The acid rain is formed when the dampness in the air combines with the oxide of nitrogen and the dioxide of sulphur expressed by factories, electric power stations and vehicles.
In interaction with the water steam, these gases form sulphuric acid and nitric acids. Finally, these chemical substances fall to the land. When the rainfall takes, it can provoke important deteriorations in the environment, as for example the sterilization of the land, the unfertility of the plants (floors, the deterioration of the marble, etc.)
Since the Industrial Revolution, the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere have increased.
Occasional pH readings of well below 2.4, have been reported in industrialized areas. Industrial acid rain is a problem in China, Eastern Europe, Russia. The problem of acid rain not only has increased with population and industrial growth, but has become widespread. The use of tall smokestacks to reduce local pollution has contributed to the spread of acid rain by releasing gases into regional atmospheric circulation.
EMISSIONS OF CHEMICALS LEADING TO ACIDIFICATION
Are emissions from volcanoes and those from biological processes that occur on the land, in wetlands, and in the oceans. The major biological source of sulfur containing compounds is dimethyl sulfide.
The effects of acidic deposits have been detected in glacial ice thousands of years old in remote parts of the globe.
The principal cause of acid rain is sulfur- and nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation, factories and motor vehicles. Coal power plants are one of the most polluting. The gases can be carried hundreds of kilometers in the atmosphere before they are converted to acids and deposited.
Acidification of the waters of lakes, rivers and seas hinder the development of aquatic life in these waters rise largely the fish kills. Directly affects the vegetation, causing major damage in forest areas, as well as killing microorganisms fixers N. Acid rain, corrode buildings and infrastructure, affecting in this way to monuments and buildings built with marble or limestone. There is a depletion in certain essential nutrients and the so-called stress in plants, which makes them more vulnerable to pests. The nitrates and sulfates, contribute to the eutrophication of rivers and lakes, reservoirs and coastal regions, damaging its natural and environmental conditions adversely affecting its use.
A humid purifier is basically a reaction toaster equipped with a ventilator that extracts the warm smoke. Lime or limestone in the shape of muds also is injected into the tower to the mixture by the gases of the chimney and they combine with the dioxide of sulphur. The carbonate of calcium of the limestone produces pH neutral sulfate of calcium that is physically eliminated of the washer.
Reduce the maximum level of sulphur in different fuels Producing the closure of refineries To promote the use of natural gas in various industries To introduce the three-way catalytic converter The conversion to gas vehicles business and government Expansion of the electric transport system Install control equipment at various establishments. Not watering many chemicals on crops
A number of international treaties on the long range transport of atmospheric pollutants have been agreed e.g. Sulphur Emissions Reduction Protocol under the Convention Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.