual to the advantages and disadvantages of tissueexperiment following the on screen instructions engineeringand explanations. This teaches pupils about theprocedures and equipment needed to tissue Outcomesengineer a patch of skin. There are two videos Pupils will :which show the different layers of skin forming –dermis from fibroblasts and epidermis from -be more familiar with the structure of the skinkeratinocytes. -be aware of the difficulties involved if skin cannot The Biotechnology Revolution - 4 – Tools’ Information
  • 5. *Finally the tissue engineered skin can be heal naturallyapplied ‘virtually’ to a leg ulcer on a diabetic -have learned what tissue engineering is and howpatient. The wound is showing healing over a stem cells are used to engineer a number of differentnumber of weeks. types of human tissue -have seen what fibroblasts and keratinocytes look like under a microscope and what their roles are in growing new skin -have learned more about laboratory equipment used daily in laboratories -find out about the procedures used to engineer tissue -have seen how engineered skin can be used to cover a large wound which is not healing on its own. The Biotechnology Revolution - 5 – Tools’ Information
  • 6. 2. Game 1 – Help me to cure Nadia’s cancer! Virtual game 1 Tool name Help me to cure Nadia’s cancerLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/help-me-cure-nadias-cancer on the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be usedKey messages and concepts that appear: Pedagogical objectives (benefits of this tool for students and teachers): ‐ Short explanation of what leukemia; The tool is helpful in explaining what cancer is but the ‐ Leukemia is the example treated to game does not provide any hint or information on further explain the underlying the concept what causes cancer like DNA mutation after of cancer; mutagenic agent exposure. ‐ Function of bone marrow in producing The game provides evidence that killing cancer cells formed elements of blood; means also killing healthy ones. ‐ Consequences of impaired bone marrow function; Time needed to implement this tool: ‐ Main treatment used in fighting off 20 min leukemia; Process (how can this tool be used in class - ‐ Explanation of mitosis, process of cell suggestions): division going haywire in cancer cells; The tool is good at as an introduction to cancer with a ‐ Chemotherapy aims at destroying dividing series of questions whose answers are given as the cells by preventing DNA replication animation goes on. including healthy cells The game aims at trying to kill as much Outcomes(Students will now have knowledge of): cancer cells as possible and avoiding killing useful healthy cells. ‐ Be more familiar with cancer issues; ‐ Be more familiar with what chemotherapy is; ‐ Side effects of chemotherapy. The Biotechnology Revolution - 6 – Tools’ Information
  • 7. 3. Game 2 – Become a doctor Tool name Game 2 – Become a doctor a give each patient the best treatmentLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/become-doctor-and-give-each- on the tool patient-best-treatment Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives: - Knowledge of basic treatment for AIDS and cancerKey messages: - Ability to give basic diagnosis - Lytic virus cycle Process: - Lysogenic virus cycle Capsid lymphocyte TiB, - Introduction rules of the game; - Antibodies - Game practice; - Oncogenses - Summary and feedback. - Mutations Time needed: 45 minutes - Diagnosis of breast cancer, AIDS, Outcomes Awareness of risks of young peoples’ lifestyle. Knowledge of virus infection cell process The Biotechnology Revolution - 7 – Tools’ Information
  • 8. 4. Game 3 – become a medical engineer Tool name Game 3 – Become a Medical EngineerLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/become-medical-engineer on the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives:  Matching the appropriate medical device to its body location where it can replace the damaged or disabled organ Process: Run the activity to Level 1: Several patients are displayed presenting various medical conditions which require implant surgery. Different medical devices are displayed which have to be linked to the right patient at the appropriate anatomical body area.Key message and concepts that appear: When the device is dropped at the right place, theMedical device can replace some disabled body area show up in green.organ after a traumatic accident. The process has to be repeated upon completion of the activity. Level 2: The activity is similar to level 1. Here displayed medical device has to match patient’s medical condition. A description of the device further explains its aim but the device is not named. Level 3: The activity is similar to level 2. Medical condition changes but the goal is the same. Upon completion, one can download a picture of a human body on which one has grafted the implants as a medical record Time needed: 20 min The Biotechnology Revolution - 8 – Tools’ Information
  • 9. Outcomes  Understanding what a medical implant  Recognize the implant and its function Matching the implant to its body location where it can exert its function.The Biotechnology Revolution - 9 – Tools’ Information
  • 10. 5. Video 1 – Biotechnology, life with us Tool name Video 1 – Biotechnology, life with usLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/biotechnology-life-us on the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives: Understanding what biotechnology is about; Understanding what biotechnology can do for humans; Understanding what DNA is and how it can be manipulate to treat human disease; Understanding that biotechnology is not a 21st centuryConcepts that appear: discovery.Science can use genetically engineered (micro)organism to treat human disease, to produce Process:drugs, to further induce plant growth, to solve This video can be used as an introduction to theenvironmental problems. biotechnology of today. This activity can be carried out with a series of questions whose answers are given in the video. Time needed: 45 min Outcomes Be acquainted with biotechnology and its use in our modern world. The Biotechnology Revolution - 10 – Tools’ Information
  • 11. 6. Video 2 – Can you cure with cells? Tool name Video 2 – Can you cure with cells?Link to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/can-you-cure-cells on the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives: The tool is helpful in making pupil understand the basic concept behind stem cell treatment. But the video does not provide any hint or information on how the treatments takes place: is it based on injections, and does it take long and will it become something we will see much more of in the future? This is on the other hand something the teacher can take up afterKey message and concepts that appear: The the video has been watched.video explains the basic concepts of using stemcells for treatment of very different diseases. Process:The treatment is based on the use of - Information of stem cells to gain basicMesenchymal stem cells that has the capacity of knowledgeconverting into different cells, of which also cellsthat normally are difficult for the body to re- - Videoestablish, like for example tissue to form new - Discussion on the diseases that can be curedbones. with this method Time needed: 45 Min Outcomes Pupil will now understand what stem cells are and what can it be used for. They will also have an overview of the amount of people that can be treated. The Biotechnology Revolution - 11 – Tools’ Information
  • 12. 7. Video 3 – Plants to farm drugs Tool name Video 3 – Plants to farm drugsLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/plants-farm-drugs on the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives: ‐ knowledge of methods and techniques of plants genetic engineering ‐ awareness of the use of GMOs into the production of medicines and vaccinesConcepts that appear: Tool to support Curriculum from Biology and Nature in secondary school (Genetics & Biotechnology).Properties of genetic engineering: - GMO; Process: - plasmids and viruses vectors; - Discussion; - transformation process; - Video observation - benefits of human interference in the genomes. Time needed: 45 minutes Outcomes - Genetic engineering; - GMOs; - Plants to farm drugs. The Biotechnology Revolution - 12 – Tools’ Information
  • 13. 8. Game to engage in a dialogue Tool name Discussion continuum gameLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/biotechnology-revolution- on the tool 0?arg0=node&arg1=92&arg2=educators Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives: Conceptual points:  Real Biotechnology posibilities.  Main techniques in biotechnology  Legal and Ethical aspects for biotechnology procedures. Procedimental points:Key Messages and concepts that appear:  Establish a protocol before participating in a  Stem cells debate.  Embryo screening  Promoting dialogue.  Genetic predisposition  Adopt a critical attitude.  Privacy of genetic information Process:  Xenotransplantation As specified in game rules.  Cloning  Synthetic Biology Time needed:  Precautionary principle One or two 50’ sessions, (depending on the level of knowledge of the subject and, especially, the  Distributive justice willingness of group members to actively participate in discussions.) Outcomes  Students appreciate the need to learn to debate on the basis of knowledge;  Injustice is assessed in terms of geographical distribution, cultural, social, etc.;  Knowledge on biotechnology is tested with real technical and scientific issues. The Biotechnology Revolution - 13 – Tools’ Information
  • 14. 9. DECIDE – Biotechnology and ethics Tool name Video DECIDE - Biotechnology and ethics Link to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/en/media/biotechnology-and-ethics on the tool Description Activities in which this tool can be used Pedagogical objectives: Conceptual points: Understanding the difference between synthetic biology vs. those ideas derived from fiction TV series, videogames or films. Things we can get / we can’t get with embryo selection under a technical/scientific point of view. Understanding the role of genetic information related to the predisposition of developing a disease vs. theConcepts that appear: role of the environment and life styles.  Synthetic Biology Understanding of the importance of investigation.  Embryo screening Process:  Need of Drugs development First session (connect with module 1)  Watching the video  Monogenetic vs. polygenetic and multifactorial diseases(1)  Introduction of SNP concept.  Dialogue to relate both video and SNP concept.  What diseases we must to study and what not. Criteria used for. Second session  Search for related additional information at the Internet.  Task. Produce a pecha-kucha product expressing a critical opinion.1 This is a perfect time to introduce the concept of SNPs (not present in the video). SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) are called torevolutionize medicine in the near future. In fact, they are already a reality. Their role in predicting genetic predisposition to some diseases andindividualized treatment selection has already been revealed and begins to give excellent results in those diseases like Crohn disease,Schizophrenia or Alzheimer. The study of the potential of SNPs has only just begun. Speaking of genetic predisposition without introduce thisimportant concept is something unheard. The Biotechnology Revolution - 14 – Tools’ Information
  • 15. Third session  Public presentations of products.  Finding a consensus. Time needed: Three 50’ sessions. Outcomes  Training of capacity of Information analysis.  Promote synthesis capabilities.  Using communication media different than “paper docs”  Using computer and web tools.  Loosing stage fright.The Biotechnology Revolution - 15 – Tools’ Information
  • 16. 10. Experiment protocol – the Biotechnology revolution Tool name Experiment protocol – Genetic engineeringLink to tool / information http://www.xplorehealth.eu/sites/default/files/PROTOCOLGENETICENG_e on the tool n_0.pdf Description Activities in which this tool can be usedKey messages (Concepts that appear): Pedagogical objectives (benefits of this tool for students and teachers): ‐ Atherosclerosis is a vascular disease caused by the accumulation of fats on the Experimental points: walls of the blood vessel. ‐ Use of micropipets ‐ Membrane receptors are specialized ‐ Transferring bacterial colonies. protein molecules in the membranes of cells, to which external molecules attach, ‐ DNA transfer. triggering changes in the function of the cell. ‐ Heat shock ‐ A plasmid is a circular, double-stranded ‐ Transformation solutions unit of DNA that replicates within bacteria ‐ Spreading transformers and controls. independently of the chromosomal DNA. Conceptual points: ‐ The purpose of bacterial transformation is to introduce a foreign plasmid into ‐ Role of proteins in general and membrane bacteria and to use those bacteria to proteins in particular. amplify the plasmid in order to make large ‐ Culture media quantities of it. ‐ Plasmids ‐ Bacterial transformation ‐ Antibiotic selection Time needed to implement this tool: 3-4 sessions of 50-60 minutes each Process (how can this tool be used in class - suggestions): 1. Presentation. Creating a scenario. 2. Laboratory practice. 3. Analyse of results and evaluation of learning process. Outcomes(Students will now have knowledge of): ‐ Funtions of membrane surface proteins. The Biotechnology Revolution - 16 – Tools’ Information
  • 17. ‐ Usage of plasmid in genetic engineering. ‐ Role of bacterial transformation in Biotechnology.The Biotechnology Revolution - 17 – Tools’ Information
  • 18. FUNDED BY: PROJECT PARTNERSBY:WITH THE SUPPORT OF The Biotechnology Revolution - 18 – Tools’ Information