Decision making


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Decision making

  2. 2. DEFINITION <ul><li>Decision making : A choice process, in which one among several possibilities is selected. </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITION <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>From alternative solutions, have to decide the best solution to solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>To decide the future major from several majors in faculty. </li></ul><ul><li>To decide what job to take. </li></ul><ul><li>To decide what to do today. </li></ul>
  4. 4. DEFINITION <ul><li>Emotional Intelligence helps one to make important life decisions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. SCOPE <ul><li>Individual Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>2. Group Decision Making </li></ul>
  6. 6. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Is done by the individual alone. </li></ul><ul><li>To solve personal problems, academic problems, social problems, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Is more adaptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Is constrained by imperfect information, time and cost factors. </li></ul>
  7. 7. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Factors that can affect decision: </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>One’s abilities, temperament, motives, attitudes, traits, aversion to or preference for risk. </li></ul>
  8. 8. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>2) Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>When we feel happy, we tend to perceive things more positively, hence might decide to agree on someone’s request and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Love is blind!” </li></ul>
  9. 9. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>3) Framing </li></ul><ul><li>The way in which a problem or question is presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Subjects of an experiments agree to take the medicine when they were told that “the success rate is 50%” rather than when they were told that “the failure rate is 50%” </li></ul>
  10. 10. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>First impression, halo effect. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>First impression : Positive first impression might influence someone to overestimate the positive points in someone. </li></ul>
  11. 11. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Halo Effect : A general impression that is favorable or unfavorable that is used to evaluate specific traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A college professor with a strong belief in perfect attendance may downgrade the performance of students who attend class irregularly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Is done by more than one individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Is known as “choice by consensus.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Greater sum total of knowledge or information </li></ul><ul><li>Greater number of approaches to a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Participation increases acceptance of the decision </li></ul>
  14. 14. Group Decision Making <ul><li>4) Better comprehension of the decision </li></ul><ul><li>5) Responsibility is diffused and less risk for an individual. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Social Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to be a good group member and to be accepted tends to silence disagreement. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Group Decision Making <ul><li>2) Acceptance of solutions </li></ul><ul><li>The first solution that appears to receive strong support from the majority of the members tend to be accepted most of the time. Higher-quality solutions introduced after it has little chance of receiving real consideration. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Group Decision Making <ul><li>3) Individual domination </li></ul><ul><li>Chances for someone to exert more influence on the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Winning the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Members feel the pressure to support a particular position, and the result is, a compromise decision of lower quality. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Groupthink <ul><li>A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Groupthink <ul><li>Factors that cause it: </li></ul><ul><li>The process of polarization </li></ul><ul><li>The tendency for group discussion to make beliefs and attitudes more extreme. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Groupthink <ul><li>2) The cohesiveness of the members of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of cohesive groups prefer to agree with one another and discourage dissent. </li></ul><ul><li>Some members should play as the “devil’s advocate,” to challenge the group thinking. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Groupthink <ul><li>3) The size of the group </li></ul><ul><li>The effect is more in a larger group. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Groupthink <ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>The illusion of invulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Groups may make risky decision </li></ul><ul><li>“ Titanic will never sink” </li></ul><ul><li>2) Shared stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Negative attitude towards outsiders or competitor. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Groupthink <ul><li>3) Illusion of group morality </li></ul><ul><li>The unquestioned belief that the group’s decisions will be moral and good keeps group members from considering possible negative/unethical consequences of decisions. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Groupthink <ul><li>4) Direct pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure members not to express arguments against group to reestablish feeling of harmony or sign of loyalty. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Groupthink <ul><li>5) Self-censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Doubts regarding the group decision are suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>6) Mind guarding </li></ul><ul><li>Members protect each other from any information that might interfere with the cohesiveness of the group. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Groupthink <ul><li>EXAMPLES of bad decision as a result of Groupthink: </li></ul><ul><li>President Kennedy’s ill-fated decision to send Cuban expatriates to defeat in the Bay of Pigs invasion of Castro’s Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>NASA’s fatal decision in 1986 to launch the space shuttle Challenger. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Groupthink <ul><li>How to avoid? </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in outside experts with opinions that differs from the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask all members to be `critical evaluators’ who look at all sides of the problems. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Groupthink <ul><li>3)To keep influencing the group, the leader should: </li></ul><ul><li>- keep personal opinions to self until everyone has expressed theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>- occasionally miss a meeting and allow someone else to lead. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Groupthink <ul><li>4) Once a tentative solution has been reached, give members a “second chance” to rethink their choice and to openly express any doubts before agreeing to the final solution. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Online notes <ul><li>Everyone read the points to ponder page 2- 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ask someone else to make decision for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Be brave and confident to make your own decision. </li></ul>