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  • 1. Management and Law Department (MLD)Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE) PCR0025 Critical Thinking All Foundation ONLINE NOTES FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/
  • 2. PCR0015 Critical Thinking Topic 1Topic 1: Introduction to Critical ThinkingDefinition of Critical ThinkingCognitive skills and intellectual dispositions needed to effectively identify,analyze, and evaluate arguments and truth claims, to discover andovercome personal prejudices and biases, to formulate and presentconvincing reasons in support of conclusions, and to make reasonable,intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do.Critical Thinking Standards 1. Clarity • In order to effectively evaluate a person’s argument or claim, we need to understand clearly what he or she is saying. 2. Precision • Precise thinking includes knowing exactly what is the argument or issues and to avoid confusions and uncertainties that surround many everyday problems and issues. 3. Accuracy • Accurate information will guarantee you to make correct decision and conclusion. 4. Relevance • The need to stay focus on relevant ideas and information and not to be deceived by irrelevant issues. 5. Consistency • If information is inconsistent, one of them must be false. We need to be aware of inconsistencies, both in our own thinking and in the arguments and assertions of others. 6. Logical correctness • The need to draw well-founded conclusions from the accurate and well-supported beliefs we hold.______________________________________________________________________________________MM 2/ 2
  • 3. PCR0015 Critical Thinking Topic 1 7. Completeness • The need to have deep and thorough thinking. 8. Fairness • The need to be openminded, impartial, and free of distorting biases and preconceptions.The benefits of Critical Thinking 1. Critical thinking in the classroom 2. Critical thinking in the workplace 3. Critical thinking in lifeBarriers to Critical Thinking 1. Egocentrism • Tendency to see reality as centered on oneself a. Self-interested thinking b. Self-serving bias 2. Sociocentrism • A group centered thinking. Focussing excessively on the group. a. Group bias b. Herd Instinct (conformism) 3. Unwarranted Assumptions and Stereotypes 4. Wishful Thinking • Believing something not because you had good evidence for it but simply because you wish it we true.______________________________________________________________________________________MM 3/ 2